Now showing items 1-20 of 9420

    • TMD and Exercise Therapy Scoping Review Search Strategy

      Crane, Patricia; Haddad, Alex; Eger, Courtney; Brintzenhoff, Jacob (2024-04-11)
      To identify studies to include or consider for this [review type] review, the review team worked with a librarian (JB, CE) to develop detailed search strategies for each database. The PRISMA-S extension was followed for search reporting. The librarian (JB, CE) developed the search for Pubmed and translated the search for every database searched. The Pubmed search strategy was reviewed by the research team to check for accuracy and term relevancy. All final searches were peer-reviewed by another librarian (Travis Nace) following the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS checklist).  The databases included in this search are [list of databases: PubMed (NLM), Embase (Elsevier), Web of Science (Clarivate), Cochrane Central (Cochrane Library), and Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source (EbscoHost) using a combination of keywords and subject headings. A grey literature search included a clinical trials registry (clinicaltrials.gov), TRIP Pro Database (https://www-tripdatabase-com), and MedRxiv (https://www.medrxiv.org/).   All final searches were performed on [April 9, 2024] by the librarian and were fully reported on [April 9, 2024]. The full search strategies as reported by the librarian are provided in Appendix(___).
    • Sociopolitical Influence and the Impact of Deterrence: An Examination of the ICC's Effectiveness in Preventing Global Human Rights Abuses

      Pollack, Mark A., 1966- (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      Imagine a world where perpetrators of repeated human rights abuses can escape justice and even sabotage the efforts of those who seek to hold them accountable. This is the reality that the International Criminal Court (ICC) faces in its mission to deter and prosecute international crimes. In this paper, I will argue that the ICC is largely ineffective in deterring human rights abuses by leaders abroad, based on descriptive qualitative studies of several cases involving Russia, Afghanistan, Libya, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Sudan, and Kenya, where political influence, among other related factors, undermined the court’s authority and legitimacy. My research question is as follows: How effective is the ICC in deterring international human rights abuses by leaders? I hypothesize that the ICC is mostly ineffective in deterring human rights abuses abroad, especially by political leaders, albeit with a few notable exceptions. Utilizing information from primary sources, such as the press comments of relevant politicians and firsthand news articles detailing the events, and secondary sources, such as court documents and journal articles, This paper argues that the ICC is not only circumvented, but frequently undermined by political influence. Renown executives, such as the George Bush administration in the U.S. or William Ruto in Kenya, were able to directly interfere with investigation efforts by witness tampering or manipulating legal loopholes. In these cases, innate vulnerabilities were exposed, showing the ICC can be rendered powerless against human rights abuses. A historical and theoretical study on these cases and the implication of their respective ICC interactions will be the leading basis of my paper.
    • Unpacking Social Impairment in those with Opioid Use Disorder: Linking Impulsivity, Childhood Trauma, and the Prefrontal Cortex

      Sinko, Laura (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      Background: Challenges with social functioning, which is a hallmark of opioid use disorder (OUD), are a drawback in treatment adherence and maintenance. Yet, little research has explored the underlying mechanisms of this impairment. Impulsivity, a known risk factor for OUD, and corresponding neural alterations may be at the center of this issue. Childhood adversity, which has been linked to both impulsivity and poorer treatment outcomes, could also affect this relationship. This study aims to understand the relationship between impulsivity and social functioning in those recovering from OUD. Differences in the prefrontal cortex will be analyzed, as well as potential moderating effects of childhood trauma. Methods: Participants with (N=16) and without (N=19) social impairment completed a survey (e.g., social functioning, Barrat’s Impulsivity Scale, Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and cognitive tasks while undergoing neuroimaging. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a modern, portable, and low-cost neuroimaging technology, was used to measure prefrontal cortex activity during a behavioral inhibition task (Go/No-Go task). Results: The socially impaired group (n=16) was significantly more impulsive (t(33)= -3.4, p< 0.01) and displayed more depressive symptoms (t(33) = -2.8, p <0.01) than those without social impairment (n=19). Social functioning was negatively correlated with impulsivity (r=-0.7, p<0.001), such that increased impulsivity corresponded to decreased social functioning. Childhood trauma emerged as a moderator of this relationship, but only when controlling for the effects of depression, B=-0.11, p=0.023. Although both groups had comparable Go/No-Go task performance, the socially impaired group displayed greater activation in the dorsolateral (F(1,100.8)=7.89, p<0.01), ventrolateral (F(1,88.8)= 7.33, p<0.01), and ventromedial (F(1,95.6)= 7.56, p<0.01) prefrontal cortex during impulse control. Conclusion: Beyond being more impulsive, individuals with social impairment exhibited differential activation in the prefrontal cortex when controlling responses. Furthermore, the impact of impulsivity on social functioning varies depending on ACEs demonstrating that it must considered in treatment approaches. These findings have implications for addressing social needs and impulsivity of those in recovery, highlighting the importance of a more personalized, integrative, and trauma-informed approach to intervention.
    • Swann's Way: Marcel Proust's Sanctuary of Remembrance

      Joshi, Priya (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      The following examination of the metaphors and memories that shape Swann’s Way utilizes context surrounding Proust’s aesthetic affinity for English writer John Ruskin, whose philosophical ideas he translated into French and diffused into his own oeuvre. The origins of Proust’s metaphors are understood further in their wider social function in the novel, which will be discussed alongside Marxist critic Walter Benjamin’s essay “The Image of Proust” that fully shapes this discussion as one of both the inner and outer spheres of experience that the novel is preoccupied with. Ultimately, Proust’s veneration for the value of a writer’s words – the artist’s capturing of an object, a person, an experience – surpassing the object itself is what defines his status within the modernist milieu. Proust posits an empiricist theory made fully literary as he reenacts the writer’s journey towards a fully realized artistic perception amidst the crowdedness of modernity, marking the social and interior selves as intertwined.
    • International Students’ Academic Challenges at American Colleges

      Rhee, Eunsook Ha (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      The United States of America is one of the most popular destinations for international students seeking higher education. The colleges attract a diverse group of students from different cultural backgrounds. The American learning culture is subject to many literal works and includes widely spread subtopics that can be considered. Other learning cultures that international students have brought from their countries cause academic challenges that might affect international students’ performances in class. Overwhelmed by the transition from accustomed international education systems to the American College system, a lot of students are confronted with challenges in their academic careers. Examining academic challenges is crucial in order to assist international students in overcoming these obstacles and enhancing their academic performance. This literature review focuses on the academic challenges that international students face at American colleges by examining what research has already been done and what needs to be improved when it comes to dealing with students of different origins. The key points of the literary sources are mostly connected to the language barrier as well as the diversity of academic cultures, which depict a challenge and can influence the student’s academic education negatively.
    • Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization: Gender Stereotypes and Assumptions in the Language of the Supreme Court.

      Pollitt, Jennifer (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      Through a textual analysis of Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, this project seeks to better understand and compare the language used by the Supreme Court in the majority and dissenting opinions through a lens of gender and sexuality. To better understand the biases that influence the Supreme Court, this study was conducted through a textual analysis of both the majority and dissenting opinions in Dobbs. The analysis identifies differences in the language used in the majority and dissenting opinions.
    • Complex Resonance: Complementary Contrast in the Works of Mitchell/Giurgola and Venturi Scott Brown and Associates

      Meninato, Paul (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      Precursors to the Modern movement in the vein of styles such as Neo-Classicism arguably set conventions, or at least assimilated standards, for which architecture was designed in much of the western world prior to the industrial revolution. Despite these developments, the implications of industrialization and the scientific-technological advancements made in the 19th and early 20th centuries ultimately culminated in an unprecedented wave of homogeneity in architecture. The epitome of canonical Modernism—the International style—characterized by stripped, light-weight, planar forms which promoted the interior free-plan, was envisioned and promoted most famously in the likes of designers such as Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and Mies van der Rohe. This style rose to prominence precisely because such practitioners looked to these developments as capable of liberating architecture from the hindrances of tradition. The universality of this kind of architecture was evident in the sense that aspects of the movement had spread beyond Europe and America in one way or another before the outbreak of World War II.
    • Tweeting Conventions: Political journalists' use of Twitter to cover the 2012 presidential campaign

      Lawrence, Regina G.; Molyneux, Logan; Coddington, Mark; Holton, Avery; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2013-09-20)
      This study explores the use of Twitter by political reporters and commentators—an understudied population within the rapidly growing literature on digital journalism—covering the 2012 Republican and Democratic conventions. In particular, we want to know if and how the “affordances” of Twitter are shaping the traditional norms and routines of US campaign reporting surrounding objectivity, transparency, gatekeeping, and horse race coverage, and whether Twitter is bursting the “bubble” of insider talk among reporters and the campaigns they cover. A sample derived from all tweets by over 400 political journalists reveals a significant amount of opinion expression in reporters' tweets, but little use of Twitter in ways that improve transparency or disrupt journalists' (and campaigns') role as gatekeepers of campaign news. Overall, particularly when looking at what political journalists retweet and what they link to via Twitter, the campaign “bubble” seems at the moment to have remained largely intact.
    • US Political Journalists' Use of Twitter Lessons from 2012 and a Look Ahead

      Molyneux, Logan; Mourão, Rachel R.; Coddington, Mark; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2016-09-15)
    • Making Sources Visible: Representation of Evidence in News Texts, 2007–2019

      Coddington, Mark; Molyneux, Logan; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2021-07-05)
      Journalistic work is shifting toward more aggregative and intertextual forms, using published sources more often within their news routines and stories. This study examines that shift through the lens of evidence. It applies the concepts of evidentiary distance and ancillary evidence — that is, evidence about evidence — to news texts to explore their originality and transparency, and it approaches those texts as central sites in which journalists outline the basis for their knowledge claims and make the case for their epistemic authority. A content analysis of news texts from newspapers and digital newsrooms in 2007, 2013, and 2019 shows firsthand evidence is rarely presented. Non-mediated attributed speech is by far the evidence most often presented, but it has become less common over time, with corresponding increases in mediated speech and thirdhand evidence. Ancillary evidence describing evidentiary sources or evidence-gathering processes is also fairly rare. Results suggest that evidence in news stories is becoming intertextual but remains rather opaque, with digital and legacy news organizations becoming more similar over time.
    • “Let’s Not Tank the Reputation of This Organization.” How Newsroom Social Media Policies Exacerbate Journalism’s Labor Crisis

      Molyneux, Logan; Nelson, Jacob L.; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2023-09-27)
      This study explores the tension between journalists’ personal social media accounts and newsroom social media policies to understand how newsroom managers exacerbate journalism’s labor crisis by de-professionalizing the field through restrictive policies. To analyze this tension, we conduct a critical discourse analysis of (1) managerial discourses collected from newsroom social media policies and scholarly literature and (2) journalistic discourses collected from in-depth interviews with 37 U.S. journalists. We find that newsroom social media policies require journalists to make four sacrifices in service of their organization’s reputation: individuality, opinion, voice, and privacy. This leaves journalists feeling frustrated by their lack of agency when it comes to engaging with the public and pursuing social media success. We conclude that this conflict contributes to journalism’s human resources crisis by limiting journalistic professionalism and autonomy, both of which are crucial for job satisfaction and journalism’s democratic mission.
    • When Sources Contradict: The Epistemological Functions of Contradiction in News Texts

      Coddington, Mark; Molyneux, Logan; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2023-05-17)
      Contradiction is a defining characteristic of contemporary journalism, despite the risks it carries of raising uncertainty among audiences. Scholars and observers alike have called for journalists to embrace an epistemological stance rooted in adjudication of competing claims, but studies suggest journalists can only rarely perform this service. What, then, is the epistemological role of contradictions in journalism? This study employs quantitative and qualitative analysis of news texts over a 12-year span to explore tensions in journalistic norms that shape the presentation of contradictions. Findings suggest contradictions are infrequently presented in news texts and are usually between sources on equal footing. In the rare cases journalists themselves contradict their sources, these contradictions are neither explicit nor forceful. Many contradictions revolve around questions of interpretation.
    • How Newsroom Social Media Policies Can Improve Journalists' Well-Being

      Molyneux, Logan; Nelson, Jacob L.; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2023-11-13)
      This chapter draws on a discourse analysis of newsroom social media policies, and in-depth interviews with journalists focused on their reactions to the social media policies within the newsrooms in which they have worked, and their recommendations for how those policies should be improved.
    • From Thinking to Doing: Effects of Different Social Norms on Ethical Behavior in Journalism

      Lee, Angela M.; Coleman, Renita; Molyneux, Logan; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2016-05-02)
      Journalists have been shown to be highly capable of making good moral decisions, but they do not always act as ethically as studies show them to be able. Using the Reasoned Action Model, this study explores the gap between moral motivation and moral behavior and tests the proposition that different social norms can help predict how journalists behave across three ethical and three unethical behaviors (N=374). The study found that descriptive norms predicted ethical behaviors and that injunctive norms predicted unethical behaviors. Descriptive norms also accounted for more variance in journalists’ ethical behavior (48%) than injunctive norms did on unethical behavior (28%). The findings advance the Four-Component Model in significantly improving moral behavior predictability and offer a new way to assess journalists’ moral reasoning.
    • Legitimating a platform: evidence of journalists’ role in transferring authority to Twitter

      Molyneux, Logan; McGregor, Shannon C.; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2021-01-31)
      Studies suggest a growing interdependence between journalists and Twitter. What is behind this interdependence, and how does it manifest in news texts? We argue that social media platforms (and Twitter in particular) have situated themselves as purveyors of legitimated content, a projection that journalists have not fully challenged and at times abetted. Instead, journalists rely on these platforms both for access to powerful users and as conduits to surface the words of ‘ordinary people.’ This practice treats tweets more like content, an interchangeable building block of news, than like sources, whose ideas and messages must be verified. Using a corpus of U.S. news stories with tweets in them, we provide empirical evidence for our argument of the power of platforms to legitimate speech and shape journalism. This study illuminates journalists’ role in transferring some of the press’s authority to Twitter, thereby shaping the participants in and content of public deliberation.
    • Disordered Displays of Emotions: An Exploration of Pseudobulbar Affect

      Shah, Mansi; Hulikal, Disha; Sigler, Danni (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
      For many of us, our emotional responses to situations seem to almost follow a universal script. Different scenarios generally tend to elicit different emotional outputs based on the affective tone of the scenario itself to the severity of its emotional quality. When we recount a mildly funny situation to a coworker by the water-cooler, we expect them to politely chuckle for a brief moment. Meanwhile, while watching comedy specials of our favorite comedians, we would predictably allow ourselves to let out gut-busting laughs complete with a touch of knee-slapping and a single happy tear. Spilling coffee on a favorite shirt would not draw out anything more than a frown, but news of the sudden death of a loved one may send us into a sustained, hysterical, body-racking cry. These are the emotional norms we follow both implicitly and deliberately. ‘X’ emotional stimulus outputs ‘y’ emotional response, in which ‘y’ is both mood-congruent and lasts for an appropriate duration of time. However, in some people with a rare neurological condition called Pseudobulbar Affect (PBA), something in this system gets disrupted. The bout of laughter that you and I would let out in response to a well-crafted stand-up joke may be elicited by a PBA patient even if they were not provoked. While I might feel a twinge of displeasure if I receive harsh feedback from an editor on this article, someone with PBA would probably exhibit a prolonged cry to something of a similar negative valence. This article explores the symptoms, underlying pathophysiology, and proposed treatment of Pseudobulbar Affect, a neurological condition marked by episodes of sudden, uncontrollable, mood-incongruent and inappropriate crying and / or laughing.
    • Beyond the Neuron: Myelination’s Role in Disorder and Disease

      Shah, Mansi; Silva, Margaret; Kumar, Gauri (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
    • Developments in Psychological Therapies for the Treatment of Chronic Pain

      Shah, Mansi; Martin, Georgia; Shoenberger, Taylor (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
      What is pain? Is it physical or psychological? Why do we experience pain? These are some of the common questions that scientists and clinicians ask themselves to be better able to assist patients dealing with chronic pain. Pain is a signal in your nervous system that tells your body that something is wrong [1]. The external feeling of pain can differ depending on many factors, but it will usually be some type of prick, tingle, sting, burn, or ache [1]. It is true that not all pain is the same. Generally, it is categorized into two types–chronic and acute pain. Chronic pain is defined as pain that lasts for longer than three months and occurs in a specific location in the body [2]. It can be divided into two categories: nociceptive, which is caused by tissue damage, or neuropathic, which is caused by damage to the peripheral or central nervous system [2]. The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord while the peripheral nervous system is composed of the nerves that extend throughout the body. Arthritis, an inflammatory joint disease, is one such example of nociceptive pain since it involves the destruction of tissues; multiple sclerosis, a chronic illness affecting the brain, is an example of neuropathic pain since it affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves [3]. In comparison, acute pain is pain that occurs immediately after the pain response is received, and is typically very severe. If acute pain lasts longer than a given recovery period, it may become chronic pain [4]. This will usually occur if the injury or trauma that caused acute pain is not treated properly [4]. When chronic pain occurs, there is an obvious physical burden on an individual, and their day-to-day life is immensely impacted in a variety of ways. However, chronic pain is not simply a physical burden–chronic pain conditions have been found to be in the top 10 leading causes of disability across the world [5].Thus, most, if not all, chronic pain conditions are a contributing factor to unemployment rates [6]. Additionally, different pain and research groups evaluated the risk for suicide in those with different chronic pain disorders, and it was found that they were at a higher risk [7]. Specifically, pain-related depression and migraines were at the highest risk for a suicide attempt [7]. Overall, chronic pain has an impact on many aspects of an individual's life and well-being. Despite the dire need to find solutions for chronic pain, pain research only receives approximately 1-2% of the NIH funding [8]. In general, the treatment of chronic pain has been a matter of controversy in many research and clinical settings for years. Because of the complicated neurological pathways behind pain, many treatments, such as opioids, are ineffective and result in addiction. Recently, however, chronic pain has begun to be addressed through psychotherapies, drugs outside of opioids, and virtual reality technology.
    • Neuralink Brings a Saving Light to Neural Care

      Shah, Mansi; Comly, Alex; Sigler, Danni (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
      Recent technological development is creating the possibility for individuals with disabilities and neural diseases to hopefully regain some control over their lives. Improvement in Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI’s) might allow the brain and a computer to communicate directly with each other. The most simple of these methods is an EEG (Electroencephalogram), during which electrodes (conductors that measure electrical activity) are placed on the scalp to allow researchers to read brain activity. However, our skulls block many electronic signals and distort the small amount of data that gets through [1]. Scientists can obtain much more detail when they can place these electrodes directly on the brain. This internal placement, although more invasive, opens a world of opportunities to scientists. Since the electrodes can communicate directly with a computer, this allows a blend between man and machine in a way that seems right out of a sci-fi movie. For those with paralysis, this could mean changing the channels on a TV with the mind, sending emails with just a thought, or being able to use a paralyzed part of the body once again. These kinds of changes can revolutionize medical treatment for immediate issues like Parkinson’s disease, neural issues from depression and anxiety, dementia, and paralysis. One company, Neuralink, is at the front line of this technology and is paving the way for its use in the medical field.
    • Florence Syndrome: Beautiful Madness

      Shah, Mansi; Barrone, Alex; Becker, Claire (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
      The elegant Italian clock strikes noon. You are standing in the middle of the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, embraced by the grandeur of time itself. Vibrant Florence fades away into the comfort of tabula rasa (1). The skylight in the intricate, ornate dome above your head serves you a gulp of fresh air. An echo of euphoria expands in your chest: you are free. All will come, but it does not matter because you are alive and you ride the time. Suddenly, the sunlight seeping through the skylight starts getting thick. The weight of time crushes your shoulders. The lace of holy hands towering over you from the paintings on the ceiling circulate in their ritual against you. Are you a sacrificial lamb? The dome closes in around you as you struggle to catch your breath. You are falling and darkness follows you. The narrative described above demonstrates how positive emotions can take negative dimensions based on the point of view. Although intense positive experiences, such as those associated with sightseeing, are frequently overlooked as potential triggers for psychological disturbances, Florence Syndrome presents distinct cognitive and behavioral patterns in which fascination with art leads to a psychosomatic disorder. Florence Syndrome is a maladaptive response to the exposure to recognized objects of artistic value that manifests as a range of symptoms comorbid in anxiety and affective disorders. This article will investigate the nature of Florence Syndrome from a clinical and cultural perspective.