Now showing items 1-20 of 6598

    • Search Strategies for Systematic Review of Ear Disease & Ear Abnormalities

      Roth, Stephanie; Sulibhavi, Anita (2021-01-21)
      To identify studies to include or consider for this systematic review, the review team worked with a medical librarian to develop detailed search strategies for each database. The search resulted in 15,188 studies (281 from grey literature sources). 2,165 duplicate studies were found and omitted using Endnote 20 for the deduplication of records and 13,023 references were eligible to screen. Studies were screened by title and abstract by two blinded and independent reviewers. If a tiebreaker was needed, a third reviewer was called in. This process was repeated for full text article screening and article selection.
    • Peer Support IDD Scoping Review Search

      Roth, Stephanie; Pfeiffer, Beth; Weiss, K. Eva; Aleong, Shawn; Karp, Laura (2022-01-21)
      To identify studies to include or consider for this systematic review, the review team worked with a medical librarian to develop detailed search strategies for each database. The search resulted in 1,986 studies (210 from grey literature sources). 279 duplicate studies were found and omitted using Endnote 20 for the deduplication of records and 1,707 references were eligible to screen. Studies were screened by title and abstract by two blinded and independent reviewers. If a tiebreaker was needed, a third reviewer was called in. This process was repeated for full text article screening and article selection.
    • Syllabus: Research Methods, AOD 2201 (Spring 2022)

      Winfield, Jake; Winfield|0000-0001-6181-8664 (2022-01)
    • 3D Printed Arteries: Making Cardiovascular Anatomy Tangible & Accessible

      Perilli, Nicholas (2021-12-01)
      With accessible 3D printed models of a patient’s coronary arteries, makerspace librarians assisted cardiovascular fellows in understanding coronary fluoroscopic anatomy and improved accessibility to such teaching aids.
    • Unprotected peptide macrocyclization and stapling via a fluorine-thiol displacement reaction

      Islam, Md Shafiqul; Junod, Samuel L.; Zhang, Si; Buuh, Zakey Yusuf; Guan, Yifu; Zhao, Mi; Kaneria, Kishan H.; Kafley, Parmila; Cohen, Carson; Maloney, Robert; Lyu, Zhigang; Voelz, Vincent A.; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Rongsheng; Wang|0000-0002-5749-7447 (2022-01-17)
      We report the discovery of a facile peptide macrocyclization and stapling strategy based on a fluorine thiol displacement reaction (FTDR), which renders a class of peptide analogues with enhanced stability, affinity, cellular uptake, and inhibition of cancer cells. This approach enabled selective modification of the orthogonal fluoroacetamide side chains in unprotected peptides in the presence of intrinsic cysteines. The identified benzenedimethanethiol linker greatly promoted the alpha helicity of a variety of peptide substrates, as corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations. The cellular uptake of benzenedimethanethiol stapled peptides appeared to be universally enhanced compared to the classic ring-closing metathesis (RCM) stapled peptides. Pilot mechanism studies suggested that the uptake of FTDR-stapled peptides may involve multiple endocytosis pathways in a distinct pattern in comparison to peptides stapled by RCM. Consistent with the improved cell permeability, the FTDR-stapled lead Axin and p53 peptide analogues demonstrated enhanced inhibition of cancer cells over the RCM-stapled analogues and the unstapled peptides.
    • Game-Based Design for Inclusive and Accessible Digital Exhibits

      Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) (2020)
    • The Third Library and the Commons

      Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) (2020)
      The idea of the “commons” is often invoked in discussions of the academic library’s future, but these references are usually vague and rhetorical. What exactly does it mean for the library to be organized as a commons, and what might such a library look like? Does the concept of the commons offer a useful lens for identifying the library’s injustices or shortcomings? How might we draw on the concept of the commons to see beyond the horizon of the contemporary library, toward a “Third Library” that truly advances decolonial and democratic ends? This essay engages with such questions and explores how the constituent elements of the academic library—its knowledge assets, its workers, and its physical spaces—might be reoriented toward the commons. It argues that such an orientation might facilitate the emergence of a Third Library that is able to organize resistance to contemporary capitalism’s impetus toward the privatization and enclosure of knowledge, and to help recover a democratic conception of knowledge as a public good.
    • EXPLORING FORMER NCAA DIVISION I WOMEN SOCCER PLAYERS’ TRANSITION: COLLEGE TO CAREER

      Johnson, Jennifer; Levine Laufgraben, Jodi; Taylor, Elizabeth; Jordan, Jeremy (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I women student-athletes are high-level athletes who experience the traditional demands of job-hunting, interviewing, and the range of emotions experienced by college students transitioning from postsecondary education into the workforce. In addition, they have unique experiences related to their collegiate playing careers ending and being women in the workplace. Guided by Nancy Schlossberg’s (1981) Model for Analyzing Human Adaptation to Transition, this qualitative study explored eight former NCAA Division I women soccer players’ perceptions about the transition to the workforce. The focus was on the student-athletes’ psychosocial and institutional influences related to the career transition process. Five themes emerged from the interviews: 1) institutional career support, 2) transferable skills, 3) career connections, 4) moving on, and 5) advice from former student-athletes. All the participants had a positive experience being a collegiate student-athlete, but still, they felt a lack of support and resources provided to them to aid with the career transition from their coaches, athletic department, and university. The participants acknowledged that internship experiences contributed to a positive transition into the workforce but expressed challenges completing an internship opportunity due to the time demands associated with being a student-athlete. The respondents also expressed other challenges with transitioning from being a student-athlete to a young professional, but all collectively used their families, friends, and teammates for support during the transition. The former student-athletes also unanimously believed they acquired several skills such as time management, conflict management, and discipline from being student-athletes that helped them have a more successful transition. Each participant provided advice to current student-athletes and recommendations to athletic programs, coaches, and administrators about the career transition process for student-athletes.
    • RESPONSE OF UiO METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS TO THERMAL PERTURBATIONS AND MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS

      Borguet, Eric; Willets, Katherine; Matsika, Spiridoula; Xu, Wenqian (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Chemical weapon attacks are a persistent and evolving global threat requiring novel mitigation and defense strategies. Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are amenable for a wide-range of protective applications against hazardous chemical agents, including chemical warfare agents (CWAs), given their highly tunable chemical and structural architecture. The zirconium-based UiO MOFs, in particular, offer a high degree of chemical, structural and thermal stability making them ideal candidates for filtration and decontamination applications. In this dissertation, a combination of in situ Temperature-Programmed Infrared (TP-IR) spectroscopy and Temperature-Programmed Desorption Mass Spectrometry (TPD-MS) are applied to understand the uptake, transport and desorption interactions of the nerve agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and complementary benign, potential alternative simulants, including acetone, isopropanol and n-heptane. The use of CWA simulants provides detailed information on the structure-activity relationship of live CWA agents and MOFs, while minimizing the consequences of accidental exposure. To understand temperature-dependent MOF-analyte interactions, the intrinsic thermal response of UiO MOFs is investigated revealing negative thermal expansion using a combination of TP-IR, TPD-MS and synchrotron X-ray Diffraction for UiO-67 MOFs. Ultimately, this multi-technique approach enables a fundamental understanding of CWA simulant interactions with single component MOFs and informs the rational design of superior sorbent materials with diverse functionality capable of selectively capturing, transporting and degrading hazardous chemicals.
    • BIOENGINEERING APPROACHES FOR IMPROVED DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED RETINAL TISSUES FROM PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS

      Wang, Karin; Lelkes, Peter I; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A; Freer, Seema (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Sight is the most powerful of all human senses. For the vast majority of people on Earth, the loss of that sense would be unimaginable. Without assistive technology, it would separate them from their ability to work, their ability to travel, and their ability to interact with their loved ones. And yet, this extraordinary process, carefully refined by billions of years of evolution, is threatened for millions of people all over the world from a wide array of diseases of the retina. Many of these diseases arise from malnutrition and infection and are being rapidly eradicated. However, many dozens more result from convoluted permutations of genetics, age, and diet that threaten blindness for millions more with little hope of treatment, even with the best of modern medicine. As our life expectancies extend and our population ages, these diseases will only become more prevalent. In humanity’s ever-present pursuit of medicine and knowledge to improve our quality of life, cutting-edge treatments offer promise that one day soon, even these diseases may be eradicated. One key technology capable of treating these devastating illnesses, on the precipice of being translated to real-world clinical treatments, is pluripotent stem cell-derived therapies. Patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, meaning pluripotent stem cells sourced directly from the patient, have a wealth of applications ranging from drug identification to disease modeling to implantation and regeneration. This research has been developed and advanced remarkably in the approximately two decades since the early isolation of pluripotent stem cells. Naturally, this advancement has predominantly been focused on cell and molecular biology. However, this focus has left significant research questions to be answered from engineering perspectives across a wide latitude of sub-disciplines. This dissertation explores three independent avenues of engineering principles as they relate to improving 2D and 3D retinal tissues derived from pluripotent stem cells in materials, devices, and computation. The first aim explores how plant protein-based nanofibrous scaffolds can marry the advantages and minimize the disadvantages of synthetic and animal-derived scaffolds for the culture of 2D retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) constructs. The second aim describes the development and testing of a novel, perfusing rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor to support culture of 3D retinal organoids. Finally, the third aim performs a meta-analysis of published RNA-Seq datasets to determine the precise mechanisms by which bioreactors support organoid growth and extrapolate how these conclusions can support future experiments.
    • The Medicine Cabinet

      Jones, Nora L (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      In the city of Philadelphia there were over 4,000 opioid over-doses in 2018. There were many lives affected by over-prescribed medication and the dire need to have better policies and practices in place when delivering care is crucial. Better practices lead to shorter hospital stays, fewer readmissions and is cost efficient to all involved. Prescribed medications need to be better evaluated prior to dispensing for a non-acute pain. It is the pharmaceutical companies and healthcare provider’s obligation to be more educated when delivering care for the community that it serves. It is imperative to build better relationships between patients, physicians, and community leaders to alleviate this current opioid epidemic. The concerns within our current health care system are based on biased beliefs. These beliefs can lead to barriers of healthcare and give inadequate care for those who deserves the best quality of healthcare.
    • A MULTIPROXY APPROACH TO INTERPRETING ARIDITY ACROSS THE EOCENE-OLIGOCENE TRANSITION OF THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS (WHITE RIVER GROUP), NORTH AMERICA

      Terry, Dennis O; Grandstaff, David E; Chemtob, Steven M; Hren, Michael T (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      ABSTRACT The White River Group (WRG) represents consistent alluvial to eolian deposition across the North American Great Plains region during the late Eocene and early Oligocene, creating one of the most complete terrestrial records of the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT). The WRG is an archive of paleosols and biogeochemical signals, including vertebrate fossils and plant-derived organic compounds, that provide useful paleoclimate proxies. Contextualizing these proxies with newly dated tuffaceous ash beds allows for a high-resolution climate reconstruction that can be correlated to other terrestrial sections and the marine record. This study combines paleosol derived climate proxies with leaf wax n-alkanes and magnetic susceptibility to create a multi-proxy record related to aridity during the EOT. Paleosol and leaf wax analyses suggest that a stable subhumid environment, dominated by forested landscapes, was consistently present until the onset the EOT-1. During this time, n-alkane average chain length ranges from 29.29-29.92 and suggest minimal input from grasses. Between 35.224 - 33.939 Ma, a decrease in ACLs is concurrent with increased mean annual temperature and precipitation, negating previous assertions of prolonged late Eocene climate degradation. An abrupt 550.29 ± 147 mm drop in MAP is coincident with the EOT-1. This is the first terrestrial EOT study in the Great Plains region to produce a drop in MAP associated with the EOT that falls outside the statistical margin of error. In the earliest Oligocene, increased ACLs suggest a transition to grass-like landscapes. A change in landscape vegetation is supported by paleosol characteristics that suggest a shift to mollisols, including dense drab halo root traces and phosphorus trends that indicate mollic epipedons. CIA-K of B-horizons also indicate an abrupt shift from alfisols to mollisol across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. MS is strongly correlated with MAP in the late Eocene and shows the potential for a regionally specific transform function for estimating precipitation when MAP is > 700 mm/yr. Additionally, this study demonstrates that accurate interpretation of leaf wax n-alkanes relies on understanding the original n-alkane position within the paleosol profile and the impact of depositional events on plant succession. The negligible drop in MAT from the paleosol proxies in this study do not support the findings of Zanazzi et al. (2007). However, this study closely agrees with Boardman and Secord (2013), which does not show any meaningful decrease in δO18 from fossil tooth enamel. Boardman and Secord (2013) also interpret a shift towards open biomes and reduced “wetter habitats,” which is consistent with the shift away from Alfisols in the Eocene, to inceptisols and mollisols in the early Oligocene as described in this study.
    • THE BAND AIDE OF THE BROKEN HEART: THE IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES OF CORTICAL BONE DERIVED STEM CELLS POST ISCHEMIC INJURY

      Mohsin, Sadia; Koch, Walter J; Kishore, Raj; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Lavine, Kory J (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The inflammatory response mounted following Myocardial Infarction (MI) is closely coupled to myocardial wound healing. Recent reports have identified a consortium of T-regulatory cells (Tregs) that contain tissue specific regulatory signatures that modulate the homeostasis of the peripheral tissues they populate during times of challenge, with one of these populations occupying the heart following ischemic injury. Unfortunately, the identification of therapeutic modulators that can harness the expansion or preservation of tissue specific Tregs have yet to be identified. Cortical Bone Derived Stem Cells (CBSCs) can engraft in the MI heart long enough to modulate the inflammatory microenvironment of the infarcted heart, making CBSCs an ideal therapeutic to modulate Treg localization and function. Intramyocardial injection of CBSCs into the MI heart expanded pro-reparative TNFRII+ Treg residence in the MI heart during acute (1 week) and chronic (8 weeks) stages of ischemic injury. This pro-reparative Treg cell signature was also observed systemically in the splenic tissue. The ablation of Tregs in a FoxP3DTR transgenic animals model via diphtheria toxin administration or the administration of FTY720 to block Treg localization to the MI heart solicited infarct size expansion and compromised cardiac function. Paracrine profiling of CBSC secretome identified that CBSCs are enrichened in Osteoprotegrin (OPG), a TNFR decoy receptor. The depletion of OPG from CBSC secretome can compromised TNFRII Treg induction (in vitro) and localization in the ischemic heart following MI. CBSCs directly modulate post-MI cardiac inflammation via the direct modulation of Treg phenotype during acute and chronic stages of ischemic injury.
    • Economic Shocks and Financial Vulnerability

      Collier, Benjamin; Grace, Martin; Shi, Tianxiang; Jerch, Rhiannon (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This three-chapter dissertation explores firms' responses to financial shocks in three settings: severe climate events, market crash, and unexpected loss shocks. The first chapter examines how severe climate events affect small business financing outcomes and how they use credit to finance losses, using Hurricane Harvey as my setting. By using the credit reports data of 8,219 small businesses in the Harvey affected area, I estimate a treatment intensity difference-in-differences model where flooding at a firm’s location is the measure of treatment. I find that Harvey-related flooding increased credit delinquencies, especially short-term delinquencies approximately one year after Hurricane Harvey. Delinquencies also increased among firms in the disaster area whose properties were not flooded, suggesting spillover effects from flooded areas. I also find that firms without existing debt took on debt following Harvey. Firms with existing debt lowered loan balances while applying for new credit. The second chapter considers the funding challenges facing multiemployer defined benefit pension plans. I first explore whether the current funding rules have unintended consequences -- triggering employer withdrawals. The Pension Protection Act of 2006 requires that a multiemployer pension plan with an actuarial funded percentage of less than 80% must take corrective actions to improve financial health. In this paper, a regression discontinuity design is used to establish the causal effect of funding rule requirements on employer withdrawals from multiemployer pension plans. I find that multiemployer pension plans subject to funding rule requirements are about 14 percentage points more likely to experience employer withdrawals. Next, I investigate whether employer withdrawals exacerbate the funding challenges of multiemployer pension plans. Using an event study methodology, I find that plans with ex-ante employer withdrawal experiences are more vulnerable to financial shocks such as the 2008 financial crisis. This study provides important policy implications for regulators concerning best practices to build pension plan resilience to insolvency events. The third chapter investigates how rivals' loss shocks affect a firm's pricing decisions. I develop a simple theoretical model and predict that a firm's relative financial position matters. Unaffected firms may benefit from rivals' loss shocks by charging a higher price. I empirically examine the relationship in the setting of the U.S. property/casualty insurance industry. I find that insurers who only write personal lines outperform their adversely affected rivals and charge a higher price following rivals' commercial-line loss shocks. The competitive effects of loss shocks are more pronounced in states where rate regulation is not stringent.
    • Normal is a Cycle on a Washing Machine: The U.S. Army Asymmetric Warfare Group

      Urwin, Gregory J. W.; Lockenour, Jay B.; McPherson, Alan; Schlosser, Nicholas J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This dissertation presents the U.S. Army Asymmetric Warfare Group (AWG) as an example of that service implementing successful change in wartime. It argues that creating the AWG required senior leaders to adopt a vision differing from the Army’s self-conceptualization, change bureaucratic processes to permit that vision to produce an actual military unit, and then place the new unit in the hands of uniquely qualified leaders able to build and sustain it. In the process, the dissertation will consider forces that influence change within the Army, arguing that the two most significant are its self-conceptualization and institutional bureaucracy. Only determined senior leaders can overcome these barriers, and then only by deep personal engagement. Such engagement extends to manipulating the bureaucracy by placing like-minded subordinates in positions where they can sustain the tenets of change long after the visionaries retire. The dissertation also posits effective leadership as critical to building and sustaining organizations able to consistently meet their founders’ vision. To effectively tell the story, the dissertation explores three major subject areas that provide historical context. The first is the Army’s institutional history from the early 1950s through 2001. This period begins with the Army seeking to validate its place in America’s national security strategy and ends with the Army trying to chart a path into the post-Cold War future. That section includes the major bureaucratic changes brought about by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in the early 1960s as these changes created processes the service still uses. It also addresses the Army’s post-Vietnam War focus on re-establishing itself as a technologically sophisticated force optimized to defeat similar opponents. This dissertation also looks at several episodes further in the past. Prior to World War I, the Army’s history is largely one of asymmetric warfare. The dissertation thus examines several campaigns that offered lessons for subsequent wars. Some lessons the Army took to heart, others it ignored. Finally, the dissertation chronicles the AWG’s creation in 2006. The AWG was a direct outgrowth of the failures and frustrations that the Army experienced in Afghanistan and Iraq. The dissertation examines these campaigns and identifies the specific problems that led senior Army leaders to create the AWG. It also chronicles the organizations growth and re-assignment from the Army staff to a fully-fledged organization subordinate to the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command in 2011. This reassignment placed a now mature AWG in the Army’s standard force structure, a place it held until its 2021 deactivation. This deactivation did not result not from the unit’s failure to adapt to a post-insurgency Army focusing on technical modernization. Rather, it resulted from the Army’s inability to realize that while the AWG originated as a response to counterinsurgency, it provided a capability to support the Army during a period of great strategic and institutional uncertainty.
    • THE EFFECT OF ALTERNATING DISTRIBUTION OF TRANSITION METALS IN LAYERED MATERIALS ON OXYGEN EVOLUTION CATALYSIS

      Zdilla, Mike Dr; Strongin, Daniel Dr; Valentine, Ann Dr; Perdew, John Dr (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The goal of this project is the design of heterogeneous catalysts to facilitate the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Considering the industrial feasibility for this reaction, first-row transition-metal-based materials are good candidates since they are cheap, abundant and possess variable oxidation states. However, most of them give only moderate catalytic activities, compared with noble-metal-based materials. To achieve efficient catalysts while maintaining low cost, it is important to discover and modify new systems based on the study of existing materials.In chapter 3 we present a study of the effect of surface reduction of birnessite on catalytic activity. A sample of birnessite was reduced by stirring with sodium dithionite, in which case the oxidation states of surface Mn decreased faster than those of inside Mn. We characterized the difference between the oxidation states of Mn of surface and inside (ΔAOS) and further investigate the effect of ΔAOS on catalysis. The catalytic activity was examined by reaction of birnessite samples with ceric ammonium nitrate, and O2 evolution was monitored using a dissolved oxygen probe with respect to time. The most reduced samples with ΔAOS of 0.15 was found to possess a turnover number (TON) of 36 mmol O2 per mol Mn, a value 10-fold higher than the unmodified sample. This result suggests oxidation state differential across layers aids the catalysis. In chapter 4, a more rigorous study is conducted by the examination of few-layer catalysts constructed by manganese oxide sheets with different oxidation states. We stacked low-AOS manganese oxide sheets with high-AOS manganese oxide sheets in various ordered combinations to obtain few-layer birnessite samples with non-uniform distribution of Mn(III). We found samples with more variation in AOS had a lower overpotential (~510 mV) in electrochemical OER catalysis than uniform stacks of the parent manganese oxide sheets (~750 mV for low-AOS sheets, >1000 mV for high-AOS sheets. The result indicates that the distribution of Mn(III) in stacking direction was the dominant factor for OER catalysis in birnessite and is more important than the overall Mn(III) content. We also found the band structures via scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and provide an electronic-structure-based explanation of the observed activity. In chapter 5 an analogous strategy to that used in chapter 4 is applied to optimize lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) and lithium nickel oxide (LNO) layered catalysts. LCO and LNO contains various oxidation states (or spin states) of cobalt and nickel atoms. With alternatively stacking a high-AOS and a low-AOS cobalt (or nickel) oxide sheets one by one, the electrochemical OER catalytic activity of the obtained few layer LCO (or LNO) sample was enhanced. The results indicated that the structural feature of the alternating distribution of oxidation states affected not only the birnessite catalysts but also both cobalt and nickel oxide materials. In chapter 6 we incorporated both cobalt and nickel oxide sheets into layered heterostructured catalysts. We present findings that mixed transition metal oxide material K-CoxNiyO2 with alternating distribution of cobalt and nickel oxide layers showed enhanced activity mixed Ni-Co metal oxides with homogeneously distributed transition metals. The overpotential of the sample K-Co0.5Ni0.5O2 with alternating distribution of Co and Ni is 460 mV, 190 mV smaller than that of the sample with homogeneously distributed Co and Ni, even though they had a similar elemental composition.
    • PERFORMANCE AND ENDURANCE CONTROL IN EMERGING STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES

      Kant, Krishna KK; Shi, Justin JYS; Tan, Chiu CCT; Biswas, Saroj SKB (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The current diverse and wide range of computing moves towards the cloud and de- mands high performance in low latency and high throughput. Facebook reported that 3.3 billion people monthly and 2.6 billion people daily use their data centers over the network. Many emerging user-facing applications require strict control over the stor- age latency’s tail to provide a quality user experience. The low-latency requirement triggers the ongoing replacement of hard drives (HDDs) by solid-state drives (SSDs) in the enterprise, enabling much higher performance and lower end-to-end storage latencies. It becomes more challenging to ensure low latency while maintaining the device’s endurance ratings. We address this challenge in the following ways: 1. Enhance the overall storage system’s performance and maintain the SSD endurance using emerging Non-volatile memory (ENVM) technology. 2. Implement deterministic la- tency in the storage path for latency-sensitive applications. 3. Provide low-latency and differentiated services when write-intensive workloads are present in a shared environment. We have proposed the performance and endurance-centric mechanisms to evaluate the tradeoffs between performance and endurance. In the first approach, our goal is to achieve low storage latency and a long lifetime of the SSD simultane- ously, even for a write-heavy workload. Incorporating a significantly smaller amount of ENVM with SSD as a cache helps to achieve the said goal.SSDs using the NVMe (Non-Volatile Memory Express) interface can achieve low latency as the interface provides several advanced features. The second approach has iii explored such features to control the storage tail latency in a distributed environment. The ”predictable latency mode (PLM)” advanced feature helps to achieve determinis- tic storage latency. SSDs need to perform many background management operations to deal with the underlying flash technology traits, the most time-consuming ones be- ing garbage collection and wear leveling. The latency requirement of latency-sensitive applications violates when the I/O requests fall behind such management activities. PLM leverages SSD controllers to perform the background operations during a win- dow, called a ”non-deterministic window (NDWin)”. Whereas during the ”determin- istic window (DTWin)”, applications will experience no such operations. We have extended this feature in the distributed environment and showed how it helps achieve low storage latency when the proposed ”PLM coordinator (PLMC)” is incorporated. In a shared environment with write-intensive workloads present, result in latency peak for Read IO. Moreover, it is required to provide differentiated services with multiple QoS classes present in the workload mixture. We have extended the PLM concept on hybrid storage to realize the deterministic latency for tight tail-controlled appli- cations and assure differentiated services among multiple QoS applications. Since nearly all of the storage access in a data center is over the network, an end-to-end path consists of three components: The host component, Network component, and Storage Component. For latency-sensitive applications, the overall tail latency needs to consider all these components. In a NAS (Network Attached Storage) architecture, it is worth studying the QoS class aware services present at the different components to provide an overall low request-response latency. Therefore, it helps future research to embrace the gaps that have not been considered yet.
    • SISTERS IN A JAPANESE PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY: UNCOVERING FACTORS FOSTERING PARTICIPATION

      Casanave, Christine; Beglar, David; Aspinall, Robert; Yokota, Gerry (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      ABSTRACT Women comprise half of the world’s population but less than half of the paid workforce, less than half of organized workers, and far less than half of union leadership positions. Women benefit from union membership by enjoying a smaller gender wage gap than women without union representation. Unionized teachers enjoy higher salaries and better working conditions than those who are not union members. Despite the advantages of being in a union, women are under-represented in union membership and, more importantly, leadership positions. Considering these disparities, I conceptualized this critical study to describe and better understand how women’s participation in union activities is meaningful to them. My ultimate goal was to find ways in which more union women could be encouraged to take leadership roles in the workers’ rights movement.The primary purpose of this research is to identify factors that explain the dearth of women’s participation in their labor union. Gender disparity in union leadership is, in part, a reflection of gender disparity in the workforce. Women make up less than half of the paid workforce but occupy the majority of the contingent workforce, which enterprise-based unions in Japan have been reluctant to organize (Weathers, 2012). Furthermore, a lack of female role models in union leadership might also contribute to gender disparity in unions’ leaderships. From this, I suggest changes that potentially allow more women to participate and eventually lead in their unions. The theoretical justification of the methodology used in this study is to show the utility of communities of practice theory and intersectionality in this type of research. Because I examined participation, I used communities of practice as the primary theoretical framework, and because the participants were all women, intersectional feminism served as the secondary theoretical framework. Furthermore, I review conceptual research on communities of practice, women, and labor and review empirical research on labor, communities of practice, and women in the labor movement. For the methodology, I applied a qualitative critical case study approach to this investigation of a labor union in western Japan that primarily organizes foreign language teachers. This study is a collection of case studies of female non-Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers from inner circle countries. I investigated how these women participated in their labor union in western Japan and how their participation was meaningful to them. I was a participant observer, and the three core participants were all American. I am Canadian. At the time of this study, all four of us were union leaders. Data sources included interviews, a focus group discussion, artifacts, and the research journals that I kept over the years. The findings echoed aspects of communities of practice theory as well as intersectionality. Communities of practice theory highlighted the transformational nature of participating in a community. Furthermore, the importance of trust in the community was made clear. I considered the participants’ identities from the perspective of intersectionality. Considering differing emphases on these aspects of identity led me to realize that increasing solidarity between women working for workers’ rights and women working for women’s rights might lead to the growth of both movements. I drew the main conclusion from considering differing emphases on aspects of research participants’ identities. As has been well documented in research literature, women in the workers’ rights movement and women in the women’s rights movement place an emphasis on different aspects of their identities (Dye, 1975; hooks, 2012; Milkman, 2016). Therefore, what is lacking is a sense of solidarity, the fundamental principle of the workers’ rights movement, between these two groups of women. The original contribution to knowledge of this dissertation is an enhanced understanding of how both the workers’ rights movement and the women’s rights movement are held back by this lack of solidarity among women.
    • THE COLLECTIVE PERCEPTIONS OF K-12 SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

      Boyle, Joseph; Thurman, Ken; Jordan, Will; DuCette, Joseph (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      In the spring of 2020, nearly every school aged student and K-12 teacher across the United States was forced to participate in remote educational activities online, prompting an unexpected departure from the status quo in public education. This was a result of government mandated social distancing practices, as a mitigation strategy for combating the global pandemic induced by the novel coronavirus. Most school districts were compelled to repurpose their daily practices by rapidly planning to ascertain resources for the implementation of an emergency remote education initiative. These unprecedented events presented many challenges for educators, especially given most had no formal training for conducting online instructional delivery utilizing various technologies. Special education teachers in particular confronted a unique set of challenges when considering how to support the complex needs of diverse learners. This included student support for engagement with access to technology, knowledge of various applied technological pedagogical skills, teacher preparation, technical training, ongoing professional support, interactions with stakeholders, and individual social emotional well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine how special education teachers perceived various aspects of their experiences, when teaching remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey was designed to measure these perceptions containing aligned items to the domains of the technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) framework. The COVID-19 Special Education Teacher Survey (C-SETS) was a 42 item questionnaire set on a 5-point Likert scale that contained an additional open-ended question. It was administered online and completed by 280 participants, across 46 states, primarily via a social media platform. While the results demonstrated that special education teachers overall were technically skilled, had increased communication with parents/caregivers, and gained skills for future practices, there was a significantly insufficient level of preparation, a deficit with various pedagogical skills using technology, less collaboration with IEP team members, inconsistent student engagement, varying access to technology, a lack of technical training, ongoing professional development and support, contributing to social emotional stress, anxiety and fatigue. Aspects of these findings were particularly evident in historically under resourced districts and those that did not participate in technology infrastructure initiatives, where an overwhelming majority of the statistically significant differences, with the exception of respondents’ level of educational attainment, were attributed to school characteristics. Implications for future teacher preparation, technical training, ongoing professional development, and best practices are presented. Keywords: Special Education, COVID-19, Teacher Preparation, TPACK, Emergency Remote Education, Digital Divide, SEL, Educational Technology, Students with Disabilities, Technical Training, Professional Development, Social Media, Facebook, Pandemic, C-SETS
    • THE ROLE OF STIGMA IN THE MECHANISMS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY OUTCOME: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

      Olino, Thomas; Heimberg, Richard; Chen, Eunice; Giovannetti, Tania; Fauber, Robert; Sayers, Margaret (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Concealable stigma such as sexual or gender identity or mental illness has been linked to numerous adverse outcomes. Additionally, stigma of mental illness and help seeking stigma has been associated with reduced treatment utilization for psychological problems. Research on internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) has largely focused on a) the stigma associated with serious mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia; psychosis spectrum; bipolar-spectrum disorders) and b) the impact of stigma on disparities in treatment access/utilization. However, there have been few studies that have examined the impact of ISMI on treatment outcome or mechanisms through which ISMI influences treatment outcome. The current study addresses these gaps in literature by focusing on ISMI in a diverse outpatient sample within the Psychological Services Center (PSC) at Temple University. In this study, we investigated how mental health self-stigma influences outcome; processes that account for the relationship between mental health self-stigma and outcome; and how self-stigma changes over the course of up to ten therapy sessions in an outpatient setting. Data were drawn from adults participating in individual therapy at the PSC. Participants included 50 individuals (54% female; 76% White, 6% African American, 8% Multiracial, 6% Hispanic, 2% Middle-Eastern and Asian-American) who completed self-report measures of internalized stigma, psychological distress, shame, self-efficacy, social isolation, and hope for up to ten therapy sessions. Multilevel models were used to identify the trajectories of change for the main outcomes (psychological distress) and other variables of interest (stigma, shame, self-efficacy, social isolation, hope) across treatment. Baseline assessment of stigma was used to predict changes in the primary outcome in a set of conditional multilevel models. Logistic regression was used to examine effect of baseline stigma on treatment dropout. Additionally, multilevel models with indirect effects were used to examine the mechanism of relationship between ISMI and treatment outcome. Gender, gender role conflict and demographic variables were considered as potential covariates. Psychological distress, social isolation, and shame significantly reduced over the course of treatment. We did not find significant changes in depression, self-efficacy or hope. Stigma did not significantly change over the course of treatment. Most notably, greater stigma at baseline and over time (at each time point) was significantly associated with greater psychological distress (i.e., poorer treatment outcome), and greater baseline stigma predicted a greater likelihood of treatment dropout. However, baseline stigma was not associated with rate of change in psychological distress. There were no significant indirect effects mediating the impact of stigma on treatment outcome. Findings suggest that greater ISMI impacts subjective report of psychological distress in the beginning stages of treatment and contributes to early treatment dropout. These findings suggest that clients’ personal beliefs about mental health and stigma should be attended to throughout treatment to help clients achieve better treatment outcomes, not only in terms of symptom/distress reduction, but also functionally.