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26/11 Mumbai AttacksAround 9:30 PM on November 26, 2008, Mumbai witnessed multiple well-coordinated and near-simultaneous terror attacks that continued for the next three to four days. These attacks were carried out by ten Lashkar-e-Taiba terrorists, divided into multiple teams to maximize the element of surprise and effectiveness. By the time Indian security forces brought the carnage to an end, around 166 people were dead and more than 300 injured, making it one of the deadliest attacks ever on Indian soil. Given the magnitude, sophistication, and effectiveness of the attack, this was one of India's biggest intelligence failures. This paper is a critical analysis of the 11/26/08 Mumbai terror attacks and an examination of how Indian and international intelligence apparatuses failed to predict the attack.
Policy Brief: Alternatives to In-Person American Society of Landscape Architects Conferences on Landscape ArchitectureAnnual, in-person professional meetings at a single location yield several personal and organizational benefits. Yet greenhouse gas emissions from organizing, executing, and attending conferences contribute significantly to the climate crisis. Within at least the last decade, the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) has claimed to continually reduce the carbon footprint of the annual meeting and EXPO by performing a variety of actions. ASLA supports global and national greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets to limit global warming to 1.5°C and has committed to measuring, understanding, making public, and reducing the organization’s emissions. To date, ASLA has not released information on its progress toward these goals. This study extends my previous work by estimating carbon dioxide emissions from the venues of the 2018 and 2019 ASLA Annual Meeting and EXPO and from travel and hotel accommodations for the attendees and 711 EXPO exhibitors. This study used online carbon calculators, refereed literature, and building energy benchmarking data. The results indicate that featured speakers and EXPO representatives originated from a small number of metropolitan areas, thereby supporting potential future decentralized meetings. Additionally, attendees’ and exhibitors’ total four-day conference emissions estimations were equivalent to the entire annual per capita emissions of someone residing in Ethiopia. In light of these results, I present ideas for several alternative means of convening. My emissions estimations of alternative conference modes indicate that emissions reduction targets could bemet in the short term by immediatelymoving to hybridizedmeetings requiring virtual attendance fromat least half of the participants from the most distant locations. In the long term, and by 2030 at the latest, ASLA’s annual meetings should be held entirely online.
Travel-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions from American Society of Landscape Architects Annual MeetingsThe logo of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) proclaims it to be “Green Since 1899.” Annual meetings convened by the ASLA necessitate that many attendees travel by air. Carbon dioxide emissions from aircraft operations accounted for 2–3 percent of annual global emissions in 2010. Emissions are rising, despite the need to remove atmospheric carbon dioxide and reduce global emissions by 45 percent before 2030 and 100 percent before 2050, relative to 2010 levels, to limit global warming to 1.5°C. No public estimations of travel-related carbon emissions associated with ASLA annual meetings are available. Using two web-based carbon calculators, meeting programs, websites, handouts, and ASLA meeting attendance numbers, I performed two travel-related carbon emission estimations: for 2,821 education session featured speakers who presented at annual ASLA meetings in 2011 and between 2013 and 2019; and for annual ASLA meeting attendees between 1960 and 2019. By applying findings from scientific literature to these emission estimates, I also calculated the area of September Arctic sea ice loss that may be attributed to ASLA annual meetings; the labor productivity losses in purchasing power parity that may be associated with ASLA meeting emissions; and the quantity of trees that would be needed to negate the meeting-related quantity of atmospheric carbon dioxide. I conclude by suggesting alterations to the format of annual ASLA conferences that would eliminate travel-related emissions in the future and narrow the gap between the ASLA’s actions and proclaimed values.
Quality Improvement Project of Improving Workplace Safety While Caring for Behavioral Health Patients in Non-Psych Units Search StrategyTo identify studies to include or consider for this quality improvement project, the review team worked with a medical librarian (TN) to develop detailed search strategies for each database. The PRISMA-S extension was followed for search reporting. The medical librarian (TN) developed the search for PubMed (NLM) and translated the search for every database searched. The PubMed (NLM) search strategy was reviewed by the research team to check for accuracy and term relevancy, and all final searches were peer-reviewed by another medical librarian (VN) following the PRESS checklist. The databases included in this search are PubMed (NLM), CINAHL (EbscoHost), PsycInfo (EbscoHost), and Cochrane Central (Wiley) using a combination of keywords and subject headings. A grey literature search included a clinical trials registry (clinicaltrials.gov) and WHO ICTRP (https://trialsearch.who.int/). There were no limits to the search. All final searches were performed on August 4, 2022 by the librarian and were fully reported (TN). The full search strategies as reported by the librarian are provided in Appendix (___). A summary of the search results from databases: PubMed (NLM) from inception to 8/4/2022 (315 Results) CINAHL (EbscoHost) from inception to 8/4/2022 (351 Results) PsycInfo (EbscoHost) from inception to 8/4/2022 (253 Results) Cochrane Central (Wiley) from inception to 8/4/2022 (56 Results) The search resulted in 1,022 studies and 183 duplicate studies were found and omitted by the librarian (TN) using the EndNote 20 duplicate identification strategy. This resulted in 839 records to screen from databases or registers, resulting in a total of 839 records. Studies were screened by title and abstract by two blinded and independent reviewers. If a tiebreaker was needed, a third reviewer was called in. This process was repeated for full text article screening and article selection.