AdvisorYom, Sean L.
Committee memberMucciaroni, Gary
Kuznick, Peter J.
National Security State
State Crimes Against Democracy
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/539
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AbstractThis dissertation seeks to explain the uncanny continuity of hegemonic US foreign policy across presidential administrations and the breakdown of the rule of law as evidenced by unadjudicated state and elite criminality. It finds that a nebulous deep state predominates over politics and society. This deep state is comprised of institutions that advance the interests of the politico-economic elite through nexuses connecting the overworld of the corporate rich, the underworld of organized crime, and mediating national security organizations. To investigate the evolution of the state, the tripartite state construct is elucidated. It is a synthesis and expansion of three extant approaches—dual state theory, theories of the power elite, and the deep politics framework which explores the impactful forces and institutions whose influence is typically repressed rather than acknowledged in mainstream discourse. The tripartite state is comprised of the democratic or public state, the security state, and the deep state. A key contention herein is that the deep state developed alongside postwar US exceptionism—the institutionalized abrogation of the rule of law, ostensibly on the basis of “national security.” Theories of hegemony and empire are analyzed and critiqued and refined. To wit: the post-World War II US empire has been sustained by hegemonic institutions which rely on various degrees of consent and coercion—both in a dyadic sense but increasingly through structural dominance following the collapse of Bretton Woods. Rival hypotheses related to the state and US foreign policy are analyzed and critiqued. To explore the concept of a deep state within a nominal democracy, open democratic modes of power are contrasted with top-down or dark power. Through process tracing, the historical evolution of the US state is delineated, charting the means by which US imperial hegemony was reproduced. Presidential administrations and the Watergate scandal serve as case studies of sorts, illustrating the deep state’s role in the general thrust of postwar US politics—imperial hegemony over the international system. Finally, various deep state institutions are examined along with a discussion of generalizability, applications, and implications of the foregoing scholarship.
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HIGH RESOLUTION LASER SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF THE TRIPLET GROUND STATE, THE 23Πg STATE, AND THE COUPLED A~b STATES OF THE Rb2 DIMER MOLECULELyyra, Marjatta A.; Yuen, Tan; Metz, Andreas; Spano, Francis C. (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)The main focus of this work is using the infrared-infrared (IR-IR ) double resonance spectroscopic technique to study the 2³Πg, a³Σ⁺u triplet ground states, and the A¹Σ⁺u ~ b³Πu coupled states of the Rubidium dimer molecule. The initial analysis of the 2³Πg state involved separated analysis of the rotational and vibrational Bv and Gv functions to extract the molecular Dunham coefficients from the data. This was to avoid cross correlations between rotational and vibrational parameters because there was limited amount of rotational energy level data which included in addition perturbations between this state and other electronic states in the same region. An initial RKR potential energy curve was constructed based on this analysis. Subsequently this approach was augmented by a joint analysis of the 2³Πg state and the triplet ground state. This analysis was based on bound-free spectra, i.e. fluorescence from bound levels of the upper state to the continuum of the lower state. We present a comparison of these two approaches to the data analysis by testing the resulting potential energy functions through comparison of the calculated ro-vibrational energies against the observed energy level values The fluorescence from a discrete ro-vibrational level of the a bound upper state 2³Πg also includes transitions to discrete bound ro-vibrational levels of the triplet ground state (bound-bound emission). Accurate determination of the transition frequencies of the observed fluorescence spectroscopic lines allowed us to construct a reliable potential energy function that augmented our previous results on this state and corrected misinterpretation of that data in the literature. Similar infrared-infrared (IRIR) double resonance excitation of the 3¹Σ⁺g state was also used to observe resolved fluorescence spectra to the A~b states coupled by strong spin-orbit interaction. From the IRIR resolved fluorescence, we have filled the gap in the data range 12000cm-1 to 14000cm-1 of these coupled states for the Ω=0u⁺ component.
Reining in the State: Civil Society, Congress, and the Movement to Democratize the National Security State, 1970-1978Farber, David R.; Immerman, Richard H.; Bailey, Beth L.; Greenberg, David R. (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)This dissertation explores the battle to democratize the national security state, 1970-1978. It examines the neo-progressive movement to institutionalize a new domestic policy regime, in an attempt to force government transparency, protect individual privacy from state intrusion, and create new judicial and legislative checks on domestic security operations. It proceeds chronologically, first outlining the state's overwhelming response to the domestic unrest of the 1960s. During this period, the Department of Justice developed new capacities to better predict urban unrest, growing a computerized databank that contained millions of dossiers on dissenting Americans and the Department of Defense greatly expanded existing capacities, applying cold war counterinsurgency and counterintelligence techniques developed abroad to the problems of protests and riots at home. The remainder of the dissertation examines how the state's secret response to unrest and disorder became public in the early 1970s. It traces the development of a loose coalition of reformers who challenged domestic security policy and coordinated legislative and litigative strategies to check executive power.
Party Voting In The American States: How National Factors And Institutional Variation Affect State ElectionsWlezien, Christopher; Arceneaux, Kevin; Mullin, Megan; Levendusky, Matthew (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)This dissertation seeks to answer two questions. First, how do national-level conditions associated with the president's party, the presidential election cycle, and presidential approval influence state legislative and gubernatorial elections? Second, how does variation in state government power mediate how state elections are influenced by those national factors? I approach the first question by testing existing theories that help to explain how party voting is affected by the presidential election cycle. Specifically, I examine the effect of presidential coattails, surge and decline theory, national referendum voting theory and vertical policy balancing theory. Surge and decline and referendum theories have been applied to state elections; however, vertical policy balancing has not. In order to assess the independent effects of each of these theories, I include variables for all theories in comprehensive statistical models. These models cover gubernatorial elections from 1948-2010 and state legislative elections from 1968-2010. Using these models, I deconstruct how each of these three theories contributes to the phenomenon of midterm loss in state elections. I find evidence for surge and decline, referendum voting, and electoral balancing in both gubernatorial and state legislative elections. Having established the effects of theories of midterm loss in state elections, I then turn to the question of whether variation in state government power mediates midterm loss. I find that formal institutional power and the size of state government do not systematically affect midterm loss. However, I show that there are important differences between states with and without the direct initiative. I show that coattail effects and referendum voting are lessened in states with the direct initiative and that presidential punishment is increased. These results, along with the findings associated with theories of midterm decline, add to our understanding of elections in the American states as well as the American electoral process in general.