Now showing items 1-20 of 7503

    • 26/11 Mumbai Attacks

      Khanna, Yesh (2022)
      Around 9:30 PM on November 26, 2008, Mumbai witnessed multiple well-coordinated and near-simultaneous terror attacks that continued for the next three to four days. These attacks were carried out by ten Lashkar-e-Taiba terrorists, divided into multiple teams to maximize the element of surprise and effectiveness. By the time Indian security forces brought the carnage to an end, around 166 people were dead and more than 300 injured, making it one of the deadliest attacks ever on Indian soil. Given the magnitude, sophistication, and effectiveness of the attack, this was one of India's biggest intelligence failures. This paper is a critical analysis of the 11/26/08 Mumbai terror attacks and an examination of how Indian and international intelligence apparatuses failed to predict the attack.
    • Policy Brief: Alternatives to In-Person American Society of Landscape Architects Conferences on Landscape Architecture

      Kuper, Rob (2022-01-01)
      Annual, in-person professional meetings at a single location yield several personal and organizational benefits. Yet greenhouse gas emissions from organizing, executing, and attending conferences contribute significantly to the climate crisis. Within at least the last decade, the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) has claimed to continually reduce the carbon footprint of the annual meeting and EXPO by performing a variety of actions. ASLA supports global and national greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets to limit global warming to 1.5°C and has committed to measuring, understanding, making public, and reducing the organization’s emissions. To date, ASLA has not released information on its progress toward these goals. This study extends my previous work by estimating carbon dioxide emissions from the venues of the 2018 and 2019 ASLA Annual Meeting and EXPO and from travel and hotel accommodations for the attendees and 711 EXPO exhibitors. This study used online carbon calculators, refereed literature, and building energy benchmarking data. The results indicate that featured speakers and EXPO representatives originated from a small number of metropolitan areas, thereby supporting potential future decentralized meetings. Additionally, attendees’ and exhibitors’ total four-day conference emissions estimations were equivalent to the entire annual per capita emissions of someone residing in Ethiopia. In light of these results, I present ideas for several alternative means of convening. My emissions estimations of alternative conference modes indicate that emissions reduction targets could bemet in the short term by immediatelymoving to hybridizedmeetings requiring virtual attendance fromat least half of the participants from the most distant locations. In the long term, and by 2030 at the latest, ASLA’s annual meetings should be held entirely online.
    • Travel-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions from American Society of Landscape Architects Annual Meetings

      Kuper, Rob (2019-01-01)
      The logo of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) proclaims it to be “Green Since 1899.” Annual meetings convened by the ASLA necessitate that many attendees travel by air. Carbon dioxide emissions from aircraft operations accounted for 2–3 percent of annual global emissions in 2010. Emissions are rising, despite the need to remove atmospheric carbon dioxide and reduce global emissions by 45 percent before 2030 and 100 percent before 2050, relative to 2010 levels, to limit global warming to 1.5°C. No public estimations of travel-related carbon emissions associated with ASLA annual meetings are available. Using two web-based carbon calculators, meeting programs, websites, handouts, and ASLA meeting attendance numbers, I performed two travel-related carbon emission estimations: for 2,821 education session featured speakers who presented at annual ASLA meetings in 2011 and between 2013 and 2019; and for annual ASLA meeting attendees between 1960 and 2019. By applying findings from scientific literature to these emission estimates, I also calculated the area of September Arctic sea ice loss that may be attributed to ASLA annual meetings; the labor productivity losses in purchasing power parity that may be associated with ASLA meeting emissions; and the quantity of trees that would be needed to negate the meeting-related quantity of atmospheric carbon dioxide. I conclude by suggesting alterations to the format of annual ASLA conferences that would eliminate travel-related emissions in the future and narrow the gap between the ASLA’s actions and proclaimed values.
    • Teach-in: How to be a Climate Activist

      Temple University. Office of Sustainability; Pennsylvania Interfaith Power and Light (2022-03)
    • Quality Improvement Project of Improving Workplace Safety While Caring for Behavioral Health Patients in Non-Psych Units Search Strategy

      Temple University. Hospital (2022-09)
      To identify studies to include or consider for this quality improvement project, the review team worked with a medical librarian (TN) to develop detailed search strategies for each database. The PRISMA-S extension was followed for search reporting. The medical librarian (TN) developed the search for PubMed (NLM) and translated the search for every database searched. The PubMed (NLM) search strategy was reviewed by the research team to check for accuracy and term relevancy, and all final searches were peer-reviewed by another medical librarian (VN) following the PRESS checklist. The databases included in this search are PubMed (NLM), CINAHL (EbscoHost), PsycInfo (EbscoHost), and Cochrane Central (Wiley) using a combination of keywords and subject headings. A grey literature search included a clinical trials registry (clinicaltrials.gov) and WHO ICTRP (https://trialsearch.who.int/). There were no limits to the search. All final searches were performed on August 4, 2022 by the librarian and were fully reported (TN). The full search strategies as reported by the librarian are provided in Appendix (___). A summary of the search results from databases: PubMed (NLM) from inception to 8/4/2022 (315 Results) CINAHL (EbscoHost) from inception to 8/4/2022 (351 Results) PsycInfo (EbscoHost) from inception to 8/4/2022 (253 Results) Cochrane Central (Wiley) from inception to 8/4/2022 (56 Results) The search resulted in 1,022 studies and 183 duplicate studies were found and omitted by the librarian (TN) using the EndNote 20 duplicate identification strategy. This resulted in 839 records to screen from databases or registers, resulting in a total of 839 records. Studies were screened by title and abstract by two blinded and independent reviewers. If a tiebreaker was needed, a third reviewer was called in. This process was repeated for full text article screening and article selection.
    • Future Proofing Civic Data: Exploring the Challenges of Preserving Open Civic Data for the Long Term

      Bauer, Jillian; Carolan, Kistine; Cheetham, Robert; Swanson, Tom; Hand, Joe; MacMillan, Jim; Ogden, Max; Pilhofer, Aron; Wisniewski, Time; Lucia, Joe (2017-09-29)
      Temple University Libraries received a Knight Foundation Grant, “Knight News Challenge on Libraries” to lead an exploratory research project, Future Proofing Civic Data, investigating the challenges of long-term preservation for open civic datasets. The project team interviewed over a dozen stakeholders about their use cases and needs and looked at several open civic data initiatives in Philadelphia, Boston, San Francisco, and the Pittsburgh area, to compare practices and examine real-life examples. We found that there is still much to do in the community to develop systematic best practices in regard to the long-term preservation of datasets. In this white paper we explore 10 important factors that need to be taken into consideration to tackle this challenge successfully. We also look at how libraries could take the lead, or at least participate in the process. First, awareness of existing digital preservation frameworks is key when putting in place a data curation and preservation plan and developing relevant workflows and budget. The library community has developed strong “best practices” in that realm, and models such as OAIS (Open Archival Information System), TRAC (“Trustworthy Repositories Audit & Certification”), and LOCKSS (“Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe) provide robust guidelines that apply to all types of digital materials. We then looked at the selection process for deciding what datasets should be archived. Selection decisions are made based on various criteria, such as the known or expected users of datasets and their needs, what datasets can be archived and made available more easily, and what datasets represent a city or state’s activities more comprehensively. Among other things, single file objects such as CSV or KML files are much easier to archive than more complex formats or API-mediated content. Next we considered concerns related to the description of datasets, examining current metadata practices from a number of open civic data initiatives, and gave suggestions on possible improvements. We then turned our attention to the notion of dataset reliability and authenticity, that is, how do users know that an archived dataset has the same content as the original and can be trusted? We found that datasets require careful stewardship at several levels to remain complete and reliable over time. The loss of reliability or authenticity could be due to a multitude of unintentional causes, or derive from a more intentional temptation to “rewrite history” by one of the parties involved. Versioning is another important factor, as datasets may evolve over time and several versions might be generated for a single dataset, either through regularly scheduled harvests or occasional data restructuring. Versioning may require the development of policies and procedures to ensure that the collection of successive versions is done in an orderly and systematic manner, and that change requests and deletions are handled uniformly. To enable the successful discovery of archived datasets, we need to answer two questions: (1) how will users searching for open civic data know that preserved historical copies of the data exist?, and (2) how can they distinguish between the current active copy of a dataset and the archived versions? The software interface must facilitate a seamless navigation between active copy and archived versions. We looked at intellectual property rights and other legal issues, and the potential need to develop agreements between data creating agencies and archiving agencies in order to clarify the rights to preserve and provide long-term access to a dataset. The organizational model and governance structure chosen for the overall civic data initiative also have consequences for the ability to ensure successful long-term preservation functions. In particular, involving a multiplicity of partners and stakeholders is the best way to ensure that diverse voices are heard and that the project is run with a maximal level of transparency. Furthermore, open communication flows are also essential to ensure that preservation-related policies are applied optimally. This includes communication among the archiving agencies, the civic data creators, and the civic data portal managers. One more important notion when looking at digital preservation endeavors is that technology is only a small part of successful long-term digital preservation, and thinking proactively about organizational commitment and economic sustainability is essential. Finally, we described two prototypes that we developed to explore concrete technical solutions to archive datasets, using OpenDataPhilly as a testbed. Archive-It, or Prototype 1, uses the Internet Archive’s web crawling platform, which takes scheduled virtual captures of websites over time. Dat, or Prototype 2, is a secure and distributed package manager that does versioning of datasets locally, or shares and syncs dataset versions through a peer-to-peer network. Each prototype has pros and cons. We believe that there are clear and advantageous opportunities for libraries, both academic and public, to take a role in supporting the long-term preservation of open civic data, especially given libraries' pre-existing expertise and collection practices. It comports with libraries’ commitments to serve its users, provide research resources, and provide access to information. Furthermore, libraries can also get involved meaningfully in open civic data initiatives in other capacities, such as helping with outreach and community engagement, developing metadata standards and providing search optimization techniques for discovery.
    • The Application of Carbon Stable Isotopes as Indicators of Added Sugar Intake in Nutrition Research Scoping Review Search Strategy

      Tripicchio, Gina; Fisher, Jennifer; Hart, Chantelle; Nash, Sarah; Nova, Vitalina (2022-10)
      To identify studies to include or consider for this scoping review, the review team worked with a librarian (VAN) to develop detailed search strategies for each database. The PRISMA-S extension was followed for search reporting. The librarian (VAN) developed the search for PubMed (NLM) and translated the search for every database searched. The PubMed (NLM) search strategy was reviewed by the research team to check for accuracy and term relevancy, and all final searches were peer-reviewed by another medical librarian (TN) following the PRESS checklist. The databases included in this search are PubMed (NLM), Embase (Elsevier), Cochrane Central (Wiley), Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), APA PsycInfo (EBSCOhost), and SPORTDiscus with Full Text (EBSCOhost) using a combination of keywords and subject headings. A gray literature search included 2 clinical trials registries, clinicaltrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (https://trialsearch.who.int/). There were no limits to the search. All final searches were performed on July 20, 2022 by the librarian and were fully reported (VAN). The full search strategies as reported by the librarian are provided.
    • Thermal Stability of Aqueous Foams for Potential Application in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)

      Ren, Fei; Dikin, Dmitriy A.; Chopra, Harsh Deep; Wang, Hong, 1956 September 19- (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Traditionally geothermal energy utilizes naturally occurring steam or hot water trapped in permeable rock formations through naturally occurring extraction wells or by implementing the hydraulic fracturing process by fracturing rock formations with water-based fracturing fluids. In contrast, in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) hydraulic fracturing process is utilized to create new or reopen existing fractures by injecting high-pressure fluid into deep Hot Dry Rocks (HDR) under carefully controlled conditions. Fracturing fluids are usually water-based that utilize an immense quantity of water. In EGS, they are essential for conducting hydraulic fracturing which bring the concern of technical approach and environmental impact. Thus, an alternative approach is to use waterless fracturing technologies, such as foam-based fracturing fluid. Foams are a complex mixture of the liquid and gaseous phases, where the liquid phase act as an ambient phase and gas is the dispersed phase. Foam fracturing fluids offer potential advantage over conventional water-based fracturing fluids, including reduced water consumption and environmental impact. Although foam-based fracturing has shown promising results in oil and gas industries, its feasibility has not been demonstrated in EGS conditions that usually involve high temperature and high pressures. One potential barrier to utilizing foam as fracturing fluid in EGS applications is that foams are thermodynamically unstable and will become more unstable with increasing temperature due to phenomena such as liquid drainage, bubble coarsening, and coalescence. Therefore, it is essential to stabilize foam fluids at high temperatures for EGS related applications such as fracking of HDRs. This project aims to evaluate the thermodynamic behavior of foams at high temperature and high pressure conditions closely resembling the geothermal environment. In this research, foam behavior was categorized as foam stability based on its half-life, i.e., the time taken by the foam to decrease to 50% of its original height. A laboratory apparatus was constructed to evaluate the foam half-life for a temperature range of room temperature to 200°C and a pressure range of ambient pressure to > 1000 psi. Two types of dispersed/gaseous phases, nitrogen gas (N2) and carbon dioxide gas (CO2), were investigated. Four different types of commercial foaming agents/surfactants with various concentrations were tested, including alfa olefin sulfonate (AOS), sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), TergitolTM (NP – 40), and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). Moreover, five stabilizing agents, guar gum, bentonite clay, crosslinker, silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2), and graphene oxide dispersions (GO), were also added to the surfactants to enhance foam stability. Experimental results showed that N2 foams were more stable than CO2 foams. It was observed that foam half-life decreased with the increase in temperature. Among all the surfactants, AOS foams showed the most promising thermal stability at high temperatures. Moreover, with the addition of stabilizing agents, foam's half-life was enhanced. Stabilizing agents such as crosslinker and GO dispersion showed the most stable foams with half-life recorded at 20 min and 17 min, respectively, at 200°C and 1000 psi. Finally, pressure also showed a positive effect on foam stability; with increased pressure, foam half-life was increased. Based on the experimental data, analytical models for the effect of temperature and pressure were developed, considering foam degradation is a first-order kinetic reaction that linearly depends on the foam drainage mechanism. The effect of temperature on foam half-life was studied as an exponential decay model. In this model, foam half-life is a function of drainage rate constant (DA) and activation energy (Ea) of the foam system. The effect of pressure on foam half-life was found to obey a power-law model where an increase in pressure showed an increase in foam half-life. Furthermore, a linear relation was studied for the effect of pressure on foam activation energy and drainage rate. Then the, combined effects of temperature and pressure were studied, which yielded an analytical model to predict the foam stabilities in terms of half-life for different foam compositions. This research indicates that with an appropriate selection of surfactants and stabilizing agents, it is possible to obtain stable foams, which could replace conventional water fracturing fluid under EGS conditions.
    • ACES and Built Environment Scoping Review Search Strategy

      Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Baishya, Mona; Roth, Stephanie (2022-09)
      To identify studies to include or consider for this scoping review, the review team worked with a medical librarian (SR) to develop detailed search strategies for each database. The PRISMA-S extension was followed for search reporting. The medical librarian (SR) developed the search for PubMed (NLM) and translated the search for every database searched. The PubMed (NLM) search strategy was reviewed by the research team to check for accuracy and term relevancy, and all final searches were peer-reviewed by another medical librarian following the PRESS checklist. The databases included in this search are PubMed (NLM), Embase (Elsevier), Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics), Cochrane Central (Wiley), PsycInfo (EbscoHost) and CINAHL (EbscoHost) using a combination of keywords and subject headings. A grey literature search included a clinical trials registry (clinicaltrials.gov) and the TRIP Pro medical database (tripdatabase.com) website. There were no limits to the search. All final searches were performed on June 2, 2022 by the librarian and were fully reported (SR).
    • Social influence on Tobacco Use in Sexual and Gender Minority Populations Search Strategy

      Wheldon, Christopher; Daugherty, Ava; Nace, Travis (2022-09)
      To identify studies to include or consider for this rapid review, the review team worked with a medical librarian (TN) to develop detailed search strategies for each database. The PRISMA-S extension was followed for search reporting. The medical librarian (TN) developed the search for PubMed (NLM) and translated the search for every database searched. The PubMed (NLM) search strategy was reviewed by the research team to check for accuracy and term relevancy, and all final searches were peer-reviewed by another medical librarian following the PRESS Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies checklist. The Transgender search hedge used in this search was borrowed from the Library Resources for Transgender Topics libguide (1). The databases included in this search are PubMed (NLM), PsycInfo (EbscoHost), Applied Social Sciences Index & Abstracts (ProQuest), and Cochrane CENTRAL (Wiley) using a combination of keywords and subject headings. A grey literature search included the clinical trials registries (clinicaltrials.gov) and WHO ICTRP (https://trialsearch.who.int/), MedRxiv (https://medrxiv.org) and the TRIP Pro medical database (tripdatabase.com) websites. No limits were used in this search. All final searches were performed on June 29, 2022 by the librarian and were fully reported (TN). The full search strategies as reported by the librarian are provided in Appendix.
    • Characteristics of NCAA Conference of Codes of Ethics

      Greenwell, T. Christopher; Geist, Alan L.; Mahony, Daniel F.; Jordan, Jeremy S.; Pastore, Donna L. (2001)
    • Factors Affecting Response Rates in Survey Research: The Case of Intercollegiate Coaches

      Turner, Brian A.; Jordan, Jeremy S.; Sagas, Michael (2006)
      A common challenge when conducting survey research is obtaining an adequate number of completed questionnaires from a chosen sample. The present study examined four factors (timing, salience, oversampling, and population characteristics) deemed to be most likely to influence response rates when utilizing the population of intercollegiate coaches. A stratified, random sample of NCAA coaches from six sports at each division level was selected (n = 2964). A total of 1096 (37.0%) questionnaires were returned. Results indicated a significant difference in response rates based on time of the season sent and sport, with football reporting the highest response rates. On average, coaches receive four requests for participation in research studies per year. Finally, coaches felt that research on their profession was only somewhat important.
    • Organizational Justice and Team Performance in Interscholastic Athletics

      Whisenant, Warren; Jordan, Jeremy S. (2006)
      Considerable research in various settings outside of sport has established a linkage between organizational justice (perceptions of fairness in organizations) and performance outcomes. This study drew upon that literature to determine if team performance was impacted by student athlete perceptions of their coach’s level of fairness when dealing with the athletes. Student athletes (n=323) assessed the fairness of their coaches across three dimensions—distributive justice (decision outcomes), procedural justice (process used to arrive at the decision), and interpersonal justice (how the individual is treated during the decision making process). The study found that fairness perceptions did differ when comparisons were made between students who played on teams with winning records and students who played on teams with losing records. Students who played on winning teams perceived the level of fairness their coaches displayed to be higher than the coaches of students on losing teams.
    • An Investigation of the Relationship of Coach’s Use of Humor and Subsequent Player Evaluation

      Nix, Charlie; Gillentine, Andy; Jordan, Jeremy S.; Huang, Ming-Te (2003)
      This study examined the effects of coaches’ use of humor on player evaluations. A questionnaire was administered to 97 high school wrestlers. Subjects were asked to indicate their perceptions of their coaches’ use of humor, coaching abilities, and the degree to which they liked their coach. Respondents indicated their coaches had a sense of humor (M= 1.50), that they liked their coach (M= 1.52), and had appropriate abilities for coaching wrestling. Further analysis indicated weak relationships between the athletes’ perception of coaches’ use of humor and coaching ability (r = .131) and between the coaches’ use of humor and the degree to which athletes liked the coaches (r = .217). A moderate relationship (r = .561) existed between athletes liking the coach and perceived coaching ability. This study suggests use of humor by wrestling coaches does not improve athlete perceptions of coaching ability or liking of the coach. However, there was a statistically significant relationship between athletes’ liking of the coach and perceived coaching ability.
    • Commercialized Fitness Clubs: Gender and Competitive Athletic Identities

      Wegner, Christine E.; Lawrence-Benedict, Heather J.; Jordan, Jeremy S.; O'Reilly, Norm (2020-04)
    • Customer Preference and Student Tickets: Using Conjoint Analysis to Develop Ticket Policy

      Greenwell, Christopher; Popp, Nels; Brownlee, Eric; Jordan, Jeremy S. (2007)
    • Immigrants Pharmacy Scoping Review Search Strategy

      Hellerslia, Van; Roth, Stephanie (2022-09)
      To identify studies to include or consider for this scoping review, the review team worked with a medical librarian (SR) to develop detailed search strategies for each database. The PRISMA-S extension was followed for search reporting. The medical librarian (SR) developed the search for PubMed (NLM) and translated the search for every database searched. The PubMed (NLM) search strategy was reviewed by the research team to check for accuracy and term relevancy, and all final searches were peer-reviewed by another medical librarian (TN) following the PRESS checklist. The databases included in this search are PubMed (NLM), Embase (Elsevier), Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics), Cochrane Central (Wiley) and CINAHL (EbscoHost) using a combination of keywords and subject headings. A grey literature search included a clinical trials registry (clinicaltrials.gov), the TRIP Pro medical database (tripdatabase.com) and the OAIster websites (https://oaister.on.worldcat.org/discovery). The search was limited from the year 2000 to present. All final searches were performed on June 14, 2022 by the librarian and were fully reported (SR). The full search strategies as reported by the librarian are provided in Appendix(___). A summary of the search results from databases: PubMed (NLM) from inception to 6/14/2022 (483 Results) Embase (Elsevier) from inception to 6/14/2022 (902 Results) Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics) from inception to 6/14/2022 (572 Results) Cochrane Central (Wiley) from inception to 6/14/2022 (81 Results) CINAHL (EbscoHost) from inception to 6/14/2022 (255 Results) The search resulted in 2,360 studies and 749 duplicate studies were found and omitted by the librarian (SR) using the EndNote 20 duplicate identification strategy. This resulted in 1,545 records to screen from databases or registers and 66 records to screen from other methods, resulting in a total of 1,611 records. Studies were screened by title and abstract by two blinded and independent reviewers. If a tiebreaker was needed, a third reviewer was called in. This process was repeated for full text article screening and article selection.
    • Respiratory Properties of Rat Liver Mitochondria Immobilized on an Alkylsilylated Glass Surface

      Arkles, Barry; Brinigar, William S.; Arkles|0000-0003-4580-2579 (1975-11-25)
      Rat liver mitochondria are shown to adhere to the alkylsilylated glass beads in essentially a monolayer. The amount of mitochondria bound to the beads reaches a maximum where the length of the alkyl groups covalently linked to the beads exceeds eight carbons. Mitochondria immobilized on the beads and placed in a flow system exhibit normal: (a) respiratory control, (b) phosphate to oxygen ratio, (c) uncoupling by 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, and (d) inhibition by cyanide, azide, rotenone, oligomycin, and antimycin. Reversibility of the effects of 2,4-dinitrophenol, cyanide, and azide was rapid and complete. Inhibition by rotenone, oligomycin was essentially irreversible. Mitochondria have been maintained in a viable state on the beads at 27 degrees for periods up to 4 hours. The use of immobilized organelles appears to offer a new technique for the study of membrane-bound particles whereby substances can be rapidly added and removed while monitoring the composition of solution flowing over the particles.