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  • MLA Latinx Caucus Latinx/Hispanic US Population Search Hedges

    Roth, Stephanie; Orozco, Rebecca (2021-07)
    A group of 8 team members with 2 project leads developed a set of functional and reproducible search strategies focusing on the Hispanic/Latinx U.S. population for 13 databases. The project length was one year and was formed by the Chair of the Medical Library Association Latinx Caucus, Aidy Weeks (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) and was led by Stephanie Roth (Temple University, Philadelphia) and Rebecca Orozco (University of Nevada, Las Vegas). The team was guided by search and validation experts. This resource was put together by the Medical Library Association (MLA) Latinx Caucus [https://www.mlanet.org/page/caucus-latino] on July 20, 2021 and will continue to be maintained by the MLA Latinx Caucus. Correspondence about this project should be sent to mlalatinx@gmail.com.
  • The Role of Intolerance of Uncertainty in the Treatment of Anxious Youth

    Kendall, Philip C.; Olino, Thomas; Heimberg, Richard G.; Drabick, Deborah A.; Giovannetti, Tania; McCloskey, Michael S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Background: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a cognitive vulnerability implicated in the etiology and maintenance of pathological anxiety. Research has yet to examine IU during the course of treatment for anxious youth to inform whether IU may be an important construct to target to improve the effectiveness of available interventions. The current study evaluated whether IU mediates the relationship between anxiety severity pre- to post-treatment while controlling for levels of IU at pre-treatment. Methods: Participants were 69 youth aged 7 to 17 who participated in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety. Youth and their caregiver(s) completed a diagnostic interview administered by an Independent Evaluator (IE) and self- and parent-report measures pre- and post-treatment. Multiple regression mediation analyses examined the degree to which mid-treatment IU mediates the relationship between anxiety severity pre- to post-treatment while controlling for pre-treatment IU. Multiple regression mediation analyses also examined the degree to which post-treatment IU mediates the relationship between anxiety severity pre- to post-treatment while controlling for pre-treatment IU. For both analyses, three separate models were estimated to measure anxiety severity (a) by IE-report, (b) by youth self-report and (c) by parent-report. Results: There were no significant indirect effects for IE-, youth-, or parent-report models when mid-treatment IU or post-treatment IU were tested as potential mediators. Discussion: Additional work is needed to explore other potential mediators of CBT outcomes as well as the role of IU before attempts are made to target IU directly to improve current interventions. Study limitations and future directions are discussed.
  • Pubertal Stage and Depression: A Test of Within-Person Effects and Psychosocial Mediators

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Olino, Thomas; Drabick, Deborah A.; Kendall, Philip C.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Steinberg, Laurence D., 1952- (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    It has been hypothesized that pubertal development may contribute to the gender gap indepression that emerges during adolescence, but past work has been limited by the use of crosssectional analyses. The current study utilized multilevel parallel process growth models to test sex and racial differences in the association between within-person change in pubertal stage and within-person change in depressive symptoms across adolescence, controlling for age. Models were tested in a community sample of 608 youth aged 13 at baseline (Boys: M = 13.03, SD = 0.80; Girls: M = 13.08, SD = 1.00) balanced on sex and race (Caucasian/White and African American/Black). It also tested body esteem, stressful life events, and peer victimization as mediators of this relation. Results suggested that depression increased with adrenal stage among boys, but depression was unrelated to pubertal stage among girls. Further, there was no evidence of racial differences in these associations. We did not find any evidence for body esteem, stressful life events, or peer victimization as mediators of the association between pubertal stage (adrenal or gonadal) and depressive symptoms. Limitations such as the age and advanced development among participants may explain these findings.
  • Chronic Inflammation as a Pathway Leading to Cognitive Dysfunction in Depressed Youth

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Ellman, Lauren M.; Giovannetti, Tania; Olino, Thomas; Kendall, Philip C.; Murty, Vishnu (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Cognitive functioning is disrupted during a depressive episode and cognitive dysfunction persists when depression is in remission. A subtype of depressed individuals who exhibit elevated inflammatory biomarkers may be at particular risk for cognitive dysfunction. We examined whether an elevated inflammatory biomarker (C-reactive protein: CRP) in acute and/or remitted depression was associated with specific deficits in executive functioning, episodic memory, and verbal fluency. Data were drawn from a population-based sample of Dutch adolescents (N = 1,066; 46% male) recruited at the age of 11 and followed over the course of eight years. We tested whether adolescents with either, (i) a history of depression (Wave 1 – 3) or (ii) current depression (Wave 4), and elevated levels of C-reactive protein measured in blood at Wave 3 performed worse on cognitive assessments at Wave 4. Eight measures of cognitive functioning were hypothesized to load on to one of three dimensions of cognitive functioning (executive functioning, episodic memory, and verbal fluency) within a structural equation model framework. Higher levels of CRP were associated with worse future executive functioning in adolescents with and without current/prior depression. A current depression diagnosis also was associated with worse future executive functioning. There was consistent evidence linking low socioeconomic status and health-related covariates (high body mass index/sedentary behavior) with worse performance across multiple measures of cognitive functioning and, importantly, the association of depression/CRP and executive functioning was no longer significant when controlling for these covariates. Future studies may benefit from investigating whether specific depressogenic behaviors (e.g., sedentary behavior/substance use) mediate a relationship between depression and worse executive functioning, potentially via a prospective pathway through elevated inflammation.
  • Imaginal Exposure for Disordered Eating Related Fears: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Heimberg, Richard G.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Giovannetti, Tania; Olino, Thomas; Kendall, Philip C. (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Exposure therapy has been investigated as a potential treatment for eating disorders, but prior research has largely neglected to target core fears driving the disorder. New research suggests that disordered eating behaviors may be driven by underlying feared consequences such as rejection, abandonment, disgust, and loss of control, among others. Targeting these core fears may be best achieved through imaginal exposure, a type of exposure that involves imagining the feared consequences to be true. To test imaginal exposure as an intervention for disordered eating related fears, we randomized participants (N = 47) with high scores on the Eating Disorder Examination - Self-Report Questionnaire to one of three conditions: imaginal exposure (IE), imaginal exposure preceded by a brief food exposure (IE + Food), or an assessment control (AC). Participants attended two in-person laboratory visits and completed pretreatment, posttreatment, and one-month follow-up questionnaires. Disordered eating symptoms, food and eating related fears, preoccupations, and rituals decreased following treatment, but no differences were found between conditions on the degree of change. Within- and between-session habituation occurred for subjective distress and believability of feared outcomes, suggesting that imaginal exposure effectively activates and targets disordered eating related fears. Distress tolerance and confidence in ability to change improved following the active interventions. Our study demonstrates that imaginal exposure is an acceptable intervention for disordered eating related fears, and future research must examine these questions within a longer course of treatment.

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