Now showing items 21-40 of 5499


      Rosenthal, Dr. Edward C.; Blessley, Dr. Misty P.; Andersson, Dr. Lynne M.; Blau, Dr. Gary J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This research is intended to examine transportation suppliers coming up short due to participation in and response to bidding procedures. A mixed-methods approach is utilized to investigate the bid process and related outcomes for the transportation supplier. This study explores the bid process from the perspective of the transportation supplier. The first study is based on a quantitative approach, utilizing the Analytical Hierarchy Process methodology (AHP). The second study uses qualitative methodology, specifically utilizing semi-structured interview protocol. For the quantitative analysis, key factors related to the bidding process were studied, as the basis of the review. These factors were found through a systematic review of the literature, and are internal and external in nature. The results are that, of the factors studied, the Firm Related Internal Factor of Need for Work and Tender Related External Factor of Type of Bid are of the greatest significance when determining to bid. Key themes emerge from the semi-structured interviews, leading to the Assertation of Bid Submission Assessment, including a systematic review of relationships, current market conditions, and risk appraisal for the transportation supplier. This research explores economic, relational and strategic impacts on supplier performance aligned with the bid process, and how supply chain companies can build effective bid responses to enable practitioners to improve stability and financial performance, while avoiding supply chain disruptions. To better understand proposal response will aid the transportation supplier with restoring profitability levels lost, due to the bidding process (buyer to transportation supplier).
    • Strategies in Acting for Operatic Performance: Empowering the Powerful

      Giamatti, Marcus; Reynolds, Peter; McShaffrey, Brandon (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This thesis intends to explore the strategies, consequences and goals of acting in one of the most celebrated western artforms: opera. Told primarily through a first person narrative, and project based, the research of this piece culminated in three semesters teaching Oprea Workshop through Boyer School of Music at Temple University. Research methods included: Directing work before graduate school; Interviews and surveys with collaborators;Personal observation; and Scholastic work surrounding historic acting teachers. The main finding: My goals as a director and educator mimic many of the acting teachers before me: to connect gestures to the internal life of the performer and to strive towards a more perfect amalgamation of music text and stagecraft in presenting both new work and inherited repertoire for opera. I found disparities not in the goals, but in the “how”. My findings through my work are that the “how” is in bravery, kindness, and empowerment of the singer. Through scaffolded and varied techniques, each performer can cultivate their own collaborative strategies when developing characters and integrating movement into their vocal performances and storytelling. An empowered singer is an effective singer that can live and advocate for better art holistically in this world.
    • The Origin, Present, and Future of Regional Art Museums — Using the Woodmere Art Museum as a Case Study

      Earle, Linda LE; Thomas, James JT (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This paper uses the Woodmere Art Museum in Philadelphia as a case study to examine the origins and institutional evolution of American regional art museums, identify some of the challenges they currently face, and the important civic and cultural roles they play in their communities. The chapter “Origins” provides a basic overview of Woodmere’s founding and history and considers how, within an American context, such museums eventually evolved from private galleries to publicly engaged nonprofit organizations over the course of the twentieth century as their missions, stakeholders, and audiences evolved. Like other regional art museums that demonstrate the same model, Woodmere’s regional identity and its focus on local art deepen the ties between itself and the community it serves and creates cultural resonances that make regional art museums an irreplaceable part of the American museum industry. However, small regional art museums face important challenges as their finances are more vulnerable, and they must deal with some of the same social, institutional, and ethical issues faced by larger public-facing institutions with a smaller pool of resources. The chapter “Present Challenges” looks at the need to develop sustainable management and financial structures and inclusive strategies to understand and build on audience relationships as a way to survive and grow. The final chapter of the paper “Imagined Futures” concludes and specifically addresses the challenges and possibilities presented by the pandemic, various social justice movements, and the call for institutions to reckon with their own histories in order to form a clear path for the future of regional art museums.

      Byrnes, James P.; Schifter, Catherine C.; Laurence, Janice H.; Hattikudur, Shanta (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Mobile polling is a widely used classroom response system at the university level. The current study examines the predictors and outcomes of mobile polling including self-regulation and academic achievement. Furthermore, this study explores whether or not mobile polling benefits some students more than others, specifically those with higher levels of self-regulation. The data was collected from two separate University classrooms taught by the same teacher (n = 66). The first section of students were to use mobile polling software after taking their midterm exam and use the software for the remainder of the semester. The other section of students served as the control group and received the same instruction, Powerpoints, and assignments minus the usage of mobile polling. All students from both classes were given an 89 question survey known as the Barkley Deficits in Executive Function Scale (BDEFS) which measured their ability to self-regulate their behavior. A hierarchical regression model was used to find that mobile polling had no statistical significance on academic achievement at the end of the semester. The only significant predictor throughout the entire study was the initial achievement variable, which was the scores from the midterm exam. Another hierarchical regression model found that self-regulation, measured with the use of the BDEFS system, was not a significant predictor of academic achievement. When initial achievement was controlled for, the Overall EF score from the BDEFS system revealed that self-regulation had zero effect on the variance as denoted by R Square and the R Square change in the regression model. Supplemental analysis revealed that Overall EF is a significant predictor of academic achievement when a Repeated Measures ANOVA was used, though the R Square change was still low. Factor analysis was used to find which questions loaded together under five subscales, truncating the BDEFS system and revealing that Self-Restraint/Inhibition traits were a better predictor than the overall score from the BDEFS questionnaire yet was not a significant predictor of achievement. Finally, a 2 x 2 ANCOVA that investigated the interaction between high/low levels of Self-Regulation and usage of Mobile Polling and found that it did not significantly affect academic achievement. In fact, the highest mean came from the completely opposite group as expected, which was students in the control group with lower levels of self-regulation.

      Jones, Nora (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Studies have shown that the rates of incarceration in the United States of America have skyrocketed over the course of the last several decades. Furthermore, the extremely high rate of incarceration in the United States has become a destructive force on children, families and entire communities and has disproportionately affected and targeted young men from low-income communities of color. Studies have also shown that mass incarceration is generally harmful to the health of the individuals that are imprisoned, the health of formerly incarcerated individuals, and harmful to the health of families and communities. The true cost of mass incarceration on society is estimated to be as high as over $1 trillion per year and studies indicates that more than half of those costs are ultimately levied upon families, children, and community members that are not incarcerated. This paper discusses policy reforms that have been implemented in recent years and that are currently being implemented to help mitigate the harmful impacts of mass incarceration, prevent recidivism, and reduce the population of incarcerated individuals. It also outlines higher education and positive development programs as effective strategies to further achieve these goals, lists current programs and interventions that have been effective, and discusses policies that would improve access to education for justice-involved populations as an effective tool to combat mass incarceration.
    • PP2A/B55α Substrate Recruitment As Defined By The Retinoblastoma-Related Protein p107

      Graña, Xavier; Shore, Scott K; Rothberg, Brad; Dunbrack, Roland L (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Protein phosphorylation is a reversible post-translation modification that is essential in cell signaling. It is estimated that a third of all cellular proteins are phosphorylated (reviewed in Ficarro et al., 2002), with more than 98% of those phosphorylation events occurring on serine and threonine residues (Olsen et al., 2006). Kinases are the necessary enzymes for phosphorylation and protein phosphatases dynamically reverse this action. While the mechanisms of substrate recognition for kinases have been well-characterized to date, the same is not true for phosphatases that play an equally important role in opposing kinase function and determining global phosphorylation levels in cells. This dichotomy has also translated into the clinic, where there has been a persistently narrow research focus on the development of small-molecule kinase inhibitors for use as chemotherapeutic agents, without an equal effort being placed into the generation of the analogous phosphatase activators (reviewed in Westermarck, 2018). Members of the phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) family of serine/threonine phosphatases are responsible for the majority of dephosphorylation in eukaryotic cells, with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) accounting for more than 90% of the total phosphatase activity (Moorhead et al., 2007; Virshup and Shenolikar, 2009). Structurally, PP2A is a trimeric holoenzyme consisting of a scaffold (A) subunit, a regulatory (B) subunit, and a catalytic (C) subunit. B55α is a ubiquitous regulatory subunit that is reported to target many substrates with critical functions in processes including cell division. A long-standing question that has persisted in the field of cellular signaling is as to how the most abundant serine/threonine PP2A holoenzyme, PP2A/B55α, specifically recognizes substrates and presents them to the enzyme active site for subsequent dephosphorylation. Such critical data have only recently become well understood for the B56 family of ‘B’ regulatory subunits, where an LxxIxE short linear motif (or SLiM) has been identified in a subset of protein targets and shown via crystal structure analysis to dock into a 100% conserved binding pocket on the B56 surface (Hertz et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016a; Wang et al., 2016b; Wu et al., 2017). Here, we show how B55α recruits p107, a pRB-related tumor suppressor and B55α substrate. Using molecular and cellular approaches, we identified a conserved region 1 (R1, residues 615-626) encompassing the strongest p107 binding site. This enabled us to identify an “HxRVxxV619-625” SLiM in p107 as necessary for B55α binding and dephosphorylation of the proximal pSer-615 in vitro and in cells. Numerous additional PP2A/B55α substrates, including TAU, contain a related SLiM C-terminal from a proximal phosphosite, allowing us to propose a consensus SLiM sequence, “p[ST]-P-x(5-10)-[RK]-V-x-x-[VI]-R”. In support of this, mutation of conserved SLiM residues in TAU dramatically inhibits dephosphorylation by PP2A/B55α, validating its generality. Moreover, a data-guided computational model details the interaction of residues from the conserved p107 SLiM, the B55α groove, and phosphosite presentation to the PP2A/C active site. Altogether, these data provide key insights into PP2A/B55α mechanisms of substrate recruitment and active site engagement, and also facilitate identification and validation of new substrates, a key step towards understanding the role of PP2A/B55α in many key cellular processes. As a parallel continuation of our efforts to identify novel B55α substrates/regulators, we generated mutant B55α constructs that occlude PP2A/A-C dimer engagement but retain substrate binding to the β-propeller structure (allowing us to interrogate direct interactors). Our preliminary AP-MS data led to the identification of several proteins that bound better to our “monomeric B55α” mutant compared to wild-type B55α in the context of the PP2A/B55α heterotrimer, including the centrosomal proteins HAUS6 and CEP170 (two substrates previously validated in a phosphoproteomic screen by our lab), suggesting that these mutants trap substrates as they cannot be dephosphorylated by PP2A/C. These analyses also identified an enrichment of T-complex protein 1 subunits in the “monomeric B55α” mutant elutions, further supporting the notion that these mutants may function as dominant negatives. Several additional proteins of interest were identified in the two independent rounds of mass spectrometry, including subunits of the DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and IV, as well as the double-strand break repair protein MRE11, which can be followed up as potential novel B55α substrates. These studies can contribute to significant advances in our understanding of the network of proteins that B55α interacts with, and thus the signaling pathways that can be modulated by PP2A/B55α complexes in cells. Moreover, these advances can also provide translational benefits as has been demonstrated through the study of PP2A activators termed SMAPs, which demonstrate selective stabilization of PP2A/B56α complexes in cells that result in selective dephosphorylation of substrates including the oncogenic target c-MYC.

      Rey, Terry; Levitt, Laura; White, Sydney; Hey-Colón, Rebeca L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This dissertation critically examines both the discursive and empirical significances of recent newcomers in the Haitian religious field, namely Korean and Korean American Protestant women missionaries. This confluence of Korean and Haitian Protestantism, which first emerged in the early 1990s, is a compelling case of the diversification of contemporary transnational and even global Christianity. Protestant Christianity was implanted in Haiti and Korea at around the very same time, in the nineteenth century, by North American missionaries who were inspired to work in new national religious fields by the Second Great Awakening (1790-1840) and its evangelical fervor. In the eyes of North American missionaries, both countries were religious wildernesses waiting to truly receive and understand the Good Word. Since then, in both Korea and Haiti, westernization, Western hegemony, and Western neo-colonialization have featured strong undercurrents of North-American-derived Protestantism. However, the respective lots and religious fields of each country have been dramatically different overall largely because of national and global economic and political forces. South Korea enjoyed formidable growth both in its economy and its evangelical Christian population after the Korean War (1950-1953), resulting in Korean Christianity’s zealous participation in evangelical Protestant mission overseas, following the models of North American mission enterprises, especially toward the end of the century. Meanwhile, Haiti continued to suffer from natural disasters, political turmoil, and widespread abject poverty. Thus, overseas Haitian Protestant mission work is altogether non-existent, though internally evangelical prosetalization efforts are legion and often aggressive. Vodou and Catholicism, meanwhile, continue to captivate the majority of the Haitian masses, but Protestantism is clearly on the rise across the nation. In is into this socio-religious context that Korean Protestant missions expanded in the Caribbean nation, an expansion that has amplified especially since the tragic 2010 earthquake. Toward understanding these developments, this project investigates the influx of Korean and Korean American Protestant missionaries in contemporary Haiti and the reverberations of North American evangelicalism as channeled through and adapted by Korean missionaries. With all of these historical and contemporary contexts in mind, this dissertation more sharply focuses on a specific group of actors in the Haitian religious field, namely contemporary Korean American Protestant women missionaries. I argue that their activity suggests a new type of examples for current scholarly discourses about the relationship between gender and evangelical missions. By way of historical analyses of both Korean and Haitian Protestant Christianity and oral histories based on interviews with Korean missionaries in Haiti, this study argues that Korean evangelicalism has developed a distinctive gendered praxis that claims both continuity with and divergence from North American evangelicalism. It also shows that in both South Korea and Haiti, twentieth-century U.S. hegemony and military occupation were significant factors in propelling Protestant Christianity.
    • When Work Comes Home: Parental Time Allocated to Unpaid Household Labor

      Klugman, Joshua; Kaufman, Robert; Levine, Judith; Gonalons-Pons, Pilar (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      I examined how dual-earner households manage the often-competing demands of work and family life through an in-depth analysis of time allocated to housework and child care while testing the theories of gender display and economic dependency. I developed new measures for occupational nurturance and authority and applied these measures to the housework and child care literature by conducting a series of replication studies. My work supports the relationship between employment characteristics and remaining gender inequalities in unpaid household labor. I was able to shed light on how dual-earner households attempt to manage the complicated work-family time bind, while adding to the field of replication studies in quantitative sociology. I constructed new measures for occupational nurturance and authority to offer alternative ways to assess occupational traits that were not mutually exclusive or dichotomous. I conducted year fixed effects multilevel models of General Social Survey (GSS) respondents nested within occupations. Using these models, I constructed empirical Bayes (EB) estimates of the occupational effects and aggregated the data set at the occupation-level for easy merging to any data set using Census occupation codes. I showed the utility of my new measures by merging them to the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) and American Time Use Survey (ATUS) for further analysis. I found overwhelming support for gender conventionality for married men and women working in gender atypical occupations who displayed less stereotypical gendered behavior at home. However, separate from occupational sex composition, my findings also provided support for the influence of gender ideology on married men and women’s gendered display of housework at home. For child care, I found consistent and overwhelming support for fathers’ and mothers’ time spent with children and economic dependency’s time availability perspective. These results illuminated the “time crunch” that dual-earners face as they juggle work and family obligations. Across both studies of unpaid household labor, the overall findings suggest a gendered picture. Married women completed more housework than married men, and mothers completed more child care than fathers. The housework findings were further supported by gender ideology, or that those with more traditional views on housework and family life completed more traditionally gendered housework tasks. Although, my findings also suggested more nuanced housework for those in gender atypical workplaces in support of gender conventionality. Finally, even though I found strong support for economic dependency’s time availability perspective for time spent with children in dual-earner households, mothers still completed more child care than fathers regardless of all other factors further highlighting a stalled revolution for working mothers. Women made strides in the workplace, but still faced gendered unpaid household labor at home. Throughout my studies, I added new measures to the field and I built on the great work of leaders in the field of housework and child care through replication. I conducted robustness and generalizability checks of prior work and made a case for replication studies in quantitative sociology.
    • Culturally Relevant Teaching Remix: A Study of Middle School Teachers' Development of Youth Cultural Competence Through Technology Integration and Application

      Smith, Michael W; Brandt, Carol; Hall, John (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The purpose of this study was to examine technology integration and the application of Culturally Relevant Teaching (CRT). This inquiry evolved as a result of trying to understand the unique intersectionality of student identity, which is inclusive of youth culture, and whether teachers understood this dynamic and hence leveraged it in the classrooms and school communities they taught. Given that youth culture is a “mash-up of cultures and the membership transcends ethnic and racial lines,” there was evident value in exploring how youth cultural competence is unpacked and applied by educators to both deliver content and build relationships (Keuss, 2012), Understanding that a major youth cultural referent is technology, the study observed how teacher’s Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge manifested itself in the classroom and the types of technology students shared they were exposed to, in addition to their perceptions of teacher competence of technology and/or youth culture. This exploration was further framed by using a Culturally Relevant Teaching framework to analyze teacher-student interactions, based on the principles, behaviors and mindsets outlined by Ladson-Billings in her construction of defining the characteristics of a CRT educator (2009). This was a qualitative study that included 10 teachers and 20 student participants that were members of a technology-rich middle school in an urban environment. Teachers participated in classroom observations, interviews, and CRT reflective tasks. Students participated in grade-level focus groups that leveraged interactive and reflective tasks. As a result of the data analysis, implications from the study presents school leaders with practical insights on how technology integration can be woven into the fabric of the school to strengthen teacher development, support content delivery and enhance the quality of student learning experiences. Additionally, there is evidence of a need for commitment by schools to train teachers in Culturally Relevant Teaching practices in order to attend to the whole child, operate with a more student-centered approach, and adequately prepare scholars for the digital world.
    • Applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior to explain clinicians’ intention to screen men who have sex with men for syphilis infection

      Bass, Sarah B; Dumenci, Levent; Rutledge, Scott E; Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Koenig, Helen (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Syphilis prevention in the United States continues to be an enduring public health challenge. Although syphilis is a curable infection, if left untreated it can result in severe, debilitating and potentially life-threatening complications. Routine screening for syphilis in high-risk populations remains an important prevention and control measure. Research consistently demonstrates the relative advantage of greater testing frequency in at-risk populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) using both cost-effectiveness analyses and mathematical modeling. Despite this, frequency of screening for syphilis among MSM remains sub-optimal, and failure to screen MSM at recommended intervals may be attributable to clinicians’ perceptions related to syphilis screening in this population. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) may help to elucidate the attitudes, social and professional norms, and perceived behavioral control that providers experience towards syphilis screening. The extent to which these cognitive-behavioral factors facilitate clinicians’ intentions to screening MSM for syphilis has not been previously evaluated. Using the constructs of the TPB, this study developed and validated a new survey tool with a national sample of physicians (n=123) who treat MSM and recruited through a proprietary email list and through passive recruitment on social media and provider Listservs. Results of the survey revealed variability in providers’ attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioral control, and these differed in association with self-reported syphilis screening intention and behavior. The survey was also used to validate a measurement model based on the TPB. This measurement model consisted of four factors: attitudes, social norms, perceived behavioral control and intention. This model was then used in structural equation modeling analysis to simultaneously test the strength of associations between these factors and a self-reported behavioral outcome. Results indicate that attitudes have a significant indirect effect on self-reported screening behavior mediated though intention. Perceived behavioral control was also strongly associated with self-reported behavior, as was intention to screen. By incorporating the TPB into a model of physician behavior, this study provides a framework for interventions targeted at increasing syphilis testing frequency in clinical practice.

      Bakshi, Gurdip; Bakshi, Xiaohui Gao; Li, Yuanzhi; Balsam, Steven; Ren, Charlotte (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This dissertation has two chapters. Each empirically examines one finance topic. The first chapter focuses on behavioral finance. The second chapter focuses on corporate finance. The first chapter is motivated by inconclusive theoretical prediction and lack of empirical evidence on the effect of mood on trading volume. This chapter exploits repeated natural experiments from the occurrence of severe smog in Beijing to test the inertia hypothesis (Bad moods cause inactivity and inertia and thus decrease in trading volume) against the mood regulation hypothesis (Bad moods increase trading volume because investors use trading as a way to combat bad moods). Intra-day analysis in this chapter shows that smog in Beijing causes trading volume of stocks headquartered in Beijing to increase, which contradicts the inertia hypothesis. The effect is more pronounced among large stocks, which rules out the possibility that investors seek gambling thrill during smog. Additionally, the effect is more pronounced among low risk stocks, which reflects the risk aversion associated with depression among investors and supports the mood regulation theory. The second chapter is motivated by the fact that initial public offerings (IPOs) transform private firms into publicly traded ones, thereby improving liquidity of their shares. Better liquidity increases firm value, which I call “liquidity value”. I develop a model and hypothesize that issuers and IPO investors bargain over the liquidity value, resulting in a discounted offer price, i.e., IPO underpricing. Consistent with the model, I find that underpricing is positively related to the expected post-IPO liquidity of the issuer. The relation is stronger when firms are financed by venture capital investors, when the underwriter has more bargaining power, or when a smaller fraction of the firm is sold. I also explore two regulation changes as exogenous shocks to issuers’ liquidity before and after IPO, respectively. With a difference-in-difference approach, I find that underpricing is more pronounced with better expected post-IPO liquidity or lower pre-IPO liquidity.
    • Violin Performance practice in twentieth century Moldova

      Latham, Edward; Schmieder, Eduard; Abramovic, Charles; Stanley, Robert (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The purpose of this dissertation is to document the evolution of Moldavian violin performance practice from the middle ages through the twentieth century and examine the major influences and significant musicians that shaped its development over time. My primary sources include excerpts from anthologies, textbooks, and periodicals, as well as audio and video clips; in most cases, the original language is Romanian or Russian and I will provide a translation if none is given in the original source.I will begin by investigating the emerging role of the violin in medieval musical ensembles and exploring the origins of Moldovan musical folklore in art, literature and culture. A discussion of lăutari (a class of musicians) is fundamental to understanding the cultural and societal roots of the taraf (a group of lăutari) and the muzica lăutărească (music of the lăutari) to help differentiate this style of music and the musicians who played it from Romanian peasant music and other folk music traditions in the region. I will show how the movement of the lăutari into cities helped familiarize people with the muzica lăutărească, normalizing and establishing it in popular culture and bringing notoriety to exceptionally talented lăutari. Next, I will examine the professionalization of violin education beginning in the last decades of the nineteenth century and the ways in which the establishment of musical societies expanded exposure to professional performers and opportunities for education through the founding of public and private music schools. This process created a hierarchy of skilled foreign performers and teachers who raised up a generation of local musicians who became performers and teachers in Moldova and whose students became performers and teachers all around the world, some of them attaining international acclaim. I will highlight the societies, schools, teachers and performers who were most influential in helping to grow this performance practice architecture. Nineteenth and twentieth century geopolitics – changing national borders and colonial influences in the region – shaped the development of violin performance practice in Moldova which came to favor Eastern European technique and style. The characteristics of muzica lăutărească, and the centuries in which the lăutari refined their skills and abilities primed them to prefer Eastern European music. I will share examples that illustrate this preference in both audiences and performers of the time. Finally, I will focus on contemporary Moldavian violinists whose careers demonstrate the culmination of these factors that have shaped the evolution of Moldavian violin performance practice. These award-winning, internationally famous violinists are actively exporting a centuries-in-the-making home-grown performance practice that is both diverse and unique, taking its place among the best performance practice traditions in the world.

      Hantula, Donald A; Fisher, Amanda; Dowdy, Art; Tincani , Matthew; Travers, Jason C; Hineline, Philip N; Axelrod, Saul (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This study extended the research of Lowe and Cuvo (1976) to investigate the effects of teaching adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities to count American silver coins in multiples of five in a café setting. Participants were first taught to count each coin and then count coin combinations from $0.01 to $0.99 using a finger-counting strategy with a visual cue. A teaching sequence of modeling by the instructor, participant imitation as the instructor modeled, and the participants independently counting was used for training. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the counting strategy on the participants’ performance. The results demonstrated that the counting strategy improved two of the three participants’ ability to independently sum coin combinations after training, and the skills were generalized to giving customers change while operating a cash register.

      Dobereiner, Graham E; Valentine, Ann M; Wengryniuk, Sarah; Hamze , Rasha (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The general theme of this dissertation concerns how the locality of an anionic moiety, be it a weakly coordinating anion or an anionic ligand, affect the spectroscopic and structural properties of organotransition metal complexes. Probing the columbic interactions between traditional and novel weakly coordinating anions with transition metal complexes, enables synthetic chemists to select anions that can improve catalytic transformations, impart stability of reactive intermediates, or develop new mechanistic insights. Additionally, presented herein is the manifestation of a new class of luminescent copper complexes which bear a weakly coordinating anionic N-heterocyclic carbene ligand.Firstly, a qualitative scale of coordinating ability is prepared by pairing traditional anions and weakly-coordinating anions with [Pd(IPr)(C(O)C9H6N)]+. NMR, IR, Computation, %Vbur, and X-ray crystallographic techniques are used to study the solution and solid-state interactions of these salts. During this study, a novel anion, denoted IMP- is prepared where two B(C6F5) groups are bridged by a phenyl imidazole core. Ultimately, it was found that sterics dictate coordinating ability observed by NMR and %Vbur, while IR and computation show the electronic effects of anion coordination. Continuing our understanding of the interplay between cation and anion, anionic Au(I) complexes are synthesized and paired with the same palladium cation in our first investigation. The framework of these Au(I) anions features a weakly coordinating N-heterocyclic carbene ligand that bears a borate moiety of the NHC backbone. Facile dissociation of a dimethyl sulfide ligand with metal alkoxide/phenoxides/thiophenoxides affords sodium or potassium salts. With these anions in hand, ion pairs are isolated in polar solvents and in the solid state. Au anions reside in the outer sphere of the palladium cation; like that of weakly coordinating anions such as BArF4-. Lastly, Luminescent group 11 organometallic complexes featuring N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands offer a swath of applications; catalytic transformations in organic chemistry to inorganic material uses in light emitting technologies. Conventional complexes are of the type NHC-M-X, where M is Cu, Ag, or Au and X represents anionic ligands that are often prone to hydrolysis. In this dissertation, Cu(I) complexes featuring this N- heterocyclic carbene ligand bearing a weakly coordinating anionic substituent (WCA-NHC) are prepared. (WCA-NHC)-M-L are air and moisture stable and differ from conventional NHC-M-X in that the metal can be supported by 2 datively-bound ligands. Initial computation reveals a change in dipole of (WCA-NHC)-Cu-PR3 charge transfer compared to that of reported NHC-M-X. By exchanging triphenylphosphine for diphenyl-2-pyridyl phosphine, we can change the emission wavelength by about 200 nm.

      Henry, Kevin A.; Henry, Kevin A.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor H.; Schroeder, Krista (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      A primary reason geospatial approaches are important in cancer research is that health and disease are shaped not only by factors such as age, race/ethnicity, genes, and clinical care but also by the environment where individuals work and act. While the use of geospatial approaches in cancer research is growing, several limitations remain. For example, for most population-based studies, cancer patients' neighborhood environments are based on only a single location derived from the residence at the time of diagnosis.This dissertation aimed to address this limitation by using a unique dataset of colon cancer patients diagnosed in New Jersey that include residential histories obtained through a data linkage with LexisNexis, a commercial data collection company. By incorporating residential histories, I moved beyond a cross-sectional approach to examine how residential histories and socio-spatial mobility can change a patient’s geographic context over time and influence survival. To demonstrate the application of these data in this dissertation, I completed three case studies. In the first case study, I compared whether including residential histories changed the risk of death estimates by neighborhood poverty compared to the traditional approach when including only the location at the time of diagnosis. Results suggested that the risk of death estimates from neighborhood poverty were generally similar in strength and direction regardless of residential histories inclusion. This finding was likely a result of minimal socio-spatial mobility of colon cancer patients (i.e., patients generally moving to census tracts with similar poverty levels). The second study aimed to compare the geographic risk of death estimates when using single location and residential histories in spatial models. Results overall showed that the geographic patterns of the risk of death estimates were generally similar between the models. However, not accounting for residential mobility resulted in underestimated geographic risk of death in several areas. This finding was related to the fact that approximately 35% of the colon cancer patients changed the residency, and 12% of the initial study population left New Jersey after the diagnosis. In the third case study, I examined whether landscape characteristics (e.g., built environment) were associated with the risk of death from colon cancer independent of individual-level factors, residential mobility, and neighborhood poverty. The results indicated that an increasing proportion of high-intensity developed-lands substantially increased the risk of death, while an increase in the aggregation and connectivity of vegetation-dominated low-intensity developed-lands reduced the risk of death. These findings suggested that places lacking greenspaces could have worse access to recreational sites that promote physical activity. Overall, this dissertation expands our knowledge about the geographic disparities in colon cancer in New Jersey. It also provides specific examples of integrating residential histories and remote sensing-based products into cancer disparities research. Including residential histories opens up new avenues of inquiry to better understand the complex relationships between people and places, and the effect of residential mobility on cancer outcomes. Combining multiple socio-demographic and environmental domains to estimate the neighborhood effects on cancer outcomes will increase our potential to understand the underlying pathways.
    • Learning from Structured Data: Scalability, Stability and Temporal Awareness

      Obradovic, Zoran; Vucetic, Slobodan; Zhang, Kai; Airoldi, Edoardo (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      A plethora of high-impact applications involve predictive modeling of structured data. In various domains, from hospital readmission prediction in the medical realm, though weather forecasting and event detection in power systems, up to conversion prediction in online businesses, the data holds a certain underlying structure. Building predictive models from such data calls for leveraging the structure as an additional source of information. Thus, a broad range of structure-aware approaches have been introduced, yet certain common challenges in many structured learning scenarios remain unresolved. This dissertation revolves around addressing the challenges of scalability, algorithmic stability and temporal awareness in several scenarios of learning from either graphically or sequentially structured data. Initially, the first two challenges are discussed from a structured regression standpoint. The studies addressing these challenges aim at designing scalable and algorithmically stable models for structured data, without compromising their prediction performance. It is further inspected whether such models can be applied to both static and dynamic (time-varying) graph data. To that end, a structured ensemble model is proposed to scale with the size of temporal graphs, while making stable and reliable yet accurate predictions on a real-world application involving gene expression prediction. In the case of static graphs, a theoretical insight is provided on the relationship between algorithmic stability and generalization in a structured regression setting. A stability-based objective function is designed to indirectly control the stability of a collaborative ensemble regressor, yielding generalization performance improvements on structured regression applications as diverse as predicting housing prices based on real-estate transactions and readmission prediction from hospital records. Modeling data that holds a sequential rather than a graphical structure requires addressing temporal awareness as one of the major challenges. In that regard, a model is proposed to generate time-aware representations of user activity sequences, intended to be seamlessly applicable across different user-related tasks, while sidestepping the burden of task-driven feature engineering. The quality and effectiveness of the time-aware user representations led to predictive performance improvements over state-of-the-art models on multiple large-scale conversion prediction tasks. Sequential data is also analyzed from the perspective of a high-impact application in the realm of power systems. Namely, detecting and further classifying disturbance events, as an important aspect of risk mitigation in power systems, is typically centered on the challenges of capturing structural characteristics in sequential synchrophasor recordings. Therefore, a thorough comparative analysis was conducted by assessing various traditional as well as more sophisticated event classification models under different domain-expert-assisted labeling scenarios. The experimental findings provide evidence that hierarchical convolutional neural networks (HCNNs), capable of automatically learning time-invariant feature transformations that preserve the structural characteristics of the synchrophasor signals, consistently outperform traditional model variants. Their performance is observed to further improve as more data are inspected by a domain expert, while smaller fractions of solely expert-inspected signals are already sufficient for HCNNs to achieve satisfactory event classification accuracy. Finally, insights into the impact of the domain expertise on the downstream classification performance are also discussed.
    • Business Acumen: An Indicator of Chief Human Resource Officer Effectiveness in Institutions of Higher Education

      Schmidt, Dr. Stuart M.; Goldberg, Dr. Daniel E.; Williams, Dr. Wayne W.; Wyrick, Dr. Cheryl R. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      An examination of the relationship between business acumen and chief human resource officers’ (CHROs) effectiveness has been missing from the practitioner and academic literatures. To remedy this deficiency, elements of the SHRM HR Competency Model, the ATD Competency Model, and the HR Competency Model were used to frame, theorize, and test propositions in this study of the relationship between business acumen and CHRO effectiveness in institutions of higher education. To this end, a survey, was employed to elicit responses from a sample of chief human resources officers responsible for leading and managing the HR function at institutions of higher education. To ensure proper representation of CHRO responses across the different types of institutions, proportional stratified sampling was used. The resulting survey data were analyzed using descriptive, correlational, and inferential statistics to examine propositions describing the relationship between business acumen and CHRO effectiveness. Descriptive statistical analysis showed: (a) CHROs possess a mix of business acumen skills, (b) CHROs vary in the extent to which they possess business acumen, and (c) CHRO effectiveness levels vary from not effective to effective. Correlational statistical analysis revealed CHRO effectiveness was significantly correlated with business acumen. Furthermore, inferential statistical analysis indicated the mix of business acumen skills did not differ significantly across effective CHROs employed at non-profit and for-profit institutions of higher education. Key Words: business acumen, effectiveness, chief human resource officers (CHROs), institutions of higher education
    • Tunneling Spectroscopy Studies of Superconductors

      Iavarone, Maria; Tao, Rongjia; Torchinsky, Darius; Gurevich, Alex (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      In multiband superconductors, different bands at the Fermi surface contribute to the superconductivity with different magnitudes of superconducting gaps on different portions of the Fermi surface. Each band in a multiband superconductor has a condensate with an amplitude and phase that weakly interacts with the other bands’ condensate. The coupling strength between the bands determines whether one or two superconducting transition temperatures are observed, and it is the key to many peculiar properties. In general, if there are two gaps of different magnitude, there are two different length scales associated with the suppression of these gaps in applied magnetic fields, for example. Therefore, effects of multigap superconductivity can be observed in superconducting vortices, which are twirls of supercurrents that are generated when a superconductor is placed in a magnetic field. Furthermore, the two superconducting order parameters in different bands are characterized by a magnitude and phase. In multiband superconductors, there are collective excitations corresponding to fluctuations of the relative phase of two order parameters, so-called the Leggett mode. The first material identified as multiband superconductor is Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) in 2001 with a critical temperature Tc of 39 K. MgB2 is a superconducting material with the highest transition temperature among all conventional BCS superconductors. It has two superconducting gaps \Delta_\pi ~ 2 meV and \Delta_\sigma\ ~ 7 meV and they arise from the existence of two bands \pi and \sigma bands of boron electrons. The discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 renewed interest in the field of multiband superconductivity. MgB2 has attracted many scientists’ attention both for the fundamental importance of understanding the multiband superconductivity and possible applications such as magnets, power cables, bolometers, Josephson junction-based electronic devices, and radio-frequency cavities. Afterward, other materials have been identified as multiband superconductors such as NbSe2, the family of iron-based superconductors, heavy fermion superconductors, multilayer cuprates, borocarbides, etc. This dissertation uses tunneling experiments to highlight multiband superconductivity features in two systems, namely MgB2 thin films and ultrathin films of Pb. Further, we use multiple techniques to study a superconducting material, nitrogen-doped niobium, used for superconducting radio-frequency cavities. For the project on MgB2, MgB2/Native-Oxide/Ag planar junctions are fabricated and characterized down to 2.1 K and in the magnetic field parallel to the sample surface up to 6 Tesla. This work investigates how pairbreaking affects the magnitude and phase of the order parameter in a multiband superconductor. The tunneling spectra are analyzed in the framework of a two-band model developed by our theory collaborator Prof. Alex Gurevich, Old Dominion University. The model allows the extraction of the pair-breaking parameters among other quantities. The analysis shows that the order parameter in the ? band is quickly suppressed in the field, the ? band is cleaner than the ? band. The ratio of pairbreaking parameter in the ? band to the ? band rapidly increases at fields higher than ~0.1 T and then plateau at higher fields. This transition around 0.1 T magnetic field suggests a phase decoupling in the two bands of MgB2. Below the transition, the two bands are phase-locked, so mostly, the superconductivity in the ? band is affected, and after phase decoupling, both bands are affected by the applied field. These results are important for a basic understanding of multiband superconductors and the application implications of this material. This phase decoupling has a new and profound consequence on the superconducting state of a multiband superconductor that has been theoretically predicted and never observed experimentally. For the Pb project, ultrathin films of Pb in ultrahigh vacuum conditions are deposited by e-beam evaporation and characterized with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). The STM/STS allows measuring the electronic density of states with the highest spatial resolution down to atomic scale. The shape of a superconducting vortex core is determined by the superconducting gap and the Fermi velocity, and the STM allows to map anisotropies of these quantities spatially. The vortex cores of Pb film show a complex shape that evolves from triangular at short distances from the center to a six-fold symmetric star shape farther away from the center. These details are very subtle, and they can be highlighted only if one works within the clean limit (to avoid the averaging effect of the scattering) and by fabricating the heterostructure that pins the vortices spatially. The complex vortex core shape reflects the anisotropy of the two bands that contribute to superconductivity in this material. For the project on Niobium, cold and hot spots from nitrogen-doped Nb cutouts are characterized by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS) combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The radiofrequency (RF) measurements of the quality factor and temperature mapping on an N-doped Nb superconducting resonator cavity are carried out at Jefferson Laboratory before cutting out the samples. This work aims to identify possible sources of excess dissipation in hot spots and relate them to the surface chemical composition and superconducting properties. The temperature mapping revealed a strong effect of the cavity cooldown rate on the intensities of hot spots and their spatial distribution, which indicates a significant contribution of trapped vortices to the RF dissipation. SEM images acquired on the cold and hot spots using a secondary electron detector show absence of residual hydride scars and niobium nitrides on their surface. Angle-resolved XPS measurements on the native surface of these samples revealed higher oxidized Nb 3d states on the N-doped Nb cold spots, which is supported by XPS depth profiles done on the samples by Argon ion sputtering. Argon ion sputtering of oxidized Nb removes oxygen preferentially from Nb2O5 and diffuses to bulk, thickening the lower oxidation state layers. The proximity theory framework’s tunneling spectra analysis suggests hot spots have stronger pairbreaking due to a weakly reduced pair potential, a thicker metallic suboxide layer, and a wide distribution of the contact resistance. STM imaging of vortex cores shows a triangular vortex lattice in both samples, and the coherence length is nearly the same in hot and cold spots. The experimental data analysis suggests weakly degraded superconducting properties at the surface of hot spot regions are not the primary sources of RF losses. Instead, they are the regions where vortices nucleate first and get trapped during cooling down. These experimental techniques and findings will be crucial in helping to qualify new recipes for SRF cavity production and to boost their performance.

      Iliadis, Andrew; Fernback, Jan; Vacker, Barry (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Jackie Aina, a popular Nigerian American beauty vlogger and influencer-edutainer, has received attention for her candid stances on the beauty, fashion, and social media industries, along with her outspokenness about social justice issues. Notably, several of the videos on her YouTube channel contain “Unpopular Opinions” in their titles. In these videos, Aina conducts makeup tutorials while voicing viewpoints that she deems controversial. This thesis uses Aina’s “Unpopular Opinions” videos as a case study of Black women influencer-edutainers’ use of critical discourse in their content. It utilizes critical discourse analysis (CDA) with elements of multimodality and other critical disciplines such as critical race theory and feminist studies to examine how Black women vloggers and influencer-edutainers balance their dual responsibilities as influencers and educational entertainers.
    • Teedyuscung, a Man, a Statue: Folklore, Stories, and Native American Commemorative Statues and Monuments

      Bruggeman, Seth C.; Lowe, Hilary Iris; Finkel , Kenneth (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This is a public history study of statues and monuments, and the stories they commemorate. “Teedyuscung, a Man, a Statue” examines, specifically, Native American statue and monument commemorations. I begin with the Tedyuscung Statue in Philadelphia’s Wissahickon Valley. In examining this statue and story surrounding it, I ask: Who does this statue represent? How does the Tedyuscung Statue affect passerby’s collective memory of Native American cultures and peoples? And how does the Tedyuscung Statue facilitate the creation and construction of an artificial, imagined, and colonized Indigenous space and place in Philadelphia’s Wissahickon Valley? In answering these questions, I examine how and why Teedyuscung, the man, was cast as an actor in the Wissahickon Valley’s history. I transition next into a broad study of Native American commemorative statue and monuments, such as: The Statue of Tamanend, Philadelphia, PA; The Nez Perce 1831 St. Louis Delegation Memorial monument, St. Louis, MO; the Kindred Spirits sculpture, County Cork, Ireland; and the Dignity: Of Earth and Sky sculpture, Chamberlain, SD. Through examining these studies, I answer several questions: How are Native American peoples represented in commemorative statues and monuments today? And further, do all Native American commemorations relay similar forms of Indigenous silence and erasure? This thesis, ultimately, reveals that statues and monuments can reclaim Indigenous space and place, narrating the stories Native Americans seek to tell. And, that statues and monuments can, conversely, create imagined spaces that silence Native Americans stories and histories.