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  • Proxy Warfare in Kashmir

    Khanna, Yesh (2023-01)
    The use of proxy warfare by Pakistan against India finds its roots way back in 1947 as both countries wanted complete control over the state of Kashmir. Using the tactics and resources from supporting the CIA in Afghanistan, Pakistan's ISI launched 'Operation Tupac' in Kashmir, aimed at creating multiple terror proxies to destabilize the region. A major component of Tupac was radicalizing the Kashmiri population, which was already disgruntled by harsh crackdowns by the Indian security forces in the region. Two of Pakistan's most successful proxies are Lashkar-e-Taiba (LT) and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM). Both of these organizations operate with direct logistical and operational support from ISI. Moreover, many of the attacks by these organizations have a policy aftermath which is very much in line with ISI's agenda, clearly indicating that Pakistan uses terrorism as an effective foreign policy tool. There have been multiple vocal criticisms of Pakistan's sponsoring of terrorist organization, however, there have been no measures taken to actively persuade it to cease its terror funding activities. Three main inferences can be drawn from the arguments in this paper- 1) Pakistan is now overdependent on its terror proxies as a tool to achieve its foreign policy objectives, 2) These proxies have so deeply embedded themselves into the social fabric of Pakistan's domestic politics that even if their armed wings are shut down, they'll still find ways to function, and 3) the balance of power in Pakistan needs to shift towards the democratically elected government from the ISI and the military elite for any meaningful progress to occur.
  • Mantle-Derived Basanite Features And Their Inclusions From The North Rim Of The Grand Canyon National Monument, Arizona

    Ulmer, Gene Carleton, 1937-2015 (Temple University. Libraries, 1989)
    Over one hundred and fifty basanite features are located in a 12.1 square kilometer (4.73 square mile) area on the north rim of the Grand Canyon National Monument, at the southern edge of the Toroweap Valley. Thirty-six of these were analyzed to determine their origin. The features, previously described as "Pressure blisters" (Hamblin and Best, 1970), are believed to be direct mantle orifices that have erupted under an ash or lava cover. Green and red colored peridotite xenoliths of varying dimensions are found enclosed within these features on the Toroweap Valley as well as on the adjacent cinder cone Vulcan's Throne. The unique red coloring, observed primarily in forsteritic olivine (Fo90-92), is believed to be a result of precipitation of a ferric rich phase within individual olivine grains. Results obtained from a theoretical single-pyroxene geothermobarometer (Mercier, 1980) suggest pressures of at least 15 kilobars and temperatures of at least 940°C, corresponding to a depth of origin of at least 52 kilometers for the Toroweap Valley features. A genetic model developed suggests that the basanite lava carrying green colored olivine originated from a magma chamber at least 52 kilometers below the ground surface, transected a shallower magma chamber in which red colored xenoliths are suspended and punctured the crust in the Toroweap Valley.
  • A Study Of The Hydrothermal Stability Of Copper For Use As A Container Material For Nuclear Waste At The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Grandstaff, David E. (Temple University. Libraries, 1988)
    The hydrothermal stability of copper has been studied to assess its suitability as a container material for disposal of nuclear waste in the proposed repository site at Hanford, Wa. The experiments were conducted using titanium reaction cells at 200° and 300°C, 30 MPa, using Dickson rocking autoclaves for up to 3000 hours. Three of the experiments contained a quartz normative Columbia River Basalt (RCE-3), synthetic low salinity groundwater (ca. 400 mg/L Cl-), and "purified" copper powder. The results of these experiments prompted a fourth to determine the suitability of titanium as a reaction cell. The results of the copper bearing experiments suggest that: (1) the use of copper as a container material would not significantly alter basalt-water reactions in the short term; (2) care should be taken to minimize oxygen contamination of the copper as this could adversely affect the redox conditions in the repository; (3) copper does not appear to affect the solution pH although any small changes would have been masked by reactions with the titanium reaction cell. The data from the titanium cell experiment showed significant differences (in comparison to similar previous gold cell experiments) in calculated high temperature pH values and dissolved sulfide concentrations; chloride concentrations were also slightly different. The results of this experiment suggest that titanium is not inert and should probably not be used in experiments containing low ionic strength solutions.
  • The Origin And Implication Of The Steep Gravity Gradient In The Vicinity Of The Martic Zone, Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Hill, Mary Louise (Temple University. Libraries, 1987)
    A long, narrow, straight belt of closely spaced Bouguer gravity contours and lithologic boundaries coincides with the Martic shear zone, southeastern Pennsylvania. The most likely cause of the steep gravity gradient is sought by checking the influence of the density of surface lithologies, mass distribution associated with the topography, and the isostacy model. 15-20 km difference in crustal thickness across the Martic Zone is calculated using Sharma's data and maximum depth equation. Based on a shear zone geometry, gravity anomaly parallelism, and crustal thickness contrast, the Martic Zone is proposed to be the western boundary of the Piedmont terrane. The Martic Zone is compared with other areas such as the San Andreas Fault and the Alpine Fault to evaluate possible plate boundary features. This tectonic interpretation of the Martic Zone may contribute to a new view on the central Appalachian orogenic belt.
  • Stratigraphic Analysis Of The Lower New Scotland Formation: An Episodic Perspective

    Anderson, E. J. (Edwin Joseph), 1939-; Goodwin, Peter W. (Temple University. Libraries, 1987)
    Application of the PAC Hypothesis to the deep shelf carbonate facies of the lower New Scotland Formation (Lower Devonian) results in the complete division of this interval into IO PACs that may be correlated throughout the Hudson Valley of Eastern New York State. These deep water PACs primarily consist of terrigenous black shale alternating with limestone beds, the black shale being concentrated at the bases of PACs. Sedimentological analysis suggests that the shales represent "background" deposition of fine suspended sediment and the limestones are event deposits, possibly turbidites and/or tempestites. In contrast to PACs recognized in much shallower facies, a shallowing-upward motif is absent in lower New Scotland PACs. The absence of a shallowing facies pattern suggests that abrupt base-level rises had little direct depth related impact on the deep lower New Scotland shelf. Instead facies change within these PACs was an indirect response related to the supply of transported carbonate sediment into the deep shelf. Comparative analysis of the magnitude of facies change at the base of each lower New Scotland PAC indicates that the sequence of PACs in the study interval is the result of 1 major punctuation event followed by 10 minor punctuation events. General vertical patterns of facies change from PAC to PAC suggest that the deepest point in the lower New Scotland is reached at the base of PAC 7. Lateral facies analysis within PACs leads to the recognition of a proximal to distal trend from Kingston to Callanan Quarry (south to north), a distance of approximately 50 miles. Lower New Scotland PACs at Kingston are characterized by relatively shallower facies, while at Callanan Quarry, these PACs are characterized by deeper, more basinal facies. The lateral persistence of the 10 New Scotland deep water PACs over 50 miles precludes an autogenic origin of these cycles. Rather, accumulation of the deep shelf facies of the lower New Scotland, like the shallower facies of the Kalkberg, Coeymans, and Manlius Formations was principally controlled by small-scale base-level fluctuations as predicted by the PAC hypothesis.

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