Now showing items 1-20 of 9443

    • We’re all about openness: Except when it comes to our workspaces

      Bell, Steven; Bell|0000-0003-3916-4013 (2023-10-01)
      When it comes to information access, academic librarians are advocates for openness. They demonstrate a strong commitment to creating cultures of openness at their institutions, leading the way for others to grasp the power and benefits of open access publishing, open education practices, open data sharing, and more. Breaking down information barriers while establishing pathways to unfettered and free access is a core professional value. It’s probably safe to say that academic librarians have yet to encounter an open concept they refuse to embrace. Well, there might be one exception.
    • Search Strategies for a Scoping Review of TMJ and Manual Therapy

      Brintzenhoff, Jacob; Eger, Courtney; Crane, Patricia; Haddad, Alex (2024-05-21)
      To identify studies to include or consider for this scoping review, the review team worked with a librarian (JB, CE) to develop detailed search strategies for each database. The PRISMA-S extension was followed for search reporting. The librarians (JB, CE) developed the search for PubMed (NLM) and translated the search for every database searched. The PubMed (NLM) search strategy was reviewed by the research team to check for accuracy and term relevancy. All final searches were peer-reviewed by another librarian (Becca Fülöp, MLIS, PhD) following the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS checklist).    The databases included in this search are PubMed (NLM), Embase (Elsevier), Web of Science (Clarivate), Cochrane Central (Wiley), and Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source (EBSCOhost), using a combination of keywords and subject headings. A grey literature search included a clinical trials registry (clinicaltrials.gov), TRIP Pro (https://www-tripdatabase-com), and MedRxiv (https://www.medrxiv.org/).    
    • “Everyday Use”: My Sojourn at Parchman Farm

      Institute on Disabilities (Temple University) (1993-01)
    • Mrs. Wickham's "Dogs of Noted Americans"

      Institute on Disabilities (Temple University) (1993)
      Gertrude Van Rensselaer Wickham's preliminary research for "Dogs of Noted Americans" offers insight into the domestic lives of writers, historical figures, and other celebrities of the last half of the nineteenth century as well as into the ideology of pets in Victorian America.
    • The Vampire Motif in "Absalom, Absalom!"

      Institute on Disabilities (Temple University) (1984-07-01)
    • Zephaniah Swift Spalding: Constance Woolson’s Cipher

      Institute on Disabilities (Temple University) (2011-07)
      This chapter argues that in a number of Woolson’s early Civil War poems and stories, her affection for Zeph Spalding gets displaced onto the Confederate brigadier general John Hunt Morgan. In this guise among others, Zeph haunts Woolson’s writing throughout her career: in Anne (1880), Woolson’s first novel, as Captain Ward Heathcote; and in Horace Chase (1894), Woolson’s last novel, as the eponymous Yankee businessman. Throughout, Zeph functions as a cipher that reveals Woolson’s understanding of the Civil War and its aftermath, the economic expansion that followed, and the imperialist zeitgeist of nineteenth-century America.
    • John Henryism, psychological labor, and control-value theory: Race, ethnicity, and situational coping for student success

      Institute on Disabilities (Temple University) (2022-10-20)
      This study explored the integration of John Henryism—defined as effortful, active coping in response to environmental stress—into control-value theory. Specifically, we were interested in how this process differed among identity groups. We used measures of John Henryism (JHAC-12), control-value theory, and momentary engagement (Record of Experience) on a school-based task. Results demonstrated the following: identifying as a first-generation college student predicted John Henryism; value significantly predicted cognitive engagement and positive emotion; and perceived control lowered negative emotions. Identifying as a first-generation college student corresponded to higher levels of John Henryism and control. Identifying as female led to a decrease in positive emotions, but an increase in value. Similarly, identifying as a Black student was associated with a decrease in control, but also a decrease in negative emotions. Indirect effects showed that identifying as a first-generation college student led to an increase in John Henryism followed by (1) an increase in value, (2) an increase in perceived control, or (3) an increase in value with attendant positive emotions. Findings indicate that John Henryism integrates into control-value theory and contributes to momentary engagement on a school-based task.
    • Coping with COVID-19: An explor VID-19: An exploratory mixed-methods inv ed-methods investigation of the estigation of the impact of John Henryism on urban college students’ engagement in schoolwork

      Institute on Disabilities (Temple University) (2022-07-05)
      The current study examined how COVID-19 impacted urban college students’ engagement in their schoolwork and whether John Henryism mediated the relationship among demographic variables and engagement. Results demonstrated that John Henryism is a significant predictor of all three engagement outcomes (absorption, dedication, and vigor) and mediated the relationship between historically underrepresented students (Black and Latinx) and their vigor for engaging in schoolwork. Three themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual challenges. This study adds another dimension to the coping strategies urban college students are using to stay engaged in their schoolwork during the pandemic.
    • Sticky Fingers: A Study on Retail Crime in Philadelphia

      Simon, Bryant; Temple University. Honors Program; Temple University. Diamond Research Scholars (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      People have been shoplifting since the dawn of the in-store shopping experience. It is human to pilfer a piece of gum occasionally and put a selection of merchandise under one’s sleeve when shopping with friends. Everybody of all ages, races, and genders participates in retail theft. As the economy and political climate in the United States change, retail theft has changed with it. A crime that used to be prevented through carceral strategies has become more brazen, familiar, and unsolvable for retailers. This analysis seeks to view retail crime differently through a comprehensive review of relevant literature, an analysis of retail theft participation and prevention methodologies, and qualitative interviews of loss prevention employees and law enforcement. Retail crime in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is in a new era that shifted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. City governments and private businesses do not agree on what should be done, and retail giants have had to use private resources to get creative. Retail crime has increased in Philadelphia post-pandemic, is exacerbated by the opioid crisis, and remains common due to poverty. Initially, a new framework will be offered to establish different types of shoplifting behavior, distinguishing between thrill-seeking and non-thrill-seeking retail theft. Next, the effect of habitual shoplifting on Philadelphia businesses and loss prevention methodologies will be discussed, and then the culture of shoplifting mitigation and prevention will be addressed. As pilfering has only grown over time, the general public continues to disagree on how to solve this complex issue. This thesis is a testament to the changing nature of retail theft in Philadelphia, serving to understand the effectiveness of and future of loss prevention strategy.
    • Selective Modulation of Talin-Integrin Interactions by Cyanidin Derivatives: Implications for Cancer Therapeutics

      Wu, Jinhua; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      This thesis studies the complex relationships between talin—a critical protein involved in integrin activation and cell adhesion—and derivatives of Cyanidin-3-glucoside chloride (C3G), concentrating on their potential as cancer treatments. Talin plays a critical function in cell motility, invasion, and metastasis through its interaction with integrin β subunits. The focus of our work is to examine the impact of C3G derivatives, namely Cyanidin chloride (CC) and Pelargonidin chloride (PC), on the talin-integrin complex. This complex plays a crucial role in regulating the behavior of cancer cells. We employ advanced biochemical techniques to generate and purify talin proteins and utilize a fluorescence polarization assay to assess the binding affinities and inhibitory effects of these drugs. The research discloses a compound-specific modulation of talin activity in an isoform-specific manner, where CC exhibits a substantial effect on the talin1 isoform (TLN1) while PC demonstrates greater efficacy on the talin2 isoform (TLN2). This emphasis highlights the significance of customizing therapeutic approaches to utilize the unique molecular interactions involved, indicating a direction for the development of more precise and efficient cancer treatments. The findings presented here contribute to a deeper understanding of talin's biological roles and highlight its potential for therapeutic applications. These findings support the need for a targeted approach in the development of innovative medicines to address disorders involving talin interaction.
    • Breast Reconstruction Systematic Review Search Strategy

      Patel, Sameer; Vega, Kevin; Araya, Sthefano; Perez, Chris; Near, Christian; Gubara, Sarah; Siegel, Jacob; Alonso, Gabriel; Nace, Travis (2024-04-23)
      To identify studies to include or consider for this [review type] review, the review team worked with a librarian (TN]) to develop detailed search strategies for each database. The PRISMA-S extension was followed for search reporting. The librarian (TN) developed the search for PubMed (NLM) and translated the search for every database searched. The PubMed (NLM) search strategy was reviewed by the research team to check for accuracy and term relevancy. All final searches were peer-reviewed by another librarian following the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS checklist). The search was limited to English language only. The databases included in this search are PubMed (NLM), Embase (Elsevier), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley), Web of Science Core Collection (Clarivate Analytics), and HealthSTAR (Ovid) using a combination of keywords and subject headings. A grey literature search included Clinical Trials Registry (https://classic.clinicaltrials.gov/), WHO ICTRP (https://trialsearch.who.int/), TRIP Pro Database (tripdatabase.com), and MedRxiv (https://www.medrxiv.org/). All final searches were performed on April 12, 2024 by the librarian and were fully reported on April 18, 2024. The full search strategies as reported by the librarian are provided in Appendix (___). A summary of the search results: PubMed (NLM) from 1809 to 4/12/2024 (200 Results) Embase (Elsevier) from 1974 to 4/12/2024 (458 Results) Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley) from inception to 4/12/2024 (26 Results) Web of Science Core Collection (Clarivate Analytics) from 1900 to 4/12/2024 (177 Results) HealthSTAR (Ovid) from 1975 to 4/12/2024 (198 results) Clinical Trials Registry (https://classic.clinicaltrials.gov/) from inception to 4/12/2024 (74 Results) WHO ICTRP (https://trialsearch.who.int/) 1900 to 4/12/2024 (4 Results) TRIP Pro Database from 1867 to 4/12/2024 (53 Results) MedRxiv (https://www.medrxiv.org/) from inception to 4/12/2024 (5 results) The search resulted in 1,195 studies. 567 duplicate studies were found and omitted by the librarian (TN) using EndNote 20 following the Wichor Bramer duplicate identification strategy. This resulted in 591 records to screen from databases or registers and 58 records to screen from other methods (websites), resulting in a total of 628 records. Studies were screened by title and abstract by two blinded and independent reviewers. If a tiebreaker was needed, a third reviewer was called in. This process was repeated for full text article screening and article selection.
    • Psychopathological Impact of Stressful Workplace Environments

      Shah, Mansi; Bounyarith, Tiara; O’Hanlon, Kaitlyn (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
    • The Impact of Alcohol on the Adolescent Brain

      Shah, Mansi; Islam, Touhidul; Kassem, Myrna (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      Everyone knows that the legal drinking age in America is 21, but everyone also knows that anything is legal until you get caught. Across the world, teenagers and young adults consider alcohol an enjoyable weekend stress-reliever, but the long-term impacts of this temporary bliss remain largely undiscussed among younger populations. The neurological damage seen in adolescents that consume excessive amounts of alcohol can cause long-term impairment to a developing brain. Adolescent brain development is a dynamic process of neurological and cognitive changes. Such changes can lead to increased impulsivity contributing to poor decision-making, such as alcohol (over)consumption. Alcohol consumption, in turn, has various effects on the brain including a reduction in brain volume of white and grey matter, neurotransmitter signaling, and memory impairment, all of which can directly affect a teen’s success in both the short and long term.
    • Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: The Aftermath of Playing America's Favorite Sport

      Shah, Mansi; Roberts, Peyton; Rahman, Ridwana (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      Millions of children share the dream of becoming a professional football player in the National Football League (NFL), but it is a dream that very few achieve. Some will earn the chance to play in high school, a smaller percentage will be able to play at the collegiate level, and only the best will be chosen to play in the NFL. The athletes who beat the odds and make it to the NFL do not make it by accident. To play in the NFL requires endless years of hard work, dedication, and sacrifice. Players give up time with friends and family, holidays, and endure grueling training schedules all to play in the league. The boisterous noise from the crowd, the rush of adrenaline on game day, and the financial stability that comes with being a professional athlete in the NFL is enticing. But, what if the very thing you have been striving for since you were a kid puts you and your future at risk? What if the toll that the beloved game puts on your body is irreversible, leaving you to suffer the detriments of the violent sport long after you exit the field for the final time? This was unfortunately a reality for many former football players who suffered from Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive and fatal brain disease associated with repeated traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), including concussions and repeated blows to the head [1]. The types of injuries that lead to CTE are common in American Football [2]. This article will explain the neurological underpinnings of CTE, its psychological and behavioral effects, and how future bioengineering may help identify CTE antemortem.
    • Gene-Based Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases

      Shah, Mansi; Nakahara, Kate; Becker, Claire (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      While infectious viruses have had devastating effects throughout history, recently developed virus-based biotechnologies have the potential to revolutionize treatment of genetic diseases. Specifically, viruses have been vital in the advancement of gene therapy [1]. Gene-based therapy treats diseases by altering the body at the cellular level with the potential to deliver longer-lasting and more personalized impacts than traditional drug-based therapies, making it an appealing route for “achieving permanent correction” [2],[3]. Gene therapy corrects mutated genes that have undergone alterations in their DNA sequence through the delivery of genetic material into cells [4]. A gene mutation occurs when there is a change in a DNA sequence that causes the sequence to be different from what is expected. Gene mutations can be characterized as hereditary or acquired mutations. Hereditary mutations are inherited from parents, while acquired mutations are created at a particular time in a person’s life [5]. A tool known as a vector can act as a vessel for the genetic material to aid the delivery process [4]. Alongside plasmids and nanostructures, viruses can act as a type of viral vector to improve the efficiency of gene therapy [6]. Given the incurable nature of neurodegenerative diseases, which are characterized by the gradual loss of function and death of nerve cells, gene therapy is quickly emerging as a helpful method for improving their management [7]. This article will investigate the efficacy of applying gene-based therapies to the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and the methodology available today.
    • More than Just a Headache

      Shah, Mansi; Martin, Georgia; Schneider, Daniel (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      Despite the high prevalence of fifty percent among the global population, the common headache is often underestimated, under-recognized, and under-treated [1]. Different sensations associated with headaches have been experienced by most individuals throughout their lifetime; many report having various degrees of pressure that may be described as throbbing, constant, sharp, or dull [2]. While headaches can be easily dismissed by healthcare providers, it is essential to differentiate how common symptoms may be a sign of underlying issues. In order to understand how the symptoms of a headache are commonly misdiagnosed and may indicate potential underlying physiological issues, it is important to analyze the types of headaches, symptoms, potential effects on the brain over time, and treatment.
    • Beauty and the Brain

      Shah, Mansi; Vasconcelos, Larissa; Perianez, Alin (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      The intrinsic desire for beauty bleeds into every facet of life, whether in framing one’s identity or defining the status quo. As a concept, beauty remains notoriously difficult to define, yet is ever present in day to day life, especially in relation to pleasing our egos. Beauty’s prominence has been documented since antiquity- dating back to ancient Greece through the notion of Kallos, an ideal to aspire for both physical beauty and moral integrity [1]. Although, at the time there were no scientific discoveries to cement this philosophy into fact, the new millennium has found empirical evidence to support the notion that what embodies beauty is equated to virtue in the mind of the observer. The “Beauty-is-Good” stereotype is a phenomenon in which physically attractive people are assumed to be more socially adept and morally good than others. In Ancient Greece, a woman named Phyrne was on trial for impiety and was exonerated on the basis of her beauty, as it was an indication she was favored by the gods. Beauty for our intensive purposes can be classified into facial attractiveness, audiovisual beauty, and moral goodness [2]. Audiovisual beauty is implicit to the senses, an automatic assessment of incoming stimuli based on aesthetical rules. These evaluations can be either learned, or intrinsic. For instance, humans have an automatic ability to categorize facial features as attractive or unattractive when they are just a few weeks old [2]. Moral goodness utilizes one’s higher order cognition to comprehend socially acceptable behavior. To experience moral beauty, it is necessary for emotion to accompany the judgment. In every person, there is an extremely delicate interplay between our emotions, genetic composition, and judgements that give rise to the experience of beauty, which influences one’s perception of themselves, others, and their environment. Through better understanding of why we experience beauty can a person evaluate their unconscious assumptions and conscious thought processes to redefine beauty for the better.
    • A Neurological Analysis of Current Solutions to Healthcare Provider Burnout

      Shah, Mansi; Hulikal, Disha; Shamaa, Johara (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      Most of us have all experienced situations involving high stress over an extended period of time that left us feeling exhausted. As a result, we might have felt withdrawn from our work, had low levels of energy throughout the day, and even experienced decreased efficiency. Everything felt like a never-ending chore due to the pressure. Neurological research has shown that our stress response is an innate process that is key to survival. This is performed through effects on our cognitive and physical states by influencing the brain, musculoskeletal system, and cardiovascular system [1]. However, our stress response can also lead to worsening impacts on our mental health when there are great environmental, physiological or emotional demands over a significant period of time [2]. The result of this is referred to as ‘burnout syndrome’ in the International Classification of Diseases [3]. Burnout syndrome is “a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed” [3]. One of the fields that is the most notable for burnout syndrome is medicine. Burnout syndrome in the healthcare industry is a well-reported issue that has been apparent for several decades. The American Medical Association (AMA) reports that most physicians work 40-60 hours a week with nearly one-quarter of physicians working 61-80 hours per week [4]. This statistic does not include the hours they have all spent working 24-hour on-call shifts repeatedly throughout their medical school and residency training. Moreover, nurses regularly work 12-hour shifts [5]. The high stress and long hours can lead to detrimental results, including workforce shortages, worsening of care for patients, and impacts on the physical, emotional and mental health of the providers [6]. It is important to manage the well-being of the healthcare staff to avoid these results. Two of the methods that have been studied to mitigate these outcomes include intermittent naps and increasing illuminance during overnight shifts [7–9]. This article will closely examine these enactments to observe whether they truly overcome provider burnout.
    • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: The Future of Depression Treatment

      Shah, Mansi; Skudlarek, Regan; Immell, Morgan (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
    • Pavlov's Dogs, Technology's Humans

      Shah, Mansi; Chauhan, Mantek; Hollar, Rachael (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      Pavlov’s experiment is widely known as a revolutionary discovery in the psychological community. It resulted in the development of the idea known as classical conditioning. Pavlov’s experiment illustrates this concept by using dogs as its subject, showing an initially neutral stimulus that does not result in a response, and how it evolves to become a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response. This article will investigate this type of conditioned response in humans, specifically in how they react to a stimulus of phone notifications.