An emerging consensus on voltage-dependent gating from computational modeling and molecular dynamics simulations
Ion Channel Gating
Kv1.2 Potassium Channel
Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/5487
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AbstractDeveloping an understanding of the mechanism of voltage-gated ion channels in molecular terms requires knowledge of the structure of the active and resting conformations. Although the active-state conformation is known from x-ray structures, an atomic resolution structure of a voltage-dependent ion channel in the resting state is not currently available. This has motivated various efforts at using computational modeling methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to provide the missing information. A comparison of recent computational results reveals an emerging consensus on voltage-dependent gating from computational modeling and MD simulations. This progress is highlighted in the broad context of preexisting work about voltage-gated channels. © 2012 Vargas et al.
Citation to related workRockefeller University Press
Has partJournal of General Physiology
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A MISSENSE MUTATION IN CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-GATED CHANNELS ASSOCIATED WITH CANINE DAYLIGHT BLINDNESS OFFERS INSIGHT INTO CHANNEL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONTanaka, Jacqueline; Gruberg, Edward R.; Chang, Frank N.; Carnevale, Vincenzo; O'Leary, Michael (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)Cone cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are located in the retinal outer segments, mediating daylight color vision. The channel is a tetramer of A-type (CNGA3) and B-type (CNGB3) subunits. CNGA3 subunits are able to form homotetrameric channels, but CNGB3 exhibits channel function only when co-expressed with CNGA3. Mutations in the genes encoding these cone CNG subunits are associated with achromatopsia, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder which causes incomplete or complete loss of daylight and color vision. A missense mutation, aspartatic acid (Asp) to asparagine (Asn) at position 262 in the canine CNGB3 subunit (cB3-D262N), results in loss of cone function and therefore daylight blindness, highlighting the crucial role of this aspartic acid residue for proper channel biogenesis and/or function. Asp 262 is located in a conserved region of the second transmembrane segment containing three Asp residues designated the Tri-Asp motif. We exploit the conservation of these residues in CNGA3 subunits to examine the motif using a combination of experimental and computational approaches. Mutations of these conserved Asp residues result in a loss of nucleotide-activated currents and mislocalization in heterologous expression. Co-expressing CNGB3 Tri-Asp mutants with wild type CNGA3 results in functional channels, however, their electrophysiological characterization matches the properties of homomeric CNGA3 tetramers. This failure to record heteromeric currents implies that Asp/Asn mutations impact negatively both CNGA3 and CNGB3 subunits. A homology model of canine CNGA3 relaxed in a membrane using molecular dynamics simulations suggests that the Tri-Asp motif is involved in non-specific salt bridge pairings with positive residues of S3 - S4. We propose that the CNGB3-D262N mutation in daylight blind dogs results in the loss of these interactions and leads to an alteration of the electrostatic equilibrium in the S1 - S4 bundle. Because residues analogous to Tri-Asp residues in the voltage-gated Shaker K+ channel superfamily were implicated in monomer folding, we hypothesize that destabilizing these electrostatic interactions might impair the monomer folding state in D262N mutant CNG channels during biogenesis. Another missesnse sense mutation, Arginine (Arg) to tryptophan (Trp) at position 424 in the canine CNGA3 subunit (cA3-R424W), also results in loss of cone function. An amino acid sequence alignment with Shaker K+ channel superfamily indicates that this R424 residue is located in the C-terminal end of the sixth transmembrane segment. A3-R424W mutant channels resulted in no cyclic nucleotide-activated currents and mislocalization with intracellular aggregates. However, the localization of cA3-R424W mutant channels was not affected as severely as the Asp/Asn mutation in S2 Tri-Asp motif, showing a lot of cells with the proper localization of Golgi-like and membrane fluorescence. Moreover, the substitution of Arg 424 to Lysine (Lys), conserving the positive charge, preserved channel function in some cells, which is different from the results of the S2 Tri-Asp motif in which the Asp/Glu substitutions, conserving the negative charge, leads to loss of cyclic nucleotide-activated currents. Even though these missense mutations are both associated with canine daylight blindness, the Arg 424 residue might not be as critical for folding as the Tri-Asp residues in the S2 Tri-Asp motif and might be more of a problem in channel structure and function. The cA3 model relaxed with MD simulations indicated a possible interaction of Arg 424 with the Glu 304 residue in the S4-S5 linker. This hypothesis is supported by electrophysiological data in which the double mutation of reversing these residues, Glu 306 to Arg and Arg 424 to Glu (E306R-R424E) preserves channel function. In the model, this salt bridge appears to contribute to stabilization of the open pore state. The R424W mutation might disrupt the salt bridge formation, leading to deforming and closing the pore region.
A cyclic nucleotide-gated channel mutation associated with canine daylight blindness provides insight into a role for the S2 segment Tri-Asp motif in channel biogenesisTanaka, N; Delemotte, L; Klein, ML; Komáromy, AM; Tanaka, JC (2014-02-21)Cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels are tetramers formed by CNGA3 and CNGB3 subunits; CNGA3 subunits function as homotetrameric channels but CNGB3 exhibits channel function only when co-expressed with CNGA3. An aspartatic acid (Asp) to asparagine (Asn) missense mutation at position 262 in the canine CNGB3 (D262N) subunit results in loss of cone function (daylight blindness), suggesting an important role for this aspartic acid residue in channel biogenesis and/or function. Asp 262 is located in a conserved region of the second transmembrane segment containing three Asp residues designated the Tri-Asp motif. This motif is conserved in all CNG channels. Here we examine mutations in canine CNGA3 homomeric channels using a combination of experimental and computational approaches. Mutations of these conserved Asp residues result in the absence of nucleotide-activated currents in heterologous expression. A fluorescent tag on CNGA3 shows mislocalization of mutant channels. Co-expressing CNGB3 Tri-Asp mutants with wild type CNGA3 results in some functional channels, however, their electrophysiological characterization matches the properties of homomeric CNGA3 channels. This failure to record heteromeric currents suggests that Asp/Asn mutations affect heteromeric subunit assembly. A homology model of S1-S6 of the CNGA3 channel was generated and relaxed in a membrane using molecular dynamics simulations. The model predicts that the Tri-Asp motif is involved in non-specific salt bridge pairings with positive residues of S3/S4. We propose that the D262N mutation in dogs with CNGB3-day blindness results in the loss of these inter-helical interactions altering the electrostatic equilibrium within in the S1-S4 bundle. Because residues analogous to Tri-Asp in the voltage-gated Shaker potassium channel family were implicated in monomer folding, we hypothesize that destabilizing these electrostatic interactions impairs the monomer folding state in D262N mutant CNG channels during biogenesis. © 2014 Tanaka et al.
THE ROLES OF Cav3.1/a1G T-TYPE CALCIUM CHANNEL IN HEART RATE GENERATION, REGULATION AND CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIASChen, Xiongwen; Houser, Steven R.; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Koch, Walter J.; Song, Long-Sheng (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)T-type Ca²+ channels (TTCCs) are expressed in cardiac pacemaker cells and conduction system of mammals. However, the roles of TTCCs in heart rate (HR) generation and regulation, and arrhythmias are not well understood. In the mouse, the major TTCC expressed in the heart is Cav3.1/a1G, and therefore we used Cav3.1/ 1G transgenic (TG) and knockout (KO) mice respectively to define the role of TTCC in the heart rate generation, regulation and arrhythmias. Telemetric (conscious) and surface (anesthetized) electrocardiogram (ECG) were used to determine the baseline HR and the effect of isoproterenol (ISO) on the HR in vivo. To reduce the complication of in vivo HR regulation, Langendorff ECG (a technique to record ECG from the surface of Langendorff-perfused, spontaneously-beating, mouse hearts) was used to measure HR at baseline and after ISO stimulation. The basal firing rates and ISO-induced dose-response on the firing rate of sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs) were studied. Whole cell voltage clamp was used to study the effects of ISO on ICa-L and ICa-T and the underlying mechanism with ventricular myocytes of 1G DTG (Cav3.1/a1G double transgenic) mice. The ICa-T before and after ISO application on a1G DTG, KO and control SAN cells were also measured. At baseline, telemetric ECG ( a technique to record ECG by a wireless ambulatory central monitoring system from the implanted transmitters) recording showed no significant difference in HR between the Cav3.1/a1G TG mice, Cav3.1/a1G KO mice and control mice. ISO increased the HR in conscious mice to the same extent in both DTG and KO mice. However, when the central nervous system regulation is depressed (anesthetized) or removed (ex-vivo Langendorff perfusion), the percentage of HR increase after ISO application was significantly enhanced in the TG mice but reduced in the KO mice. At the cellular level, both at baseline and under all different ISO concentrations, Cav3.1/a1G KO SANCs had significantly slower firing rates than those of control SANCs. ISO induced smaller beating rate increase in Cav3.1/a1G KO than in C57BL/6 control mice. Cav3.1/a1G DTG SANCs have similar firing rates as those of control SANCs at baseline. At a low ISO concentration (10-9M), the beating rate increase induced by ISO in Cav3.1/a1G DTG SANCs is a little higher but not significant than that in FVB control SANCs. However, at higher ISO concentrations (10-8 and 10-7 M), ISO induced more increases in beating rate in Cav3.1/a1G DTG SANCs than in FVB control SANCs. In DTG mice, the enhanced increase of heart rate by ISO, a ß-adrenergic agonist, is due to the upregulation of the activity of Cav3.1/a1G. The upregulation of Cav3.1/a1G activity is through protein kinase A (PKA). Db-cAMP, a PKA activator, can greatly increase the T-type calcium current (ICa-T), and H89, a PKA inhibitor, blocks ISO effect on ICa-L and ICa-T in Cav3.1/a1G DTG ventricular myocytes, ISO also significantly increases Cav3.1/1G T-type Ca²+ currents in sinoatrial nodal cells. In telemetric ECG recordings, the data showed that inactivation of Cav3.1/a1G increases the incidence of AVB (atrioventricular block, impaired conduction or blocking of the impulse at the level of the atrioventricular junction, resulting in a lack of electrical and/or mechanical coordination between the atria and the ventricles) after ISO application compared to control mice. In addition, there are more PVB (premature ventricular beat, the heartbeat that is initiated by the heart ventricles rather than by the sinoatrial node) observed in Langendorff ECG in Cav3.1/a1G KO mice after ISO application. In conclusion, Cav3.1/a1G TTCC might play important roles in basal HR generation and in sympathetic/adrenergic regulation of HR, in which PKA could be an important mediator. Ablation of Cav3.1/a1G increases the susceptibility of arrhythmia after ISO application.