REINSURANCE AND FIRM PERFORMANCE IN THE U.S. PROPERTY-LIABILITY INSURANCE INDUSTRY
AdvisorCummins, J. David
Committee memberWeiss, Mary A.
Mao, Connie X.
DepartmentBusiness Administration/Risk Management and Insurance
Reinsurance Counterparty Relationships
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/1205
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThis dissertation investigates the relationships between reinsurance activities and primary insurers' financial performance in U.S. property-liability insurance market from several perspectives. The first essay investigates the relationship between ceding insurer performance and the affiliation, domicile, and authorization of its counterparties. Specifically, we provide empirical evidence that ceding insurer financial performance is positively related to the use of affiliated reinsurance, the use of foreign reinsurance, and the use of affiliated reinsurance that is ceded to the low-tax, lightly-regulated domiciled counterparties; and negatively related to the use of unauthorized reinsurance. These results are consistent with the cost of information asymmetry theory. The second essay investigates reinsurance counterparty relationships in U.S. property-liability insurance. Firm-specific characteristics determinants of counterparty relationships are examined. We also analyze the relationship between firm performance and reinsurance counterparty relationships. We find that concentration in reinsurance counterparties, especially in unaffiliated counterparties, is adversely related to insurer performance due to higher information asymmetry. On the other hand, relationship with foreign counterparties is positive related to performance, suggesting the foreign reinsurers may have a favorable position in terms of tax treatment, specialized service, among other factors.
ADA complianceFor Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) accommodation, including help with reading this content, please contact email@example.com
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Reinsurance counterparty analysis in life insurance industry: the impact on firm performance/mergers and acquisitions in global insurance industryWeiss, Mary A.; Cummins, J. David; Chen, Hua; Mao, Connie X. (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)The first part of the dissertation aims to determine whether and how variances in reinsurance relationships impact insurers' financial performance during the sample period of 2002-2012. Such impact on insurers' financial performance is measured by accounting measurements of ROA and ROE and by the efficiency scores (cost, revenue, and profit) estimated using data envelopment analysis (DEA). This essay analyzes how the usage of captive reinsurance affects life insurers’ firm performance using multivariate regression model. Results show that firm performance is negatively related to captive reinsurance arrangements. The second essay analyzes the value effects of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in the global insurance industry by conducting an event study of M&A transactions that occurred during the period of 1990-2014, including two M&A waves before the financial crisis and the M&A activities after it. Our results show that (1) M&As are value-enhancing for both acquirers and targets over the whole sample period; (2) for acquirers, within-border transactions are more likely to be value-enhancing, while for targets, both cross-border and within-border transactions are value-enhancing; and (3) for acquirers, the cross-industry M&As are more likely to be value-enhancing, while for targets both cross- and within- border M&As are value-enhancing.
Essays on Shadow InsuranceWeiss, Mary A.; Cummins, J. David; Chen, Hua; Mao, Connie X. (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)This dissertation discovers an important development in the life reinsurance market and investigates two problems behind the rapid growth of shadow insurance -- the motivation of shadow insurance activities and the underlying risks. The first part investigates why U.S. life insurance groups use shadow insurance, i.e., reinsure their risks using affiliated, unauthorized, and unrated off-balance-sheet entities rather than traditional reinsurers, and how such activities are allocated to individual group members. We find that regulatory arbitrage through shadow insurance activities is motivated by a large deviation from an insurance group's optimal capital structure and is primarily exercised by larger groups with relatively lower capital adequacy. Rather than smoothing capitalization across firms using affiliated reinsurers' capacity, insurance groups allocate the amount of shadow insurance to only a few highly leveraged, less capitalized, and larger life insurers within the group. The se
ESSAYS IN THE ECONOMICS OF U.S. PROPERTY-CASUALTY INSURANCE INDUSTRYCummins, J. David; Cummins, J. David; Weiss, Mary A.; Chen, Hua; Mao, Connie X. (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)This dissertation consists of two topics. Chapter 1 explores the relationship between U.S. Property-Casualty (P/C) insurers’ underwriting risk, investment risk, and leverage risk, using data from 1998 to 2013. I test the trade-off hypothesis using a simultaneous equation model framework with partial adjustment effects. The three equations model intend to examine the interrelations between insurers’ leverage and two measures of firm risks: underwriting risk and investment risk. The empirical evidence, various to different sample periods and model specifications, suggests there is no significant relationship existing between insurers’ underwriting risk and investment risk. But these two types of risks are both significantly and negatively related to the leverage ratio. The overall results imply that insurers tend to tradeoff leverage risk and underwriting risk/investment risk, but it appears that they have not taken an integrated approach between the total level of underwriting risk and investment risk yet. The second part of this dissertation empirically investigates the impact of credit risk on insurers’ reinsurance demand, using data on the U.S. P/C insurance industry from 2000 to 2014. I mainly explore how insurers’ credit rating status and downgrade risk affects their reinsurance demand. Using a two-stage least square (2SLS) regression model, I find that low-rated insurers are associated with a higher utilization of reinsurance. In addition, insurers that are downgraded in the previous year tend to have a higher reinsurance demand than the others. Results also show that downgraded group-affiliated insurers tend to significantly increase their internal reinsurance demand from the group-affiliated members while decreasing the purchase of external reinsurance significantly. In general, I find that insurers’ reinsurance demand is affected by their credit rating and downgrade risk.