THE STATUS OF MUSIC EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: PERSPECTIVES FROM EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP
AdvisorConfredo, Deborah A.
Dilworth, Rollo A.
Committee memberDilworth, Rollo A.
Confredo, Deborah A.
Reynolds, Alison (Alison M.)
Caribbean Music Education
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/2603
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AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate principals’ perceptions of the status of music education in secondary schools in Trinidad and Tobago. The guiding questions were (a) What are secondary school principals’ perceptions of music learning outcomes as they are currently being met and as they should be met under ideal conditions, (b) What are secondary school principals’ perceptions of broad educational goals as they are currently being met and as they should be met under ideal conditions, (c) Is there a difference between principals’ perceptions of current and ideal conditions for the learning outcomes and the educational goals, and (d) What are secondary school principals’ perceptions about the degree to which eleven selected variables impact music education? A descriptive research design was used in which secondary school principals (n = 93) were provided with the survey instrument. The survey is organized into four sections based on the questions that are derived from the research purpose and questions. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test for internal consistency of the survey items. Data, related to the first two guiding questions, was fielded via Likert-type scales where the responses represented the principals’ perceptions of the level of realization of the standards for the music learning outcomes and the broad educational goals. For the third guiding question, data analyses included repeated t-tests and Cohen d value measurements to describe differences between the current and ideal perceived conditions of the realization of the standards for the music learning outcomes and the broad educational goals. A Spearman correlation was used to describe the consistency between the current and ideal perceived conditions of the realization of the standards for the music learning outcomes and the broad educational goals. Chi-squared analyses, on the two open-ended questions presented to the principals, were used to examine the differences in how principals perceive certain factors affect their ability to support music programs. Results from the repeated t-tests showed that principals believe there is a difference between how the music learning outcomes and broad educational goals are currently being met and how they should be met, under ideal conditions. Chi-squared analyses revealed that there were moderately positive associations between the current and ideal conditions, with the music learning outcomes yielding rs = .71 and the broad educational goals yielding rs = .65.; however, results were statistically significant only for the broad educational goals. Chi-squared analyses revealed that there were no significant differences in the ways principals perceived how 11 variables (a) Medium-Term Policy Framework 2011-2014, (b) Students, (c) Parents, (d) Budget/Finances, (e) Scheduling, (f) Standardized tests, (g) School Board, (h) Governing Office/Ministry of Education, (i) Music Teacher, (j) Classroom Teacher, and (k) Educational and Scientific Research were impacting the music programs. Results showed that the principals were mostly inclined to remain neutral about the effects of most of the variables and that they did not consider any of the variables to either strongly positively or strongly negatively affect the music program.
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Pre-Service and In-Service Music Teachers' Perceptions of Readiness to Teach East Asian Vocal MusicDilworth, Rollo A.; Confredo, Deborah A.; Buonviri, Nathan O.; Lindorff, Joyce, 1950-; Burkhardt, T. W. (Theodore W.), 1940- (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare pre-service and in-service music teachers' perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music. Through a survey design, the study focused on pre-service and in-service music teachers' preparation, satisfaction, and self-confidence to explore the extent to which the two groups of music teachers feel ready to teach East Asian vocal music. A web-based survey was developed to explore pre-service music teachers' perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music. It was sent to 149 pre-service music teachers who were undergraduate music education majors at eight northeastern NASM accredited universities. A similar web-based survey was developed to explore in-service music teachers' perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music. It was sent to 132 in-service music teachers who were K-12 public school certified music teachers in Mid-Atlantic states. The two surveys were designed for pre-service and in-service music teachers to rate their multicultural/world music training regarding East Asian vocal music in order to reflect their preparation, satisfaction, and self-confidence in teaching East Asian vocal music. Data regarding participants' demographic information (e.g., gender, age, ethnicity, educational background, second language learning), collegiate course work, music education faculty, and musical experiences were also collected to investigate what factors influenced pre-service and in-service music teachers' preparation, satisfaction, and self-confidence in relation to their perceptions of readiness for teaching East Asian vocal music. Descriptive statistics (e.g., frequency distribution, central tendency, and dispersion) were used to analyze demographic data, responses to questions in Preparation component, Satisfaction component, and Self-Confidence component, and responses for the questions reflected participants' beliefs about teaching world music and East Asian vocal music. Inferential statistics (Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient, Pearson Correlation, and Independent-Sample T-Test) were used to analyze factors that influenced participants' perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music, and to compare the differences in perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music between pre-service music teachers and in-service music teachers. Data revealed that both pre-service and in-service music teacher participants felt they received inadequate preparation for teaching East Asian vocal music from their college training and professional development experiences, they felt dissatisfied with their college programs and training experiences in relation to teaching East Asian vocal music, and they did not feel confident to teach East Asian vocal music. The results of the t-tests suggested that no significant differences existed in the perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music between pre-service and in-service music teachers.
Effectiveness of Undergraduate Music Teacher Education Programs: Perceptions of Early-Career Music EducatorsConfredo, Deborah A.; Dilworth, Rollo A.; Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy; Brunner, Matthew G. P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)Most states in the country have adopted a broad P-12 licensure for music teacher certification (Henry, 2005). This broad licensure puts a strain on music teacher education programs. Faculty create degree programs which must include coursework from internal and external influencers, all while trying to create a curriculum for preservice teachers that incorporates a wide breadth of topics, balanced with enough depth for teachers to be prepared for success in the profession. Harsh criticisms have risen about music teacher education programs shortfalls in trying to strike a balance between breadth and depth (Forsythe, et. al., 2007; Legette, 2013; Leonhard,1985). Much of the content within a music teacher education program reflect guidance from and is approved by a single external influence–the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM). The NASM is the national accrediting agency for schools of music who voluntarily choose to subscribe to this oversight. Their accreditation standards are the most recognized and supported in the country, and because of that accrediting function, NASM has great power and influence over music programs in higher education (Ester & Brinkman, 2005). However, research informing the requirements from the NASM and their effectiveness are scarce (Forsythe et. al., 2007). The purpose of this research is to explore early-career music educators' perceptions of the value, effectiveness, and relevance of their NASM accredited undergraduate music studies in preparation for teaching. A marketing research approach and subsequent analysis provides empirical evidence of novice music educator's perception of the efficacy of teacher preparation curricula as they correspond to each NASM guideline. Study participants (n=36) were early-career teachers (1-3 years professional experience) from the National Association for Music Educators Northeast Region who responded to a survey request. In the survey, participants used a 1-5 Likert-type scale to rate the importance of NASM competencies to their first years of teaching and the instructional performance of their music teacher education program. Lastly, participants rated the overall importance and performance of their music teacher education programs. Survey results indicate the overall average perceived importance of all music competencies from the NASM in music teacher education programs (MTEP) are rated higher than the overall perceived performance of instruction (3.61, 2.81). Analysis of the results also revealed a discouraging gap between the high importance of general, vocal, and instrumental music curriculum knowledge and the less than sufficient performance by music teacher education programs. A similar gap in laboratory and field teaching experiences in individual, small group, and whole group settings was identified. The results of this study indicate a need for more reflective research into music teacher education programs and the competencies required by the National Association of Schools of Music.
The Relationship Between Music Therapists' Spiritual Beliefs and Clinical PracticeDileo, Cheryl; Bruscia, Kenneth E.; Brooks, Darlene M.; Anderson, Christine L.; Flanagan, Edward (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)This study examined the relationship between music therapists' spiritual beliefs and their clinical practices. A survey was sent to 4243 members of the Certification Board for Music Therapy, using an electronic program, SurveyMonkey. There was a return rate of 32%. The survey contained two parts; Part I was the Music Therapy Questionnaire, and Part II was the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS). Data were analyzed using a combination of Kruskal-Wallis Anova, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman Rho correlation tests to analyze both the relationships as well as significant variations in responses between the survey questions and the SIBS scores. Research questions focused on the relationships between the music therapists' spirituality scores (SIBS) and their demographics, their reported spiritual beliefs and practices, and their clinical practices. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the relationship between SIBS scores and gender, age, and years of professional experience; however, there were no significant differences between SIBS scores and education level, regions of AMTA, or client populations served. Significant correlations were found between SIBS scores and music therapists' personal appraisal of their own spirituality, their use of music as a spiritual experience, the use of music in their own personal practice, and their belief in the importance of some type of contemplative experience in their own personal lives. Further statistical analyses also revealed significant correlations between music therapists' SIBS scores and the following clinical practices: 1) the role of spirituality as a sustaining force in their music therapy career, 2) their spiritual ideals as exemplified in their work, 3) attention to their own spirituality in their role as a music therapist, 4) their spiritual growth as a music therapist, 5) the classifying of their work as a spiritual endeavor, 6) their choice of music therapy as a profession. Additional positive correlations were found between music therapists' SIBS scores and the reported influence of spirituality on their choice of population, their comfort in addressing clients' spiritual needs when they are similar to their own, and their comfort in addressing clients' spiritual needs when they are different from their own.