THE STATUS OF MUSIC EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: PERSPECTIVES FROM EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP
AdvisorConfredo, Deborah A.
Dilworth, Rollo A.
Committee memberDilworth, Rollo A.
Confredo, Deborah A.
Reynolds, Alison (Alison M.)
Caribbean Music Education
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/2603
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AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate principals’ perceptions of the status of music education in secondary schools in Trinidad and Tobago. The guiding questions were (a) What are secondary school principals’ perceptions of music learning outcomes as they are currently being met and as they should be met under ideal conditions, (b) What are secondary school principals’ perceptions of broad educational goals as they are currently being met and as they should be met under ideal conditions, (c) Is there a difference between principals’ perceptions of current and ideal conditions for the learning outcomes and the educational goals, and (d) What are secondary school principals’ perceptions about the degree to which eleven selected variables impact music education? A descriptive research design was used in which secondary school principals (n = 93) were provided with the survey instrument. The survey is organized into four sections based on the questions that are derived from the research purpose and questions. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test for internal consistency of the survey items. Data, related to the first two guiding questions, was fielded via Likert-type scales where the responses represented the principals’ perceptions of the level of realization of the standards for the music learning outcomes and the broad educational goals. For the third guiding question, data analyses included repeated t-tests and Cohen d value measurements to describe differences between the current and ideal perceived conditions of the realization of the standards for the music learning outcomes and the broad educational goals. A Spearman correlation was used to describe the consistency between the current and ideal perceived conditions of the realization of the standards for the music learning outcomes and the broad educational goals. Chi-squared analyses, on the two open-ended questions presented to the principals, were used to examine the differences in how principals perceive certain factors affect their ability to support music programs. Results from the repeated t-tests showed that principals believe there is a difference between how the music learning outcomes and broad educational goals are currently being met and how they should be met, under ideal conditions. Chi-squared analyses revealed that there were moderately positive associations between the current and ideal conditions, with the music learning outcomes yielding rs = .71 and the broad educational goals yielding rs = .65.; however, results were statistically significant only for the broad educational goals. Chi-squared analyses revealed that there were no significant differences in the ways principals perceived how 11 variables (a) Medium-Term Policy Framework 2011-2014, (b) Students, (c) Parents, (d) Budget/Finances, (e) Scheduling, (f) Standardized tests, (g) School Board, (h) Governing Office/Ministry of Education, (i) Music Teacher, (j) Classroom Teacher, and (k) Educational and Scientific Research were impacting the music programs. Results showed that the principals were mostly inclined to remain neutral about the effects of most of the variables and that they did not consider any of the variables to either strongly positively or strongly negatively affect the music program.
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Pre-Service and In-Service Music Teachers' Perceptions of Readiness to Teach East Asian Vocal MusicDilworth, Rollo A.; Confredo, Deborah A.; Buonviri, Nathan O.; Lindorff, Joyce, 1950-; Burkhardt, T. W. (Theodore W.), 1940- (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare pre-service and in-service music teachers' perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music. Through a survey design, the study focused on pre-service and in-service music teachers' preparation, satisfaction, and self-confidence to explore the extent to which the two groups of music teachers feel ready to teach East Asian vocal music. A web-based survey was developed to explore pre-service music teachers' perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music. It was sent to 149 pre-service music teachers who were undergraduate music education majors at eight northeastern NASM accredited universities. A similar web-based survey was developed to explore in-service music teachers' perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music. It was sent to 132 in-service music teachers who were K-12 public school certified music teachers in Mid-Atlantic states. The two surveys were designed for pre-service and in-service music teachers to rate their multicultural/world music training regarding East Asian vocal music in order to reflect their preparation, satisfaction, and self-confidence in teaching East Asian vocal music. Data regarding participants' demographic information (e.g., gender, age, ethnicity, educational background, second language learning), collegiate course work, music education faculty, and musical experiences were also collected to investigate what factors influenced pre-service and in-service music teachers' preparation, satisfaction, and self-confidence in relation to their perceptions of readiness for teaching East Asian vocal music. Descriptive statistics (e.g., frequency distribution, central tendency, and dispersion) were used to analyze demographic data, responses to questions in Preparation component, Satisfaction component, and Self-Confidence component, and responses for the questions reflected participants' beliefs about teaching world music and East Asian vocal music. Inferential statistics (Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient, Pearson Correlation, and Independent-Sample T-Test) were used to analyze factors that influenced participants' perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music, and to compare the differences in perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music between pre-service music teachers and in-service music teachers. Data revealed that both pre-service and in-service music teacher participants felt they received inadequate preparation for teaching East Asian vocal music from their college training and professional development experiences, they felt dissatisfied with their college programs and training experiences in relation to teaching East Asian vocal music, and they did not feel confident to teach East Asian vocal music. The results of the t-tests suggested that no significant differences existed in the perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music between pre-service and in-service music teachers.
The Psychodynamics of Music-centered Group Music Therapy with People on the Autistic SpectrumBrooks, Darlene M.; Aigen, Kenneth; Magee, Wendy; Willier, Stephen Ace, 1952-; Dilworth, Rollo A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)The aim of this qualitative study was to conduct a naturalistic examination of the process of a music therapy group with preverbal individuals on the autistic spectrum. The study involved a music therapy treatment process, based on music-centered music therapy and music psychotherapy, that occurred in 16 sessions over a period of approximately four months. The study investigated the nature of the clinical process, the elements that characterized the intrapersonal and interpersonal dynamics of the group, and the way participants engaged with and utilized the music in their intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions. The research design was one originally developed by Smeijsters and Storm (1996) in which the researcher functions in an ongoing consultative role to the therapists as the therapy process proceeds. The study investigated and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of Smeijsters and Storm’s (1996) model. The analyses of the 16 sessions revealed that all the studied clients were able to operate, in terms of intra-relationship, according to Greenspan and Wieder’s (2006) first developmental stage: they demonstrated interest, curiosity, and initiative. In terms of inter-relationship, they were able to operate according to Greenspan and Wieder’s (2006) developmental second stage: they engaged and established relationship with others. It was concluded that music had a relevant role in the process of assessing, treating, and evaluating the individuals in the group.
PREDICTORS OF ACCULTURATIVE STRESS AMONG INTERNATIONAL MUSIC THERAPY STUDENTS IN THE U.S.Bruscia, Kenneth E.; Aigen, Kenneth; Reynolds, Alison (Alison M.) (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)The purpose of the study was to examine factors such as the number of years lived in the U.S., English proficiency, neuroticism, openness, and music therapy student academic stress (MTSAS) that predict acculturative stress among international music therapy students studying in the U.S. An on-line survey was conducted with a U.S. sample of international music therapy students. Among the 134 participants who originally came from 25 countries returned the survey, 97 with complete data (88 women and 9 men; 38 undergraduate and 59 graduate students) were included in the main analyses. Results showed this sample had a substantially higher mean on acculturative stress (M = 83.04) than the normative mean (M = 66.32) reported by Sandhu and Asrabadi (1994). In addition, 13 participants' (12.89%) scores were within the "high risk" category, indicating the need for psychological intervention. Asian students were found to have experienced a higher level of acculturative stress than their European counterparts. There were no significant differences found between undergraduate and graduate students relating to levels of acculturative stress. Correlational analyses indicated that acculturative stress had significant correlations with level of English proficiency, neuroticism, and MTSAS. There were no significant findings regarding years lived in the U.S., openness, and level of acculturative stress. Regression analyses revealed that (a) the entire set of 5 aforementioned predictors accounted for 41% of variance in acculturative stress, which is considered a large effect size, and (b) among these predictors, English proficiency, neuroticism, and MTSAS appeared to be the most powerful predictors of acculturative stress. In addition, making presentations, taking exams, and participating in class discussion were found to be the most stressful classroom activities. Implications for music therapy and future research directions are discussed.