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    Rytchkov, Oleg; Rytchkov, Oleg; Bakshi, Gurdip; Gao Bakshi, Xiaohui; Wang, Wei (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
    With the development of China's economy, as the core of the modern economy, China's commercial banks are also constantly strengthening their own strength in the social and economic development. It plays an important supporting role for the economic development. However, since the subprime mortgage crisis in 2008, the non-performing loans of China's commercial banks have undergone significant changes. Judging from the overall situation of commercial banks, it has changed from the previous "double reduction" of non-performing loan balances and non-performing loan ratios to a "double increase" situation. According to the classification of commercial banks, the composition of nonperforming loans of China's commercial banks has also undergone tremendous changes. In 2009, it was the only large commercial bank, but by 2019. It has developed into a "four-legged confrontation" situation. The non-performing loan ratio is often the leading indicator of the financial crisis, and the continuously increasing non-performing loan ratio has laid a hidden danger for the healthy development of China's social economy. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore the influencing factors of non-performing loans of various commercial banks for preventing and solving the problem of non-performing loans. First of all, this paper analyzes the research results of domestic and foreign scholars on non-performing loans. Through many documents, it can be found that domestic scholars mainly study the influencing factors of non-performing loans of commercial banks as a whole or the influencing factors of non-performing loans of a certain type of commercial banks, such as large commercial banks. There are few studies on the difference of the influence factors of non-performing loans of various commercial banks. Therefore, from a macro perspective, this paper explores the factors affecting the non-performing loan ratio of various commercial banks and tries to answer the core question of "Why are the nonperforming loan ratios of different types of commercial banks different?", which is a supplement to the study on non-performing loan. Furthermore, this paper sorts out the relevant theories of the formation of nonperforming loans, the theories involved mainly include credit theory, financial vulnerability theory, government intervention theory and bank credit behavior theory. Among them, credit theory, financial vulnerability theory and government intervention theory can theoretically explain the impact of macroeconomic factors on non-performing loans of commercial banks, while bank credit behavior theory can theoretically support the path of micro-factors on non-performing loans of commercial banks. Then, based on the analysis of the current situation, this paper adopts the data of commercial banks as a whole, large commercial banks, joint-stock commercial banks, urban commercial banks, rural commercial banks and foreign banks from 2010 to 2022. This paper selects GDP, broad money supply, one-year benchmark lending rate of the central bank, actual funds in place for real estate development and investment, and total export value as macroeconomic and industry indicators to study the factors affecting the non-performing loan ratio of various commercial banks from a macro perspective and tries to predict the future non-performing loan rate with their current variables. The results of the empirical analysis are as follows: (1) From the perspective of the types of macro factors, there are similarities between large-scale commercial banks and joint-stock commercial banks, and similarities between small-scale city commercial banks and rural commercial banks; (2) The changes of non-performing loan ratio of large commercial banks, joint-stock commercial banks, foreign banks and urban commercial banks can basically be explained by macro factors, but the non-performing loan ratio of rural commercial banks cannot be completely explained by macroeconomic factors; (3) The factors affecting the nonperforming loan ratio of each type of commercial bank are different, and these differences can be explained by the bank's positioning, business strategy and service objects. Finally, based on the empirical results, this paper puts forward suggestions on macro policies, and puts forward targeted suggestions for large commercial banks, joint-stock commercial banks, city commercial banks and rural commercial banks.
  • Human HspB1, HspB3, HspB5 and HspB8: Shaping these disease factors during vertebrate evolution

    Institute for Genomics and Evolutionary Medicine (iGEM) (Temple University) (2024-01-04)
    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) emerged early in evolution and occur in all domains of life and nearly in all species, including humans. Mutations in four sHSPs (HspB1, HspB3, HspB5, HspB8) are associated with neuromuscular disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the evolutionary forces shaping these sHSPs during vertebrate evolution. We performed comparative evolutionary analyses on a set of orthologous sHSP sequences, based on the ratio of non-synonymous: synonymous substitution rates for each codon. We found that these sHSPs had been historically exposed to different degrees of purifying selection, decreasing in this order: HspB8 > HspB1, HspB5 > HspB3. Within each sHSP, regions with different degrees of purifying selection can be discerned, resulting in characteristic selective pressure profiles. The conserved α-crystallin domains were exposed to the most stringent purifying selection compared to the flanking regions, supporting a 'dimorphic pattern' of evolution. Thus, during vertebrate evolution the different sequence partitions were exposed to different and measurable degrees of selective pressures. Among the disease-associated mutations, most are missense mutations primarily in HspB1 and to a lesser extent in the other sHSPs. Our data provide an explanation for this disparate incidence. Contrary to the expectation, most missense mutations cause dominant disease phenotypes. Theoretical considerations support a connection between the historic exposure of these sHSP genes to a high degree of purifying selection and the unusual prevalence of genetic dominance of the associated disease phenotypes. Our study puts the genetics of inheritable sHSP-borne diseases into the context of vertebrate evolution.
  • To go or not to go: multiple identities and the effects of ambivalence

    Yu, Qionglei; Huang, Yu-An; Li, Xiang (Robert); Ren, Zhimin (2022-05-22)
    This study unpacks how a person’s multiple identities affect their decision making when selecting a tourism destination. We propose that different aspects of identity yield distinct yet competing emotions. For instance, perceived social audience admiration combined with animosity might produce ambivalence, leading to greater decision-making uncertainty. Findings show that tourists with greater ambivalence towards particular destination countries are more likely to cancel or postpone their travel decisions. Additionally, the destination country’s economic development and a tourist’s pursuit of material happiness interact as moderators in the relationships between identities, emotions, and travel intention. Recommendations are provided for tourism product development and marketing communications for destination countries.

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