Now showing items 21-40 of 7721

    • An exploration of some magnetic fundamentals in EuSe using μSR

      Terry, I.; Adams, P. W.; Bykovetz, N.; Giblin, S. R.; Guguchi, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Klein, J.; Lin, C.L.; Liu, T.J. (2016-03-01)
      EuSe is a simple magnetic system that appears to show many complicated features. Under applied pressure it undergoes a transition from an antiferromagnet (AF) to a ferromagnet (FM). This transition provides a means of testing certain basic fundamentals of magnetic theory and an opportunity to explore the complexities of EuSe. Using the muon-spin rotation and relaxation technique (μSR), EuSe was measured at pressures ranging from ambient to 11 kbar. In ambient-pressure EuSe, muon data reveal two local fields, but show only a single field in the FM state formed under pressure. The μSR measurements appear to show a continuous transition at Tc, contrary to previous Mössbauer results that were interpreted as being evidence of a first-order transition. Values determined for the critical exponent, β, in AF and FM EuSe, differ and therefore appear to be a clear counterexample to the Universality Hypothesis. The values of β also are indicative of EuSe’s being a 2D magnet for pressures up to 11 kbar. The nature and values of the local fields seen by the muons is discussed and analyzed.
    • Investigating undergraduate students’ ideas about the fate of the Universe

      Conlon, Mallory; Coble, Kim; Bailey, Janelle; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Bailey|0000-0001-9563-2016 (2017-11-10)
      As astronomers further develop an understanding of the fate of the Universe, it is essential to study students’ ideas on the fate of the Universe so that instructors can communicate the field’s current status more effectively. In this study, we examine undergraduate students’ preinstruction ideas of the fate of the Universe in ten semester-long introductory astronomy course sections (ASTRO 101) at three institutions. We also examine students’ postinstruction ideas about the fate of the Universe in ASTRO 101 over five semester-long course sections at one institution. The data include precourse surveys given during the first week of instruction (N=264), postinstruction exam questions (N=59), and interviews. We find that, preinstruction, more than a quarter of ASTRO 101 students either do not respond or respond with “I don’t know” when asked what the long-term fate of the Universe is. We also find that, though the term was not necessarily used, students tend to describe a “big chill” scenario in the preinstruction surveys, among a wide variety of other scenarios. A fraction of students describe the fate of smaller-scale systems, possibly due to confusion of the hierarchical nature of structure in the Universe. Preinstruction, students mention the Universe’s expansion when describing how astronomers know the fate of the Universe but do not discuss how we know the Universe is expanding or the relationship between expansion and the fate of the Universe. Postinstruction, students’ responses shift toward greater degrees of completeness and correctness.
    • Impaired non-homologous end joining in human primary alveolar type II cells in emphysema

      Center for Inflammation, Translational and Clinical Lung Research (Temple University) (2019-01-29)
      Emphysema is characterized by alveolar wall destruction induced mainly by cigarette smoke. Oxidative damage of DNA may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. We studied the impairment of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway and DNA damage in alveolar type II (ATII) cells and emphysema development. We isolated primary ATII cells from control smokers, nonsmokers, and patients with emphysema to determine DNA damage and repair. We found higher reactive oxygen species generation and DNA damage in ATII cells obtained from individuals with this disease in comparison with controls. We also observed low phosphorylation of H2AX, which activates DSBs repair signaling, in emphysema. Our results indicate the impairement of NHEJ, as detected by low XLF expression. We also analyzed the role of DJ-1, which has a cytoprotective activity. We detected DJ-1 and XLF interaction in ATII cells in emphysema, which suggests the impairment of their function. Moreover, we found that DJ-1 KO mice are more susceptible to DNA damage induced by cigarette smoke. Our results suggest that oxidative DNA damage and ineffective the DSBs repair via the impaired NHEJ may contribute to ATII cell death in emphysema.
    • A Comparison of Request Process and Outcomes in Donation After Cardiac Death and Donation After Brain Death: Results From a National Study

      Siminoff, Laura; Alolod, Gerard; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Yuen, E. Y. N.; Traino, Heather M.; Siminoff|0000-0002-6775-665X; Alolod|0000-0001-7137-5967; Wilson-Genderson|0000-0002-6361-358X (2022-12-30)
      Available literature points to healthcare providers’ discomfort with donation after cardiac death (DCD) and their perception of public reluctance toward the procedure. Using a national sample, we report on the communication content of actual DCD and donation after brain death (DBD) approaches by organ procurement organization (OPO) requesters and compare family decision makers’ (FDMs’) experiences of both modalities. We recruited 1601 FDMs using a validated protocol; 347 (21.7%) were of potential DCD donors. Semistructured telephone interviews yielded FDMs’ sociodemographic data, donation attitudes, assessment of approach, final outcomes, and substantiating reasons. Initial analysis consisted of bivariate analyses. Multilevel mixture models compared groups representing authorization outcome and DCD/DBD status. No significant differences in family authorization were found between DCD and DBD cases. Statistically significant associations were found between sociodemographic characteristics and authorization, with white FDMs more likely to authorize DCD or DBD than black FDMs. FDMs of both modalities had similar evaluations of requester skills, topics discussed, satisfaction, and refusal reasons. The findings suggest that the DCD/DBD distinction may not be notable to families. We recommend the use of similar approach strategies and communication skills and the development of education campaigns about the public’s acceptance of DCD.
    • Imiquimod Treatment Causes Systemic Disease in Mice Resembling Generalized Pustular Psoriasis in an IL-1 and IL-36 Dependent Manner

      Alvarez, Pilar; Jensen, Liselotte; Jensen|0000-0002-0267-8312 (2016-12-12)
      Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a severe form of psoriasis that can be caused by missense mutations in the interleukin-36 (IL-36) receptor antagonist. In addition to neutrophil rich skin inflammation, GPP patients typically also experience anorexia, fever, malaise, and pain. The imiquimod-induced skin inflammation mouse model has rapidly become a popular way to study plaque psoriasis, which typically does not involve symptoms of systemic disease. In this model, neutrophil recruitment to the skin is dependent upon the inflammatory mediators IL-1, via its receptor IL-1R1, and IL-36α. Unexpectedly, we observed that mice also exhibited signs of anorexia (weight loss and decreased food intake), general malaise (decreased activity and loss of interest in building nests), and pain (nose bulging and hunched posture). A scoring system allowing quantitative comparisons of test groups was developed. Female mice were found to develop more severe disease than male mice. Furthermore, mice deficient in both IL-1R1 and IL-36α are nearly disease-free, while mice lacking only one of these inflammatory mediators have less severe disease than wild type mice. Hence, the imiquimod-induced skin inflammation mouse model recapitulates not only plaque psoriasis, but also the more severe symptoms, that is, anorexia, malaise, and pain, seen in GPP.
    • Investigating undergraduate students’ ideas about the curvature of the Universe

      Coble, Kim; Conlon, Mallory; Bailey, Janelle M.; Bailey|0000-0001-9563-2016 (2018-06-15)
      As part of a larger project studying undergraduate students’ understanding of cosmology, we explored students’ ideas about the curvature of the Universe. We investigated preinstruction ideas held by introductory astronomy (ASTRO 101) students at three participating universities and postinstruction ideas at one. Through thematic analysis of responses to questions on three survey forms and preinstruction interviews, we found that prior to instruction a significant fraction of students said the Universe is round. Students’ reasoning for this included that the Universe contains round objects, therefore it must also be round, or an incorrect idea that the big bang theory describes an explosion from a central point. We also found that a majority of students think that astronomers use the term curvature to describe properties, such as dimensions, angles, or size, of the Universe or objects in the Universe, or that astronomers use the term curvature to describe the bending of space due to gravity. Students are skeptical that the curvature of the Universe can be measured, to a greater or lesser degree depending on question framing. Postinstruction responses to a multiple-choice exam question and interviews at one university indicate that students are more likely to correctly respond that the Universe as a whole is not curved postinstruction, though the idea that the Universe is round still persists for some students. While we see no evidence that priming with an elliptical or rectangular map of the cosmic microwave background on a postinstruction exam affects responses, students do cite visualizations such as diagrams among the reasons for their responses in preinstruction surveys.
    • 17β-Estradiol regulates histone alterations associated with memory consolidation and increases Bdnf promoter acetylation in middle-aged female mice

      Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L.; Gould, Thomas; Frick, Karyn M.; Gould|0000-0003-1840-5076 (2014-06-24)
      Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17β-estradiol (E2) to enhance object recognition memory consolidation requires histone H3 acetylation in the dorsal hippocampus. However, the extent to which histone acetylation is regulated by E2 in middle-aged females is unknown. The mnemonic benefits of E2 in aging females appear to be greatest in middle age, and so pinpointing the molecular mechanisms through which E2 enhances memory at this age could lead to the development of safer and more effective treatments for maintaining memory function without the side effects of current therapies. Here, we show that dorsal hippocampal infusion of E2 rapidly enhanced object recognition and spatial memory, and increased histone H3 acetylation in the dorsal hippocampus, while also significantly reducing levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC2 and HDAC3) proteins. E2 specifically increased histone H3 acetylation at Bdnf promoters pII and pIV in the dorsal hippocampus of both young and middle-aged mice, despite age-related decreases in pI and pIV acetylation. Furthermore, levels of mature BDNF and pro-BDNF proteins in the dorsal hippocampus were increased by E2 in middle-aged females. Together, these data suggest that the middle-aged female dorsal hippocampus remains epigenetically responsive to E2, and that E2 may enhance memory in middle-aged females via epigenetic regulation of Bdnf.
    • Inflammation and glucose homeostasis are associated with specific structural features among adults without knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study from the osteoarthritis initiative

      Stout, Alina C.; Barbe, Mary; Eaton, Charles B.; Amin, Mamta; Al-Eid, Fatimah; Price, Lori Lyn; Lu, Bing; Lo, Grace H.; Zhang, Ming; Pang, Jincheng; McAlindon, Timothy E.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Barbe|0000-0002-5235-9803 (2018-01-05)
      Background: Greater age and body mass index are strong risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Older and overweight individuals may be more susceptible to OA because these factors alter tissue turnover in menisci, articular cartilage, and bone via altered glucose homeostasis and inflammation. Understanding the role of inflammation and glucose homeostasis on structural features of early-stage OA may help identify therapeutic targets to delay or prevent the onset of OA among subsets of adults with these features. We examined if serum concentrations of glucose homeostasis (glucose, glycated serum protein [GSP]) or inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) were associated with prevalent knee bone marrow lesions (BMLs) or effusion among adults without knee OA. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We selected participants who had no radiographic knee OA but were at high risk for knee OA. Blinded staff conducted assays for CRP, GSP, and glucose. Readers segmented BML volume and effusion using semi-automated programs. Our outcomes were prevalent BML (knee with a BML volume > 1 cm3) and effusion (knee with an effusion volume > 7.5 cm3). We used logistic regression models with CRP, GSP, or glucose concentrations as the predictors. We adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) scores. Results: We included 343 participants: mean age = 59 ± 9 years, BMI = 27.9 ± 4.5 kg/m2, PASE score = 171 ± 82, and 64% female. Only CRP was associated with BML prevalence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.87). For effusion, we found an interaction between BMI and CRP: only among adults with a BMI <25 kg/m2 was there a significant trend towards a positive association between CRP and effusion (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.97). We detected a U-shaped relationship between GSP and effusion prevalence. Fasting glucose levels were not significantly associated with the presence of baseline effusion or BML. Conclusions: Among individuals without knee OA, CRP may be related to the presence of BMLs and effusion among normal weight individuals. Abnormal GSP may be associated with effusion. Future studies should explore whether inflammation and glucose homeostasis are predictive of symptomatic knee OA.
    • Scorpion-inspired Needle Design for Insertion in Soft Tissue Materials

      K., Luys; Kelly, Orion; Nguyen, Hillary; Penetar, Elisa; Hutapea, Parsaoran; Hutapea|0000-0001-6917-1252 (2022-11-18)
      The goal of this project is to develop a bioinspired biopsy needle that takes inspiration from the structure of a scorpion stinger to reduce tissue damage and limit the needle path deflection for more accurate results. Our scorpion-inspired needle showed an 8.38% reduction in force, 29.37% reduction in tissue damage, and a 19.64% reduction in deflection in comparison to the standard biopsy needle used today.
    • Get Help Finding a Digital Copy: A pandemic response becomes the new normal

      Given Castello, Olivia; Sipes, Jackie; Given Castello|0000-0002-2721-9809 (2023-03-17)
      Our large, urban research university serves a sizeable, diverse community and is open to all. Library building closures in the early stages of the pandemic challenged us to maintain a comparable degree of openness and access virtually. We saw an opportunity to enhance our virtual reference services and keep the library "open" even when our buildings were closed. Since access to our physical collections was suddenly cut off, we established a new Get Help Finding a Digital Copy service that connected patrons to librarians working from home who could help them find digital copies of inaccessible physical items. Our crisis response became part of our permanent virtual reference services and ultimately improved the user experience of our library catalog. This poster will describe the service and present data illustrating how we meet patron needs and keep staff-patron relationships engaged during times of potential disconnection and disengagement. Learning Outcomes: Participants will learn how to enhance traditional email reference services by adding a focus on finding digital copies of inaccessible or inconveniently accessible physical materials. Participants will identify ways of deploying virtual reference technologies already in use at many libraries to facilitate access to their resources, even when buildings are closed, or patrons and staff are at a distance. Participants will learn techniques for helping virtual reference staff adapt to increased request volume and remote work conditions.
    • LSSSSTeaching Challenge Curriculum

      Learning and Student Success Strategic Steering Team (LSSSST) (Temple University) (2021)
    • Holistic Review in Graduate Admissions Survey Instrument

      The Association for Graduate Enrollment Management (NAGAP) (2020-03-05)
    • Long Term Effects of Childhood Trauma

      Shah, Mansi; Armstrong, Bridget; George, Caroline (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
      The first step of throwing clay on a pottery wheel is centering. Centering is fundamental in creating a functional piece, as it ensures even thickness and height throughout the artwork. Without proper centering, the shape of the clay piece will collapse. Once the clay is centered, the artist uses their fingers to manipulate the clay. Each squeeze, pull, and pinch transforms the soft material from a lifeless ball into a basic form. By the end of the process the clay becomes a fully functional ceramic piece but a successful final piece is entirely contingent upon proper centering. Similar to how centering creates a foundation in pottery, childhood creates a foundation for adulthood. Just as an artist's fingers shape ceramics, subjective experiences shape individuals’ brains. For this reason, childhood trauma has a great impact on survivor’s lives. If trauma is left unresolved, it can manifest throughout one’s lifetime and result in neurological and physiological issues. Childhood trauma slowly infiltrates almost every aspect of a survivor's life, leading to several long-term effects on the brain and body.
    • The Highs and Lows of Bipolar Disorder

      Shah, Mansi; Chaturvedi, Riya; Kohol, Jaya (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
      Kanye West, Jimi Hendrix, Carrie Fisher, Frank Sinatra, and Vincent Van Gogh-what comes to mind when you hear these names? Many would say creative, gifted, accomplished, and brilliant due to the incredible art and talent they have shared with the world. However, what many do not realize is that all of these individuals have suffered from bipolar disorder (BD) [1]. BD is a psychiatric illness characterized by extreme mood swings, which include emotional highs known as mania and hypomania, and lows, otherwise known as depression [2]. Mania is described as a period when one experiences increased energy and activity, high irritability, and racing thoughts [3]. Hypomania exhibits similar symptoms as mania, however the main difference is the duration and intensity [3]. Some individuals suggest that people with BD are unstable, and prone to violence, but when treated appropriately by medical and psychology professionals, many of the symptoms of BD are manageable such that patients can have relatively normal lives [4]. Globally, the prevalence of BD is around 1%, with an equal distribution of the disorder between men and women [5]. In those with BD, around one out of three individuals attempt to commit suicide, and about 15-20% of those attempts are successful [5]. Based on these statistics, it is important to shed light on the symptoms and causes of BD, neurological changes in those diagnosed, as well as current treatments available, in order to reduce misinformation and destigmatize the disorder.
    • The Psychological Distinction of Athlete's Brains

      Shah, Mansi; Poneris, Alexa; Shoenberger, Taylor (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
      "Iguodala to Curry, back to Iguodala, up for the layup! Oh! Blocked by James! LeBron James with the rejection!" [1]. It’s moments as great as this one that make us wonder what could possibly be occurring inside the brain at that instant. During a time as stressful as game seven of the NBA Finals, where the situation is win or go home, it is necessary for the brain to perform at its utmost ability. The anxiety, pressure, fans, cameras, coaches yelling, and the sounds around each athlete at that moment is at an all-time high. This forces the brain to work overtime to ensure a successful performance. It is in this specific moment that the brain elicits a natural response to quickly decide a play that could alter the trajectory of the entire game. The motor cortex greatly impacts how athletes perform by commanding motor skills, such as coordinated movements, while establishing focus and maintaining healthy mental stability.
    • Mini Brains & More: Stem Cells In Neuroscience

      Shah, Mansi; Spangler, Bailey; Gitlevich, Becca (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
      Everyone has once wondered: what if I were able to go back in time? Fueled either by the Back to the Future franchise or an embarrassing mistake, almost everyone has played around with the idea of returning to an earlier state. Imagine being able to go back to your childhood, before decisions that have brought you to where you are now. Now bring that idea to a much smaller scale. Imagine applying that idea to the cells in our body. Early in development, progenitor (stem) cells have the capability to differentiate into different types (neurons, cardiomyocytes, etc). During development, cells become more specialized over time and as an organism matures, they become more limited in the types of cells they can differentiate into [1]. Scientists are now able to perform cellular “time travel” through induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), taking mature cells back to a stage of pluripotency, when they are able to specialize into almost any cell type (with a few exceptions).
    • The Newfound Neurology of Type 1 Diabetes

      Shah, Mansi; Hulikal, Disha; Morgan, Gideon (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
      For most of human history, type 1 diabetes mellitus was a terminal diagnosis. First documented in 1500 BCE in Egypt, diabetes was observed causing symptoms such as rapid weight loss, frequent urination, and shortly thereafter, death [1, 2]. In Ancient Rome, the way physicians diagnosed diabetes was by tasting the urine of people suffering from these symptoms, looking for a telltale “sweet” taste and smell (the word mellitus means “honey” in Latin) [1]. In the 1900’s, the only medical treatment for diabetes was an extremely low-calorie diet, which prolonged the patient’s lifespan but ultimately led to death by starvation [3]. In the last 50 years, significant advances in medicine have increased our understanding of diabetes and allowed the development of technology to facilitate management of the diagnosis. Diabetes is currently recognized as a chronic illness, a condition requiring ongoing treatment or monitoring, rather than the death sentence it once was [1,4]. Insulin, the hormone responsible for regulating the amount of glucose in the blood, was the first chemically synthesized human protein in 1963 [5]. In 1979, the first needle-free insulin delivery system was introduced [6]. The continuous glucose monitor was later released in 2006, allowing people with diabetes a real-time update of their blood glucose levels [7]. Because of these technological advancements, people with diabetes are able to more closely control their blood glucose levels, reducing the physical symptoms of hyperglycemia on their bodies [7].People with diabetes are now living longer than ever before as their physical symptoms improve, allowing researchers the opportunity to study the neurological effects of type 1 diabetes for the first time in history [7, 8].
    • Mother Earth and Her Anxious Children

      Shah, Mansi; Brown, Kal; Becker, Claire (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
      You’ve been studying for finals all day and finally decided that it is time to take a break, maybe go on TikTok for a bit, forget about the impending doom of stress that is about to take over. As you scroll expecting to find entertainment, you see a video of one of the scientists who was part of the worldwide climate change protests after the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s news report. Instead of taking your mind off of exams, you find yourself even more stressed, wondering whether your passions are even worth pursuing if there is going to be no world in which you can experience the fruits of your hard work. Is it all pointless?
    • Self Splintering: Dissociative Identity Disorder

      Shah, Mansi; Martin, George; Bao, Zhuoran (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
      In the modern age of the Internet, it has become popular amongst users on social media websites, such as TikTok and Tumblr, to self-diagnose with different disorders. The most popular example of this is TikTok, where many who claim to be medical professionals or have a certain disorder say statements such as “Scientists say if you can’t see the illusion in this video, you have depression,” or “If you show XYZ trait, you have autism.” A disorder that is commonly brought up when talking about self-diagnosis is Dissociative Personality Disorder (DID), previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD). The name change occurred in 1994, due to learning new information about the disorder [1]. MPD implies that many personalities are in one person, while DID implies that one personality has been split into many parts.
    • Burning From The Inside Out: Life With Fibryomyalgia

      Shah, Mansi; Comly, Alex; Stockdale, Laura (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
      Comfort is a concept many people take for granted, until it suddenly vanishes. In everyday life, it is not the norm to recognize and appreciate the feeling of being comfortable. Nothing is more uncomfortable than being in pain. Every day, up to 67 million Americans experience the effects of chronic pain, showing that this suffering is an unending symptom that needs more understanding and concern [1]. Chronic pain is debilitating, defeating, and presents differently in each and every person affected by it. The wide variety of chronic pain makes diagnosis and treatment quite difficult. In many cases, this mind numbing pain comes from a neurological disease characterized by musculoskeletal pain known as fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia is a largely misunderstood and complex disorder that results in hyperalgesia, an increased sensitivity to pain meaning our brain and spinal cord process painful and nonpainful signals thus amplifying painful sensations. Other symptoms include fatigue, sleep disturbances, memory issues, and mood disorders [2]. The solution seems clear: to provide maximum comfort to someone suffering from chronic pain so that they may return to doing what they love. To accomplish this a personalized treatment plan must be established. For people diagnosed with fibromyalgia, comfort is seemingly unattainable without a perfect treatment plan. Unfortunately, the history of fibromyalgia pain management has not been so simple. For decades, many healthcare professionals have neglected to properly manage pain due to subjective beliefs, and some have gone even further by gaslighting patients by denying the existence of fibromyalgia [2]. Claims of chronic pain are reduced to symptoms of other problems, thus extending the pain and damage. The scientific community does not fully understand the mechanical complexities of chronic pain, but this does not mean that just because something is not understood, it can be denied existence. If fibromyalgia presentation vastly fluctuates among the people affected by it, then how are effective treatment plans devised to reduce pain and increase one’s quality-of-life?