Now showing items 21-40 of 6659

    • A case of peroneal neuropathy-induced footdrop. Correlated and compensatory lower-extremity function

      Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Ribiero, Carla E.; Lamm, Bradley M.; Denmark, James A.; Walters, Robert G.; Talbert, Todd; Penugonda, Sharada; Furmato, James A.; Brower, David J.; McMahon, John; Bhimji, Safta; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2000-09-01)
      This article reports on the case of a man with peroneal neuropathy-induced footdrop who was seen at the authors' institution 3 years after open reduction and internal fixation of a proximal fibular fracture and a distal, spiral, oblique tibial fracture of the right leg. A comprehensive gait analysis was conducted. A significant footdrop in gait resulted in a "reverse check mark" center-of-pressure pattern, an increased transverse-plane rotation of the foot, and excessive knee and hip flexion in the sagittal plane. These objective findings documented significant dysfunction within the involved lower extremity; in addition, aberrant biomechanics were observed in structures other than the site of initial injury within both limbs.
    • Lesser Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Arthrodesis

      Lamm, Bradley M.; Ribiero, Carla E.; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Fiorilli, Anthony; Bauer, Gary R.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2001-07-01)
      A retrospective study was performed to compare the prevalence of complications in peg-in-hole and end-to-end arthrodesis procedures. The authors reviewed 177 second, third, and fourth proximal interphalangeal joint fusions for the correction of hammer toe deformities in 85 patients from 1988 to 1998 at the Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine. The average age of the patients was 49 years. Sixteen percent (14) of the subjects were male and 84% were (71) female. Upon follow-up, the fourth digit was generally associated with a greater number of complications for the end-to-end and peg-in-hole procedures, with the second digit being the most common site of fusion. The prevalence of complications was evaluated using contingency table analysis and expressed as a percent of total complications (27%, the end-to-end group; 17%, the peg-in-hole group). A subset of complications deemed clinically relevant was also computed. Similarly, the prevalence of clinically relevant complications for the end-to-end (10%) and the peg-in-hole (9%) procedures was not statistically significant. Therefore, this study showed no statistically significant differences in the total or clinically relevant complications between end-to-end and the peg-in-hole arthrodesis procedures.
    • Peg-in-Hole, End-to-End, and V Arthrodesis: A Comparison of Digital Stabilization in Fresh Cadaveric Specimens

      Lamm, Bradley M.; Ribiero, Carla E.; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Bauer, Gary R.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2001-02-01)
      The proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis is frequently performed to correct hammer toe deformities. This study was conducted to compare the inherent stability of the three proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodeses—peg-in-hole, end-to-end, and V constructs—in the sagittal plane by means of load-to-failure testing of 30 fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens fixated with a 0.045 Kirschner wire. The peg-in-hole construct was associated with significantly higher peak loads at failure compared with the other two procedures. Furthermore, the peg-in-hole construct had significantly higher stiffness values as compared with the V procedure. This study thus provides evidence that the peg-in-hole procedure is the most biomechanically stable surgical construct for proximal interphalangeal joint fusions under sagittal plane loading.
    • Ustekinumab in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Lower Extremity Psoriasis: A case series

      Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Morrow, James M.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2012-11-01)
      People that endure moderate to severe plaque psoriasis regularly report social and personal discomforts that impair their quality of life. When topical therapy, phototherapy, and common oral medications such as methotrexate and cyclosporine have failed, targeted systemic therapies (biologics) have become increasingly more common. The purpose of this case series was to examine the use of Ustekinumab (Stelara™) for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis to the lower extremity. Four individuals (3 males, 1 female) ranging in age from 16 to 66 years with a prior history of ineffective conventional therapy for their lower extremity plaque psoriasis were selected for this study. After reviewing each patient’s medical history they received their first injections at the Temple University Foot and Ankle Institute during March-June 2010. Patient progress was based on the clinical PASI score (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index), which was calculated at each visit. After 16 weeks of treatment, clinical regression of moderate to severe lower extremity plaque psoriasis was noted in three of the four cases. At 52 weeks, it was noted in all four cases. Ustekinumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds with high specificity and affinity to the shared cytokine subunit p40 found in both IL-12 and IL-23. In turn, this decreases the differentiation of T-cells, an important phase in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. This protein selective targeting allows the physician increased mechanisms to combat plaque recalcitrant palmo-plantar psoriasis. More importantly, it provides the patient a new and proven means to control their own quality of life when other psoriatic treatments have failed. In this case series, ustekinumab injections show an effective method of controlling chronic and recalcitrant plantar psoriasis.
    • A Review of Cyanoacrylate Liquid Skin Protectant and Its Efficacy on Pedal Fissures

      Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Hinton, Elizabeth A.; Chakravarthy, Debashish; Fleck, Cynthia A.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2010-12-01)
      Introduction: Skin fissures are a common dermatologic condition caused by excessive dry skin, numerous systemic diseases, and backless shoe gear. They are defects in skin that fall into the category of damaged, partial-thickness skin wounds, as opposed to full-thickness wounds. Patients with heel fissures are at an increased risk for developing infection, which could cause more severe issues, especially in patients with diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. Methods: Five patients from Temple Foot and Ankle Institute, Philadelphia, PA, with a total of 8 heel fissures and 2 hallux fissures, were studied. Patients were dispensed 9 vials of a cyanoacrylate liquid skin protectant (Marathon™, Medline Industries, Inc, Mundelein, IL) to be applied to the fissure every 3 days. Patients returned every 2 weeks for follow-up in clinic. Results: The hallux fissures and 4 of the heel fissures went to complete closure after 2 weeks. There was an average decrease of 1.16 cm in length of the heel fissure dimensions after 2 weeks and an average decrease of 1.1 cm in length of the hallux fissures. Conclusion: This novel skin protectant proved to be a comfortable, easy, and effective tool in aiding the resolution of pedal skin fissures.
    • The Use of Marigold Therapy for Podiatric Skin Conditions

      Hadfield, Robert A.; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Khan, M. Tariq; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2008-07-01)
      Marigold therapy has been used for over 30 years in the United Kingdom and has been evaluated by numerous randomized double-blind placebo-controlled studies for various skin issues on the lower extremity. Various species of marigold are naturally anti-viral, keratolytic, and anti-inflammatory when applied topically to the affected area. Marigold therapy offers a non-invasive and gentle treatment for difficult to treat plantar verruca, painful hyperkeratotic lesions, and inflamed bursa secondary to hallux abducto valgus.
    • Injectable Botulinum Toxin as a Treatment for Plantar Hyperhidrosis

      Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Dunn, Patrick S.; Blau, Jill C.; Gauthier, Caroline; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2008-03-01)
      Hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive and uncontrollable sweating due to overactivity of the eccrine sweat glands. The first line of treatment for plantar hyperhidrosis consists of conservative therapies such as topical solutions (ie, antiperspirant applications and aluminum chloride preparations) and iontophoresis. When the patient has failed these standard treatments, the other available medical options are rather limited and not well tolerated. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox, Allergan Inc, Irvine, California) is a purified neurotoxin complex approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2004 for multiple medical conditions, including severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis that failed conservative topical therapies. Few recent clinical studies have suggested that botulinum toxin is effective in the treatment of plantar hyperhidrosis. In this case study, two patients received intradermal injections of botulinum toxin type A into the plantar aspect of both feet. A 3-month follow-up evaluated the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A by subjectively assessing the amount of residual sweating. In these two patients, botulinum toxin type A was an effective and safe treatment for plantar hyperhidrosis.
    • Pedal Kaposi’s Sarcoma as the first sign of HIV status: A case report

      Minhas, Sabrina; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2008-08-01)
      AIDS-Related Kaposi’s sarcoma is an uncommon occurrence of the foot. Two cases of solitary pedal KS are presented of patients who had not been previously diagnosed as HIV positive prior to biopsy. Once histopathology reports returned the diagnosis of Kaposi’s sarcoma, both patients received HIV tests and were found to be positive.
    • The Immunologic Response to Trichophyton Rubrum in Lower Extremity Fungal Infections

      Blutfield, Matthew S.; Lohre, Jenna M.; Pawich, Derek A.; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2015-07-17)
      Manifestations of Trichophyton rubrum infestations, such as tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis, are among the most common human skin diseases seen throughout the world. About 80% of patients presenting with acute dermatophytosis respond well to topical antifungal treatment. However, the remaining 20% of patients progress into a chronic state of dermatophytosis, which is resistant to antifungal treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to have a better understanding and appreciation for the diverse immune responses to Trichophyton as this is critical for the development of therapeutic strategies for those individuals who suffer from a chronic manifestation of Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) infection. As a result, a comprehensive literature review was conducted to review and discuss previous studies that evaluated the human body’s defense to T. rubrum infections and to understand why and how these fungal infections invade the host defense system. Our research revealed that a cell-mediated immune response is critical in defending the body against T. rubrum. However, this organism has mechanisms that enable it to evade the immune system. Therefore, a more successful treatment for chronic T. rubrum infection would involve targeting the mechanisms of T. rubrum that diminish the immune response, while restoring the cell-mediated immune response.
    • Environmental and Genetic Factors on the Development of Onychomycosis

      Adams, Cerise; Athanasoula, Evangelia; Lee, Woojung; Mahmudova, Nargiza; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2015-08-31)
      Since the early 20th century, onychomycosis originated with the onset of war, the use of occlusive footwear, and the mass migration of people by transportation in the United States. Even though onychomycosis has a high prevalence in the US, other parts of the world including Canada, West Africa, Southeast Asia, Northern Australia, and Europe have been well documented with cases of fungal toenail infection in their environments. Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is the major dermatophyte responsible for toenail fungal infection and is typically diagnosed in conjunction with tinea pedis, especially in individuals older than 60 years. Gender roles, age, cultural habits, shoe gear, sports activities, and genetic predisposition all contribute to the different presentation of onychomycosis in these areas where organisms like dermatophytes, candida, and molds were isolated in a variety of cases. Despite the differences in isolated pathogens, treatment outcomes remained consistent. This literature review discusses the influence of tinea pedis, genetics, shoe gear, sports, and age on the development of onychomycosis.
    • The use of a portable, wearable form of pulsed radio frequency electromagnetic energy device for the healing of recalcitrant ulcers: a case report

      Rawe, Ian M.; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2011-09-20)
      Pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) has successfully been used to treat diabetic and venous stasis ulcers. In this case report, a lightweight wearable form of a PFRE device was evaluated and used to treat three diabetic foot ulcers and one venous stasis ulcer. The ulcers were present on the four patients for more than 3 months and had failed to heal after conventional treatment. A lightweight battery-powered, wearable form of PRFE device was introduced as a treatment and used 6–8 hours per day for a period of 6 weeks. All patients after 1 week of therapy showed improvement and wound size was seen to decrease. Patient 1 had a venous stasis ulcer, and reported significant pain relief after 2 weeks treatment. Patients 2 and 3 achieved complete healing after 3 weeks treatment, and patients 1 and 4 had a 95% and 88% reduction in wound size, respectively, after the 6-week study period. Both these patients continued to complete healing using the PRFE device after the 6-week study period. PRFE treatment delivered in the form of a wearable lightweight patch appears to offer promise in the treatment of recalcitrant chronic wounds.
    • Idiopathic mixed small and medium vessel cutaneous vasculitis: A case report

      Wagoner, Matthew R.; Creech, Corine L.; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2014-03-31)
      Vasculitis is a rare, inflammatory condition of the blood vessels whereby excess leukocytes within the vessel leads to a loss of structural integrity, and possible destruction. This family of disorders can lead to varying degrees of organ and skin damage. Vasculitis may be due to primary disease or secondary due to an underlying disorder, drug reaction, or infection. In a large number of cases cutaneous vasculitis may present as an idiopathic condition and affect both small and medium sized vessels. We present a case of small and medium-vessel vasculitis on the lower extremity with cutaneous manifestations, without an identifiable cause.
    • Use of an external vibratory device as a pain management adjunct for injections to the foot and ankle

      Rundell, Joseph D.; Sebag, Joshua A.; Kihm, Carl A.; Herpen, Robert W.; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706; Rundell|0000-0003-2848-146X (2016-12-31)
      Objectives: Pain modulation through the combined effect of vibratory stimulation of Aβ mechanoreceptors and cold thermal stimuli has been demonstrated to reduce the pain associated with injections and IV cannulation. Although past reports have focused on its use on the upper extremity, there are no current studies to evaluate the efficacy of these combined modalities for lower extremity injections. The authors propose the combined use of vibratory stimulation with cold thermal stimulation will yield lower reported pain values associated with injection compared to cold thermal stimulation alone. Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, prospective clinical trial, 108 patients necessitated a lower extremity injection for the treatment of their presenting condition and was randomized into a treatment (vibration and cold spray) or control (cold spray only) groups. The primary outcome was pain, subjectively measured on a 10-point numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) by the patient. Pain was also ranked by an observing physician via the Wong-Baker Pain Faces Ranking Scale (WBPFRS). Results: Forty treatment subjects and 68 control subjects were included in this study. Pain scores were significantly lower in the treatment group receiving the vibratory device and the cold spray compared to the cold spray alone (NPRS mean values: Treatment: 3.39, Control: 4.46; p=0.022. WBPFRS mean values: Treatment: 2.29, Control: 4.05; p=0.030). Discussion: Utilizing a combination of cold spray with vibratory stimulation produced a statistically significant decrease in pain associated with lower extremity injections. Due to the relatively small size of our study, further investigation is needed to assess effect on specific injection site.
    • Diagnosis and Management of Onychomycosis: Perspectives from a Joint Podiatric Medicine–Dermatology Roundtable

      Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Joseph, Warren S.; Scher, Richard K.; Tosti, Antonella; Plasencia, Jesse; Pariser, David M.; Markinson, Bryan C.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2016-03-01)
      Onychomycosis is a fungal infection, and, as such, one of the goals of treatment should be eradication of the infective agent. Despite this, in contrast to dermatologists, many podiatric physicians do not include antifungals in their onychomycosis treatment plans. Before initiating treatment, confirmation of mycologic status via laboratory testing (eg, microscopy with potassium hydroxide preparation, histopathology with periodic acid–Schiff staining, fungal culture, and polymerase chain reaction) is important; however, more podiatric physicians rely solely on clinical signs than do dermatologists. These dissimilarities may be due, in part, to differences between specialties in training, reimbursement patterns, or practice orientation, and to explore these differences further, a joint podiatric medicine–dermatology roundtable was convened. In addition, treatment options have been limited owing to safety concerns with available oral antifungals and relatively low efficacy with previously available topical treatments. Recently approved topical treatments—efinaconzole and tavaborole—offer additional options for patients with mild-to-moderate disease. Debridement alone has no effect on mycologic status, and it is recommended that it be used in combination with an oral or topical antifungal. There is little to no clinical evidence to support the use of lasers or over-the-counter treatments for onychomycosis. After a patient has achieved cure (absence of clinical signs or absence of fungus with minimal clinical signs), lifestyle and hygiene measures, prophylactic/maintenance treatment, and proactive treatment for tinea pedis, including in family members, may help maintain this status.
    • Candida albicans Immunotherapy for Verrucae Plantaris

      Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Spadone, Samuel; Dunn, S. Patrick; Fussell, Tara; Hersh, Ian; Green, Tyson; Merrill, Jeff; Ghosh, Payel; Tran, Tran; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2015-09-01)
      Background: Verrucae plantaris is a viral disease caused by human papilloma virus that is commonly seen in the office setting and is often challenging to treat owing to its high recurrence rate and recalcitrant profile. Candida albicans intralesional injections have been hypothesized to incite an immunogenic response toward the virus. Methods: We report on the immunotherapeutic effect of intralesional injection of C albicans into plantar verrucae with a retrospective medical record analysis of 80 patients. Using a luer-lock syringe, 0.1 to 0.3 mL of C albicans antigen was injected into either the first known lesion or the largest lesion. Results: The success rate of intralesional C albicans, defined as total clearance of the lesion, was 65%, which may be underestimated because patients lost to follow-up were included in the 35% failure rate. It was also found that female patients with a previous tissue-destructive treatment process were more than four times more likely to respond to C albicans therapy, whereas this effect was less pronounced in the male patient population. Conclusions: These results indicate that a series of intralesional injections of C albicans is an effective and efficient method of treatment for verrucae plantaris.
    • Clinical Trial Designs for Topical Antifungal Treatments of Onychomycosis and Implications on Clinical Practice

      Rich, Phoebe; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Joseph, Warren S.; Zane, Lee T.; Hall, Steve B.; Gellings Lowe, Nicole; Adigun, Chris G.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2017-10)
      There currently are 3 topical agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat onychomycosis: tavaborole, efinaconazole, and ciclopirox. The phase 3 clinical trial designs for these treatments and their notable differences make it difficult for clinicians to interpret the data into clinical practice. For example, the primary end point predominantly used to assess efficacy in all the trials is complete cure, defined as no involvement of the nail plus mycologic cure; also, a notable number of patients fail to achieve a complete cure despite clear improvement in the nail. Despite close similarities in the end points and overall design of the clinical trials used for these agents, differences in design are notable, including the age range of participants, the range of mycotic nail involvement, the presence/absence of tinea pedis, and the nail trimming/debridement protocols used. The differences in clinical trial designs for the 3 FDA-approved topical agents and the lack of head-to-head studies makes efficacy interpretation and comparison inappropriate. This article reviews the phase 3 clinical trials that led to FDA approval of these agents, focusing on their similarities and differences.
    • Foot care in epidermolysis bullosa: evidence-based guideline

      Khan, Mohammed Tariq; O'Sullivan, M.; Faitli, B.; Mellerio, J. E.; Fawkes, R.; Wood, M.; Hubbard, L. D.; Harris, A. G.; Iacobaccio, L.; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; James, L.; Brains, L.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Mayre-Chilton, K.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2019-08-09)
      This guideline was designed to provide service providers and users with an evidence-based set of current best practice guidelines for people and their families and carers, living with epidermolysis bullosa (EB). A systematic literature review relating to the podiatric care of patients with EB was undertaken. Search terms were used, for which the most recent articles relating to podiatric treatment were identified from as early as 1979 to the present day, across seven electronic search engines: MEDLINE, Wiley Online Library, Google Scholar, Athens, ResearchGate, Net and The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodology was used. The first guideline draft was analysed and discussed by clinical experts, methodologists and patients and their representatives at four panel meetings. The resulting document went through an external review process by a panel of experts, other healthcare professionals, patient representatives and lay reviewers. The final document will be piloted in three different centres in the U.K. and Australia. Following an EB community international survey the outcomes indicated six main areas that the community indicated as a priority to foot management. These include blistering and wound management, exploring the most suitable footwear and hosiery for EB, management of dystrophic nails, hyperkeratosis (callus), maintaining mobility and fusion of toes (pseudosyndactyly). The evidence here is limited but several interventions currently practised by podiatrists show positive outcomes.
    • Perceptions Surrounding Onychomycosis in the Health Professions Student Population: The Disease, Treatments, and Quality of Life

      Martucci, John; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2020-11-11)
      Background: Discolored toenails is a common complaint presented to podiatric physicians, dermatologists, and primary-care physicians. Although various local and systemic conditions influence changes in nails, nearly 50% is due to fungal infections. We surveyed the health professions student population to gain insight into how future medical professionals may approach this condition and to explore perceptions of onychomycosis, treatments, and effects on quality of life. Methods: The primary outcome measure was a self-reported online Google Forms survey developed by the authors and sent to podiatric, allopathic, and osteopathic medical students and nursing students in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Results: Of the 245 respondents, 92% agreed that toenail fungus is both a health and a cosmetic concern. Seventy-seven percent of respondents said “yes” when asked if they would seek treatment, and 67% would wait 1 month to 1 year to see a medical professional. When seeking treatment, 57% reported that they would see a primary-care physician initially, and 27% and 5% would seek care from a podiatric physician or dermatologist, respectively. A total of 91% would spend up to $300 annually for treatment, with only 4% willing to spend more than $500 per year. Respondents' greatest concern would be physical appearance. Conclusions: Although agreement exists among the health professions students surveyed that toenail fungus presents both a cosmetic and a health concern, inconsistencies regarding time to treatment, treating professional, and effects on quality of life persist. It is not reasonable for all medical professionals to effectively recognize and treat nail disease, but it is paramount that patients are directed to medical professionals who can accurately exclude other conditions to alleviate social and financial burdens patients may face due to onychomycosis.
    • Addressing the Question of Dermatologic Manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Lower Extremities: A Closer Look at the Available Data and its Implications

      Basatneh, Rami; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2020-04-20)
      The first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, also known as the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in December of 2019 by doctors in Wuhan, China.(1) Since then, physicians have reported a peculiar sequelae for the novel coronavirus involving various manifestations and courses of the disease as well as a predilection for morbidity and mortality based on certain pre-existing conditions and age groups. Recently, there has been growing interest in anecdotal findings of skin manifestations by several healthcare providers who are postulating a possible correlation to COVID-19.
    • Perceptions of the Podiatric Medicine Profession: A Survey of Medical Students in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

      Miner, Samantha A.; Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Vlahovic|0000-0002-5310-4706 (2020-11-11)
      Background: Medical students (MSs) in allopathic and osteopathic medical programs may not be adequately exposed to the role of podiatric physicians and surgeons in health care. We explored perceptions of the specialty field of podiatric medicine from the perspective of MSs in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, area. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey study, responses regarding podiatric education and scope of practice were collected via a 16-question, self-reported, anonymous online survey distributed to MSs at one osteopathic and three allopathic medical schools in the Philadelphia area. Inferences and conclusions were drawn from the percentages of respondents. Statistical analyses for school of attendance, year of study, and physician relative subgroups were performed. Results: The 129 survey responses obtained revealed misunderstandings regarding podiatric education and training. Only 45.7% correctly answered that podiatric medical students do not take the United States Medical Licensing Examination. The results also showed the perception of podiatry in a positive light, with approximately 80% of respondents agreeing that the term doctor is applicable when referring to a podiatrist. Respondents with a physician relative were more likely to rate podiatry's role in health care higher on a scale from 0 (inessential) to 5 (equivalent to MDs/DOs) than those without a physician relative. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary survey were generally positive and optimistic while also identifying some misconceptions regarding MS perceptions of podiatric medical training and scope of practice. Further studies are needed to evaluate perceptions of podiatry from the perspective of other members of the health-care team to improve interprofessional relations and understanding.