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Commitment to Efficiency and Legitimacy: A Comparative Approach to the Plea Negotiation Systems in the United States and ChinaThe majority of criminal cases are disposed by the mechanism of plea negotiation in the federal jurisdiction of the United States. This procedure has replaced adversarial trial tradition of the U.S. criminal justice system for decades. Since 2014, China has initiated plea negotiation in the criminal justice system. Following the efforts of legislation and judiciary, China has formulated a Sinicized concessional criminal justice system. Up to now, over 86% criminal cases in China are handled with the plea negotiation system without appeals. Motivated by the same goals of procedural economy and systematic efficiency, these two nations have developed the plea negotiation system into the core driver of criminal justice dynamics. This ubiquity has led the similarities appearing in the adversarial system of the US and the inquisitorial system of China substantially and procedurally. In the light of the costs and benefits analysis, it raises research questions as follows: what needs to be ensured where a defendant posits in a plea negotiation process? What are the costs and benefits of defendant’s decision making? Whether this cost-saving procedure achieves systemic efficiency and fairness? What can be rebuilt for improving the current system? This article is aimed to propose some new practical ideas that may improve the transparency and the fairness of plea negotiation process, and finally earn trust from the criminal defendants and the public at large. Through a comparative study, this article outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the plea negotiation systems in the U.S. and China. Thereafter, this article channels the practical measures to rebuild the plea negotiation system in these two nations. It is also aimed to contribute some insights to other nations’ re-consideration of reforming the negotiated criminal justice system in the near future.
Prospects for quarkonium studies at the high-luminosity LHCProspects for quarkonium-production studies accessible during the upcoming high-luminosity phases of the CERN Large Hadron Collider operation after 2021 are reviewed. Current experimental and theoretical open issues in the field are assessed together with the potential for future studies in quarkonium-related physics. This will be possible through the exploitation of the huge data samples to be collected in proton–proton, proton–nucleus and nucleus–nucleus collisions, both in the collider and fixed-target modes. Such investigations include, among others, those of: (i) and produced in association with other hard particles; (ii) and down to small transverse momenta; (iii) the constraints brought in by quarkonia on gluon PDFs, nuclear PDFs, TMDs, GPDs and GTMDs, as well as on the low- parton dynamics; (iv) the gluon Sivers effect in polarised-nucleon collisions; (v) the properties of the quark–gluon plasma produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions and of collective partonic effects in general; and (vi) double and triple parton scatterings.
The effect of caregiver key opinion leaders on increasing caregiver demand for evidence-based practices to treat youth anxiety: protocol for a randomized control trialBackground: Research has identified cognitive behavioral therapy with exposures (CBT) as an effective treatment for youth anxiety. Despite implementation efforts, few anxious youth receive CBT. Direct-to-consumer marketing offers a different approach to address the unmet need for youth receiving effective treatments. Involving a local caregiver key opinion leader in direct-to-consumer initiatives may be an effective strategy to increase caregiver demand for CBT. Research indicates that key opinion leaders improve health promotion campaigns, but key opinion leaders have not been studied in the context of increasing caregiver demand for evidence-based treatments. Method: Project CHAT (Caregivers Hearing about Anxiety Treatments) will test the role of key opinion leader participation in conducting outreach presentations to increase caregiver desire to seek CBT for their youth’s anxiety. Caregiver attendees (N = 180) will be cluster randomized by school to receive one of two different approaches for presentations on CBT for youth anxiety. Both approaches will involve community outreach presentations providing information on recognizing youth anxiety, strategies caregivers can use to decrease youth anxiety, and how to seek CBT for youth anxiety. The researcher-only condition will be co-facilitated by two researchers. In the key opinion leader condition, a caregiver key opinion leader from each local community will be involved in tailoring the content of the presentation to the context of the community, co-facilitating the presentation with a researcher, and endorsing strategies in the presentation that they have found to be helpful. In line with the theory of planned behavior, caregiver attendees will complete measures assessing their knowledge of, attitudes towards, perceived subjective norms about, and intention to seek CBT pre- and post-presentation; they will indicate whether they sought CBT for their youth at 3-month follow-up. Results will be analyzed using a mixed method approach to assess the effectiveness of a key opinion leader to increase caregiver demand for CBT. Discussion: This study will be the first to examine the potential of key opinion leaders to increase caregiver demand for CBT. If proven effective, the use of key opinion leaders could serve as a scalable dissemination strategy to increase the reach of evidence-based treatments.