HYPERVALENT IODINE METHODS FOR CARBON–NITROGEN AND CARBON–CARBON BOND FORMATION
AuthorSousa e Silva, Felipe Cesar
AdvisorWengryniuk, Sarah E.
Committee memberSieburth, Scott McNeill
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/2074
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractCarbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen bond forming events are essential in chemistry. Although numerous stoichiometric/catalytic methods provided elegant and powerful solutions enabling those processes, the use of scarce/toxic reagents and harsh conditions is still ubiquitous in this field. As a result, extensive research has been conducted in the development of environmentally benign and inexpensive reagents for such transformations, however, general solutions remain a challenge. In this context, one of the focuses of our lab is to enable those processes in a more practical and sustainable fashion by using hypervalent iodine reagents. In this dissertation we demonstrate the synthetic applications of λ3-iodane reagents towards the formation of challenging carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen bonds in a complementary way to the methods already reported. Chapter 1 of this dissertation outlines the general electronic structure, geometry, synthesis and reactivity of λ3-iodanes as serves and background regarding these reagents. Chapter 2 highlights the applications of λ3-iodanes to access high-oxidation state transition metals until the year of 2017. This literature review provides detailed information about how λ3-iodanes can be applied to access 1st, 2nd and 3rd row high-oxidation complexes, as well as mechanistic details and synthetic utility of high-valent transition metals. Chapter 3 demonstrates our efforts to generate selective carbon-nitrogen and carbon-carbon products from a high-valent nickel complex. This led to important information of this mechanism adopted by the reaction and how the choice of oxidant can impact 1e- versus 2e- oxidative pathways on “hard” nickel pincer scaffolds. Chapter 4 describes our efforts towards the selective formation of α-C(sp2)-C(sp2) bonds at the α-position of enones via a reductive Iodonium-Claisen rearrangement. We demonstrate the utility of β-pyridinium silyl enol ethers as a platform for direct α-arylation, and how the 2-iodo-aryl-α-arylated enones can be used to access diverse heterocyclic structures. Chapter 5 demonstrates our initial efforts towards the selective C2 or C3 carbon-nitrogen bond formation on indoles. By exposing different indoles to (bis)cationic nitrogen-ligated HVI (N-HVI) reagents we found that selective C2 or C3 C-H indole-pyridinium salts can be formed in good to excellent yield. Although, this project is not finished yet, we anticipate the indole-pyridinium salts generated could serve as platform for accessing diverse piperidines, pyridones and primary amines through straightforward procedures. The combined chapters of this dissertation highlight the applications of λ3-iodanes towards transition metals and emphasize the applications of these reagents to enable challenging C–C and C–N bond formation events. More importantly, this dissertation serves as a guide for future development of the hypervalent iodine field.
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ENERGY IN SYMBIOSIS: CARBON FLUX IN ALGAL MUTUALISMS INVOLVING VERTEBRATE AND INVERTEBRATE HOSTSSanders, Robert W.; Cordes, Erik E.; Freestone, Amy; Hsieh, Tonia; Caron, David A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)Symbiosis has been an important factor in evolution, and continues to drive speciation and allows organisms to fill new ecological niches. Symbiotic relationships in which both partners benefit from the association, or mutualisms, are ubiquitous in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Many of the symbionts in these associations are photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria that fix carbon through photosynthesis and translocate a portion of this energy to their hosts. Host organisms utilize this fixed carbon for a variety of physiological processes, including growth and development, thus, photosynthetically-fixed carbon is vital for many hosts. The following chapters will describe carbon fixation and translocation in two algal symbioses: the freshwater association between the alga Oophila and the eggs of Ambystoma maculatum salmanders, and the relationship between the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium and marine zoanthids. These chapters will discuss carbon flux in symbiosis, and reveal some of the ways in which environmental factors alter photosynthesis in algal mutualisms.
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Characterization of Carbon Nanomaterial Formation and Manganese Oxide ReactivityStrongin, Daniel R.; Dobereiner, Graham; Zdilla, Michael J., 1978-; Ren, Shenqiang (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)Characterization of a material’s surface, structural and physical properties is essential to understand its chemical reactivity. Control over these properties helps tailor a material to a particular application of interest. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on characterizing a synthetic method for carbon nanomaterials and the determination of structural properties of manganese oxides that contribute to its reactivity for environmental chemistry. In particular, one research effort was focused on the tuning of synthetic parameters towards the formation of carbon nanomaterials from gaseous methane and gaseous mixtures containing various mixtures of methane, argon and hydrogen. In a second research effort, photochemical and water oxidation chemistry were performed on the manganese oxide, birnessite, to aid in the remediation of arsenic from the environment and provide more options for alternative energy catalysts, respectively. With regard to the synthesis of novel carbonaceous materials, the irradiation of gaseous methane with ultrashort pulse laser irradiation showed the production of carbon nanospheres. Products were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. Increasing the pressure of methane from 6.7 to 133.3 kPa showed an increase in the median diameter of the spheres from ~500 nm to 85 nm. Particles with non-spherical morphologies were observed by TEM at pressures of 101.3 kPa and higher. UV Raman spectroscopy revealed that the nanospheres were composed of sp2 and sp3 hybridized carbon atoms, based on the presence of the carbon D and T peaks. A 30% hydrogen content was determined from the red shift of the G peak and the presence of a high fluorescence background. Upon extending this work to mixtures of methane, argon, and hydrogen it was found that carbon nanomaterials with varying composition and morphology could be obtained. Upon mixing methane with other gases, the yield significantly dropped, causing flow conditions to be investigated as a method to increase product yield. Raman spectra of the product resulting from the irradiation of methane and argon indicated that increasing the argon content above 97% produced nanomaterial composed of hydrogenated amorphous carbon. In a second research effort, the effect of simulated solar radiation on the oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)] on the layered manganese oxide, birnessite, was investigated. Experiments were conducted where birnessite suspensions, under both anoxic and oxic conditions, were irradiated with simulated solar radiation in the presence of As(III) at pH 5, 7, and 9. The oxidation of As(III) in the presence of birnessite under simulated solar light irradiation occurred at a rate that was faster than in the absence of light at pH 5. At pH 7 and 9, As(V) production was significantly less than at pH 5 and the amount of As(V) production for a given reaction time was the same under dark and light conditions. The first order rate constant (kobs) for As(III) oxidation in the presence of light and in the dark at pH 5 were determined to be 0.07 and 0.04 h−1 , respectively. The As(V) product was released into solution along with Mn(II), with the latter product resulting from the reduction of Mn(IV) and/or Mn(III) during the As(III) oxidation process. Experimental results also showed no evidence that reactive oxygen species played a role in the As(III) oxidation process. Further research on the triclinic form of birnessite focused on its activation for water oxidation. Experiments were performed by converting triclinic birnessite to hexagonal birnessite in pH 3, 5, and 7 DI water with stirring for 18 hrs. Once the conversion was complete, the solid samples were characterized with TEM and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The resulting hexagonal birnessites from experiment at pH 3, 5, and 7 possessed the same particle morphology and average surface oxidation states within 1% of each other. This observation supported the claim that upon transformation, Mn(III) within the sheet of triclinic birnessite migrated into the interlayer region of the resulting hexagonal birnessite. Furthermore, the migration of Mn(III) into the interlayer and formation of the hexagonal birnessite led to an increased chemical reactivity for water oxidation compared to the bulk. 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