PEER GROUP SOCIALIZATION OF AGGRESSION IN EARLY ADOLESCENCE: SOCIAL STATUS, GROUP CHARACTERISTICS, AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
Committee memberSteinberg, Laurence D., 1952-
Marshall, Peter J.
Overton, Willis F.
Taylor, Ronald D., 1958-
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/2369
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractIn previous research on the importance of a peer group in shaping and supporting group members' antisocial behavior (e.g., aggression), researchers have focused on the influence of group norms on individuals' behavior. Two potential aspects of variability have been neglected: peers in a group would vary in the strength of influences on individuals, and individuals would vary in the openness to peer influences. Social learning theory and social impact theory suggest that a peer's social status would affect the strength of his/her influences on individuals' behavior. In this study, I investigated how social status is related to the strength of influences of peers in a group on individuals' aggression. Potential moderating effects of group characteristics (i.e., group status and group cohesion) were investigated. Moreover, individual characteristics (i.e., individual status and individuals' beliefs about aggression) were examined as factors which would influence individual member's openness to peer influences. Finally, previous studies have concentrated on the socialization of physical aggression in peer groups. In the current study, both physical and social aggression were investigated. A diverse sample of 7th-grade students (n = 336, mean age = 13.00) participated in this study. Data were collected in the fall (Time 1) and in the spring (Time 2) semesters of 7th grade. Group administration procedures were used to conduct a 45-minute survey session. Both forms of aggression, physical and social aggression, were measured by peer nominations and victim nominations at both time points. The Social Cognitive Map (SCM) procedure was used to identify peer groups in school at Time 1. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included for statistical analyses using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) procedure. Findings showed that after controlling for individual members' aggression at Time 1, individual members' aggression at Time 2 was positively and significantly associated with high-status peers' aggression at Time 1 rather than with low-status peers' aggression at Time 1. This pattern was found for both physical and social aggression. In terms of moderating effects of group-level factors, the association between individual members' physical aggression at Time 2 and high-status peers' physical aggression at Time 1 was found to be stronger in boys' groups than in girls' groups and stronger in a highly cohesive group than in a non-cohesive group. As to moderating effects of individual-level factors, the association between individual members' social aggression at Time 2 and high-status peers' social aggression at Time 1 was stronger for individuals with aggression-encouraging beliefs than for individuals with aggression-nonencouraging beliefs and stronger for low-status individuals than for high-status individuals. In summary, results from this study indicate that, in early adolescence, peers in a group differ in the strength of influences which varies across group and individual characteristics. These findings imply that future researchers should consider the variability in the strength of peer influences and in the openness of individuals to peer influences. In addition, special attention should be given to high-status aggressive youth in future prevention and intervention programs in order to reduce aggression and violence in school.
ADA complianceFor Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) accommodation, including help with reading this content, please contact email@example.com
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Media are social actors: Individuals' social responses to social robots and mobile phonesLombard, Matthew; Morris, Nancy, 1953-; Liao, Tony; Zhao, Shanyang, 1957- (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)The Computers are Social Actors (CASA) paradigm was proposed more than two decades ago to understand humans’ interaction with computer technologies. Today, as emerging media technologies including social robots and smartphones become more personal and persuasive, questions of how users respond to them socially, what individual factors leverage the relationship, and what constitutes the social influence of these technologies need to be addressed. As an expansion of the CASA paradigm, the Media are Social Actors (MASA) paradigm was applied in the current dissertation to understand users’ social perception, social attitudes, and social behavior in their interactions with humanoid social robots and smartphones. Two lab experiments with between-subjects factorial design were conducted. A total of 110 participants were asked to interact with a humanoid social robot and a smartphone respectively in a socio-emotional context and a task-oriented context. Four pairs of social cues were compared to understand their influence on users’ anthropomorphism of the technologies. Multivariate analyses and textual analyses were conducted. Results suggested that users developed more trust in the social robot with a human voice than with a synthetic voice. Users also developed more intimacy and more interest in the social robot when the robot was paired with humanlike gestures. However, individual differences such as users’ attitudes toward robots, robot use experiences, and suspension of disbelief affected users’ psychological responses to the social robot. Although users’ responses to the smartphone did not vary based on the language styles and the modalities, factors such as individuals’ intensive smartphone use, mobile use habits, and their source orientation and re-orientation moderated the social influence of the smartphone. The dissertation has theoretical value in expanding the CASA paradigm to social robots and smartphones. It also tests the validity of the propositions of the MASA paradigm. The results can lead to more comprehensive, nuanced, and exciting discoveries of the social implications, ethical implications, and practical guides of using these emerging media technologies in the future.
THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS ON ADJUSTMENT FOLLOWING THE DISSOLUTION OF A ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPKarpinski, Andrew; Fauber, Robert L.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Lepore, Stephen J.; Marshall, Peter J.; Taylor, Ronald D., 1958- (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)Many people experience a romantic breakup at some point in their lives, but people's reactions can vary considerably. A common way of coping with the dissolution of a romantic relationship is to seek support and opportunities to talk with close others. Although talking with social network members may prove helpful for some, the Social-Cognitive Processing (SCP) model posits that interpersonal interactions can hinder emotional recovery and adjustment if the disclosers feel the social network members are responding in a socially constraining way. As a result of perceiving social constraints, individuals may try to avoid thinking and talking about the breakup altogether, which, in turn, may interfere with the cognitive processing necessary to move forward from the breakup. The current research marked the first time the SCP model was explored with regards to the dissolution of romantic relationships, and it evaluated the utility of the SCP model in potentially explaining the variable nature of adjustment to a romantic breakup. One hundred and seventy-four eligible participants completed this online study. Participants completed various questionnaires pertaining to their previous relationship and subsequent breakup, their feelings and experiences following the romantic dissolution, their tendencies to think about the breakup, and the degree to which they discussed the relationship dissolution with others and the reactions they received during these conversations. In support of the SCP model, the results indicated that social constraints were associated with greater psychological distress. Furthermore, avoidance partially mediated the relation between social constraints and psychological distress as levels of social support decreased. This suggests that higher levels of social support might help buffer against engaging in avoidance in response to social constraints. In an initial attempt to examine whether the extent of avoidance displayed varied as a function of a dispositional variable (i.e., self-monitoring), no support was found. Future research should continue to investigate additional factors that may moderate the relation between social constraints and psychological distress through avoidance.
DEVELOPING MULTICULTURAL AND SOCIAL JUSTICE COMPETENCIES IN SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGYFiorello, Catherine A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)Leaders of the social justice research movement in school psychology argue that since the inception the profession, school psychology has had social justice as a key agenda item. A closer look at the representation of diverse backgrounds in researchers and practitioners and observations of the impact the profession has had on the education of marginalized groups, one could argue that school psychology has contributed to the oppression of said groups. In recent efforts, social justice has been made a focus (i.e. social justice task forces within National Association of School Psychologists (NASP), efforts of individual school districts and graduate training programs to recruit more trainees and practitioners of color, etc.). However, there is still more to be done when training future and current school psychologist who practice, those who train graduate students, and those who do research. The goal of this study is to inquire if the multi-cultural competence and social justice intervention, the Temple Social Justice Project, impacts self-perception of professional performance with social justice matters including multicultural competence using quantitative research methods. Evidence from the current study indicates that more frequent experiences working with culturally and linguistically diverse communities is a significant predictor of higher self-report ratings of social justice orientation. While self-reflection and learning social justice principles may have helped TSJP intervention participants to conceptualize their roles in schools as allies, increased time spent in practicum experiences working with culturally and linguistically diverse communities appears to be effective at predicting higher multicultural competence and social justice orientations as measured by self-report ratings. Findings align with intergroup contact theory which states that intergroup contact reduces prejudice (Pettigrew et. al., 2011). While coursework and professional development/training opportunities are essential for the purposes of prioritizing social justice and multicultural competence and providing individuals with safe spaces to process their social experiences and come to terms with inequality, the data suggests that efforts to diversify our spaces is one of our strongest tools in improving multicultural competence and social justice.