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Evolution and phylogeny of the deep-sea isopod families Desmosomatidae Sars, 1897 and Nannoniscidae Hansen, 1916 (Isopoda: Asellota)In the deep sea, the phylogeny and biogeography of only a few taxa have been well studied. Although more than 200 species in 32 genera have been described for the asellote isopod families Desmosomatidae Sars, 1897 and Nannoniscidae Hansen, 1916 from all ocean basins, their phylogenetic relationships are not completely understood. There is little doubt about the close relationship of these families, but the taxonomic position of a number of genera is so far unknown. Based on a combined morphological phylogeny using the Hennigian method with a dataset of 107 described species and a molecular phylogeny based on three markers (COI, 16S, and 18S) with 75 species (most new to science), we could separate Desmosomatidae and Nannoniscidae as separate families. However, we could not support the concept of the subfamilies Eugerdellatinae Hessler, 1970 and Desmosomatinae Hessler, 1970. Most genera of both families were well supported, but several genera appear as para- or even polyphyletic. Within both families, convergent evolution and analogies caused difficulty in defining apomorphies for phylogenetic reconstructions and this is reflected in the results of the concatenated molecular tree. There is no biogeographic pattern in the distribution as the genera occur over the entire Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, showing no specific phylogeographical pattern. Poor resolution at deep desmosomatid nodes may reflect the long evolutionary history of the family and rapid evolutionary radiations.
Goodbye, Paley… Hello, Charles!: Marketing a Library MoveHow do you prepare a campus for the closure of one main library and the opening of a brand-new building? Temple University Libraries faced this question in 2019. Their marketing team answered the call by creating a campaign that honored their original Paley Library while building excitement for the new Charles Library. As part of this campaign, library staff worked together to create their own “Mean Tweets” video, reading real tweets patrons had posted about Paley over the years. In this column, the team's director reflects on the process and how it changed the tone of their overall campaign.
Identifying profiles of brain structure and associations with current and future psychopathology in youthBrain structure is often studied as a marker of youth psychopathology by examining associations between volume or thickness of individual regions and specific diagnoses. However, these univariate approaches do not address whether the effect of a particular region may depend on the structure of other regions. Here, we identified subgroups of individuals with distinct profiles of brain structure and examined how these profiles were associated with concurrent and future youth psychopathology. We used latent profile analysis to identify distinct neuroanatomical profiles of subcortical region volume and orbitofrontal cortical thickness in the ABCD study (N = 9376, mean age = 9.91, SD = 0.62). We identified a five-profile solution consisting of a reduced subcortical volume profile, a reduced orbitofrontal thickness profile, a reduced limbic and elevated striatal volume profile, an elevated orbitofrontal thickness and reduced striatal volume profile, and an elevated orbitofrontal thickness and subcortical volume profile. While controlling for age, sex, and intracranial volume, profiles exhibited differences in concurrent psychopathology measured dimensionally and categorically and in psychopathology at 1-year follow-up measured dimensionally. Results show that profiles of brain structure have incremental validity for associations with youth psychopathology beyond intracranial volume.
Improving Interlayer Adhesion of Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA)/Ultra-high-molecular-weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Laminates Prepared by Plasma Treatment and Hot Pressing TechniquePoly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) is a high-performance polymer that has been utilized in a range of applications. Although PPTA fibers are widely used in various composite materials, laminar structures consisting of PPTA and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), are less reported. The difficulty in making such composite structures is in part due to the weakness of the interface formed between these two polymers. In this study, a layered structure was produced from PPTA fabrics and UHMWPE films via hot pressing. To improve the interlayer adhesion, oxygen plasma was used to treat the PPTA and the UHMWPE surfaces prior to lamination. It has been found that while plasma treatment on the UHMWPE surface brought about a moderate increase in interlayer adhesion (up to 14%), significant enhancement was achieved on the samples fabricated with plasma treated PPTA (up to 91%). It has been assumed that both surface roughening and the introduction of functional groups contributed to this improvement.
NICE shared decision making guidelines and mental health: challenges for research, practice and implementationThe National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) initiated an ambitious effort to develop the first shared decision making guidelines. The purpose of this commentary is to identify three main concerns pertaining to the new published guidelines for shared decision making research, practice, implementation and cultural differences in mental health.