Now showing items 1-20 of 9819

    • Genetic Ancestry and Its Implications for the Cancer Continuum in Populations of African Ancestry Scoping Review Search Strategy

      Nace, Travis; Kulathinal, Rob; Boudeau, Samuel; Doughan, Albert; Maitre, Tanisha (2024)
      To identify studies to include or consider for this scoping review, the review team worked with a librarian (TN) to develop detailed search strategies for each database. The PRISMA-ScR extension was followed for search reporting. The librarian (TN) developed the search for PubMed (NLM) and translated the search for every database searched. The PubMed (NLM) search strategy was reviewed by the research team to check for accuracy and term relevancy. All final searches were peer-reviewed by another librarian following the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS checklist). The search was limited by date from 2000 to Present and by publication type based on exclusion criteria. The databases included in this search are [list of databases: PubMed (NLM), Embase (Elsevier), Web of Science Core Collection (Clarivate Analytics), BIOSIS Citation Index (Clarivate Analytics), and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ProQuest) using a combination of keywords and subject headings. A grey literature search included The National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (https://www.nccn.org/), Search.bioPreprint (https://www.hsls.pitt.edu/preprint), and Trip Pro Medical Database (https://www.tripdatabase.com). All final searches were performed on May 17, 2024 by the librarian and were fully reported to the research team on May 22, 2024. The full search strategies as reported by the librarian are provided in Appendix(___). They are also archived at [DOI].
    • "Pre-med is hard": An Evaluation of the Pre-Medical Experience for First-Generation and Low-Income Students

      Olsen, Lauren D.; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      Becoming a physician has historically been reserved for those with ample social and economic capital, but this is slowly changing with efforts to diversify the physician workforce. Much of the research regarding pre-medical education overlooks students with intersecting First Generation and Low Income (FGLI) identities and their unique challenges throughout medical education. This study describes the experiences of FGLI pre-medical students and how undergraduate institutions contribute to the discriminatory design of the medical school admissions process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with first-year pre-medical students to determine their knowledge of institutional resources, apprehensions about becoming physicians, and how their identities shape interactions with institutional resources. FGLI students reported more anticipatory stress towards the medical school admissions process, a desire for institutional resources better curated to FGLI students, and less academic support from family members than higher socioeconomic and continuing generation students. These findings call on universities to better support FGLI pre-medical students through individualized advising and mentoring programs while restructuring the institution’s biases toward FGLI students. The literature from the field overwhelmingly connects diversifying the physician workforce to lessening health disparities. However, solely relying on FGLI students to mitigate issues perpetuated by shortcomings in social infrastructure places an unfair burden of expectation. Physician diversity is not a fix-all but a piece of the puzzle to achieve health equity, which starts by reducing educational barriers at the undergraduate level.
    • Nuclear Volatility in South Asia

      Khanna, Yesh (2024-06-12)
      South Asia's nuclear powers, India and Pakistan, have a longstanding rivalry, particularly over Kashmir. This paper examines how their recent domestic political developments impact their foreign policy choices and contribute to the risk of nuclear conflict. India's rise in far-right nationalism under Modi and Pakistan's deep-seated military influence are analyzed through relevant frameworks of nuclear proliferation and conflict. The paper argues that Modi's "Akhand Bharat" vision and Pakistan's proxy war strategy fueled by groups like Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed challenge classical deterrence theory. The stability-instability paradox plays out through Pakistan's asymmetric warfare and India's conventional responses. With Modi showing an inclination for forceful reactions, the risk of escalation towards nuclear brinkmanship intensifies. The paper concludes by highlighting the urgent need for de-escalation measures and dialogue to avert a catastrophic nuclear incident in South Asia.
    • Generating the Pitch: AI Literacy Instruction for Business and Entrepreneurship

      Shambaugh, Adam; Given Castello, Olivia; Shambaugh|0000-0002-6685-3327; Given Castello|0000-0002-2721-9809 (2024-06-13)
      Library patrons working in the areas of business and entrepreneurship often have special information needs (Stonebreaker et al., 2017). As librarians at a research university with a large business school, we recognized the importance of including a business and entrepreneurship focus within our AI literacy curriculum. Over the past year, we designed new instructional materials on generative AI for academic and professional purposes, with significant components for business students, instructors, and entrepreneurs. Our curriculum also caters to non-business schools on our campus, which increasingly focus on entrepreneurship. This poster describes our development of instructional materials about AI literacy in business research and practice and the use of AI tools to enhance business research techniques. Taking inspiration from Landrum et al. (2019), we employ storytelling to engage learners, centering a narrative around a protagonist using AI tools to launch a small business. We developed materials appropriate for student instruction, faculty development, or workshops for entrepreneurs. While reinforcing concepts from our library’s broader curriculum, we address AI for business inquiries such as analyzing market and consumer information, finding industry intelligence, exploring financial data, simulating investor feedback, and drafting key business documents. Our instructional program critically examines the limitations of AI tools in business research and demonstrates how to combine them with other library resources. This poster will provide practical insights and sample materials that librarians may adapt to incorporate AI literacy into their business and entrepreneurship instruction. Our work is relevant to both public and academic libraries, including those without a dedicated business school. Librarians have an opportunity to educate learners on AI’s potential to advance their academic work and prepare them for a variety of professional activities. We hope to encourage ALA 2024 attendees to consider how to integrate AI literacy and AI tools into their own business and entrepreneurship instruction.
    • DETERMINANTS OF NON-PERFORMING LOANS: EVIDENCE FROM CHINA

      Rytchkov, Oleg; Rytchkov, Oleg; Bakshi, Gurdip; Gao Bakshi, Xiaohui; Wang, Wei (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      With the development of China's economy, as the core of the modern economy, China's commercial banks are also constantly strengthening their own strength in the social and economic development. It plays an important supporting role for the economic development. However, since the subprime mortgage crisis in 2008, the non-performing loans of China's commercial banks have undergone significant changes. Judging from the overall situation of commercial banks, it has changed from the previous "double reduction" of non-performing loan balances and non-performing loan ratios to a "double increase" situation. According to the classification of commercial banks, the composition of nonperforming loans of China's commercial banks has also undergone tremendous changes. In 2009, it was the only large commercial bank, but by 2019. It has developed into a "four-legged confrontation" situation. The non-performing loan ratio is often the leading indicator of the financial crisis, and the continuously increasing non-performing loan ratio has laid a hidden danger for the healthy development of China's social economy. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore the influencing factors of non-performing loans of various commercial banks for preventing and solving the problem of non-performing loans. First of all, this paper analyzes the research results of domestic and foreign scholars on non-performing loans. Through many documents, it can be found that domestic scholars mainly study the influencing factors of non-performing loans of commercial banks as a whole or the influencing factors of non-performing loans of a certain type of commercial banks, such as large commercial banks. There are few studies on the difference of the influence factors of non-performing loans of various commercial banks. Therefore, from a macro perspective, this paper explores the factors affecting the non-performing loan ratio of various commercial banks and tries to answer the core question of "Why are the nonperforming loan ratios of different types of commercial banks different?", which is a supplement to the study on non-performing loan. Furthermore, this paper sorts out the relevant theories of the formation of nonperforming loans, the theories involved mainly include credit theory, financial vulnerability theory, government intervention theory and bank credit behavior theory. Among them, credit theory, financial vulnerability theory and government intervention theory can theoretically explain the impact of macroeconomic factors on non-performing loans of commercial banks, while bank credit behavior theory can theoretically support the path of micro-factors on non-performing loans of commercial banks. Then, based on the analysis of the current situation, this paper adopts the data of commercial banks as a whole, large commercial banks, joint-stock commercial banks, urban commercial banks, rural commercial banks and foreign banks from 2010 to 2022. This paper selects GDP, broad money supply, one-year benchmark lending rate of the central bank, actual funds in place for real estate development and investment, and total export value as macroeconomic and industry indicators to study the factors affecting the non-performing loan ratio of various commercial banks from a macro perspective and tries to predict the future non-performing loan rate with their current variables. The results of the empirical analysis are as follows: (1) From the perspective of the types of macro factors, there are similarities between large-scale commercial banks and joint-stock commercial banks, and similarities between small-scale city commercial banks and rural commercial banks; (2) The changes of non-performing loan ratio of large commercial banks, joint-stock commercial banks, foreign banks and urban commercial banks can basically be explained by macro factors, but the non-performing loan ratio of rural commercial banks cannot be completely explained by macroeconomic factors; (3) The factors affecting the nonperforming loan ratio of each type of commercial bank are different, and these differences can be explained by the bank's positioning, business strategy and service objects. Finally, based on the empirical results, this paper puts forward suggestions on macro policies, and puts forward targeted suggestions for large commercial banks, joint-stock commercial banks, city commercial banks and rural commercial banks.
    • Human HspB1, HspB3, HspB5 and HspB8: Shaping these disease factors during vertebrate evolution

      Institute for Genomics and Evolutionary Medicine (iGEM) (Temple University) (2024-01-04)
      Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) emerged early in evolution and occur in all domains of life and nearly in all species, including humans. Mutations in four sHSPs (HspB1, HspB3, HspB5, HspB8) are associated with neuromuscular disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the evolutionary forces shaping these sHSPs during vertebrate evolution. We performed comparative evolutionary analyses on a set of orthologous sHSP sequences, based on the ratio of non-synonymous: synonymous substitution rates for each codon. We found that these sHSPs had been historically exposed to different degrees of purifying selection, decreasing in this order: HspB8 > HspB1, HspB5 > HspB3. Within each sHSP, regions with different degrees of purifying selection can be discerned, resulting in characteristic selective pressure profiles. The conserved α-crystallin domains were exposed to the most stringent purifying selection compared to the flanking regions, supporting a 'dimorphic pattern' of evolution. Thus, during vertebrate evolution the different sequence partitions were exposed to different and measurable degrees of selective pressures. Among the disease-associated mutations, most are missense mutations primarily in HspB1 and to a lesser extent in the other sHSPs. Our data provide an explanation for this disparate incidence. Contrary to the expectation, most missense mutations cause dominant disease phenotypes. Theoretical considerations support a connection between the historic exposure of these sHSP genes to a high degree of purifying selection and the unusual prevalence of genetic dominance of the associated disease phenotypes. Our study puts the genetics of inheritable sHSP-borne diseases into the context of vertebrate evolution.
    • To go or not to go: multiple identities and the effects of ambivalence

      Yu, Qionglei; Huang, Yu-An; Li, Xiang (Robert); Ren, Zhimin (2022-05-22)
      This study unpacks how a person’s multiple identities affect their decision making when selecting a tourism destination. We propose that different aspects of identity yield distinct yet competing emotions. For instance, perceived social audience admiration combined with animosity might produce ambivalence, leading to greater decision-making uncertainty. Findings show that tourists with greater ambivalence towards particular destination countries are more likely to cancel or postpone their travel decisions. Additionally, the destination country’s economic development and a tourist’s pursuit of material happiness interact as moderators in the relationships between identities, emotions, and travel intention. Recommendations are provided for tourism product development and marketing communications for destination countries.
    • Updated QCD global analysis of single transverse-spin asymmetries: Extracting ˜H, and the role of the Soffer bound and lattice QCD

      Gamberg, Leonard; Malda, Michel; Miller, Joshua A.; Pitonyak, Daniel; Prokudin, Alexei; Sato, Nobuo (2022-08-12)
      We present an update to the QCD global analysis of single transverse-spin asymmetries presented in [J. Cammarota et al. (Jefferson Lab Angular Momentum Collaboration), Phys. Rev. D 102, 054002 (2020).] (JAM3D-20). JAM3D-20 simultaneously included transverse momentum dependent and collinear twist-3 observables, both of which are sensitive to quark-gluon-quark correlations in hadrons. In this study we extract for the first time the twist-3 chiral odd fragmentation function ˜H by incorporating the sinϕs modulation data from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering along with its contribution to the single transverse-spin asymmetry in pion production from proton-proton collisions. We also explore the impact of lattice QCD tensor charge calculations and the Soffer bound on our global analysis. We find that both constraints can be accommodated within our results, with ˜H playing a key role in maintaining agreement with the data from proton-proton collisions.
    • Context-dependent amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in youths with autism spectrum disorder

      Christian, Isaac Ray; Liuzzi, Michael T.; Yu, Qiongru; Kryza-Lacombe, Maria; Monk, Christopher S.; Jarcho, Johanna; Wiggins, Jillian Lee (2022-01-17)
      Background: The amygdala-prefrontal cortex circuit is involved in processing socio-emotional cues and may partially mediate social impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Past task-based fMRI studies in ASD indicate a mix of hypo- and hyper-connectivity in response to socio-emotional stimuli whereas resting state studies report hypoconnectivity between these regions. However, it is still unknown whether ASD-related alterations in amygdala-prefrontal circuitry are present across socio-emotional tasks and resting state contexts within the same sample or instead, depend on context. Method: ASD (n = 47) and typically developing individuals (TD; n = 72) underwent fMRI during an implicit emotional face processing task and during rest, and whole-brain amygdala connectivity was calculated to determine patterns that differed by context and diagnosis. Results: Relative to TD, the ASD group demonstrated weaker left amygdala connectivity with the medial frontal gyrus and the left superior frontal gyrus during rest, but stronger connectivity during task. Furthermore, across both contexts, ASD vs. TD had stronger right amygdala connectivity with the left insula/superior temporal gyrus. Conclusion: Findings suggest some alterations in amygdala connectivity of ASD may depend on context while others are pervasive across task and rest conditions. Understanding context-dependent brain alterations in ASD may help disambiguate the mechanisms subserving social impairment and provide targets for treatment.
    • Studies of the symmetric binding mode of daclatasvir and analogs using a new homology model of HCV NS5A GT-4a

      Institute for Computational Molecular Science (Temple University) (2022-12-29)
      Context: Egypt has a high prevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4a (GT-4a). Unfortunately, the high resistance it exhibited still was not given the deserved attention in the scientific community. There is currently no consensus on the NS5A binding site because the crystal structure of HCV NS5A has not been resolved. The prediction of the binding modes of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) with the NS5A is a point of controversy due to the fact that several research groups presented different interaction models to elucidate the NS5A binding site. Consequently, a 3D model of HCV NS5A GT-4a was constructed and evaluated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The generated model implies an intriguing new orientation of the AH relative to domain I. Additionally, the probable binding modes of marketed NS5A inhibitors were explored. MD simulations validated the stability of the predicted protein–ligand complexes. The suggested model predicts that daclatasvir and similar drugs bind symmetrically to HCV NS5A GT-4a. This will allow for the development of new NS5A-directed drugs, which may result in reduced resistance and/or a wider range of effectiveness against HCV. Methods: The 3D model of HCV NS5A GT-4a was constructed using the comparative modeling approach of the web-based application Robetta. Its stability was tested with 200-ns MD simulations using the Desmond package of Schrodinger. The OPLS2005 force field was assigned for minimization, and the RMSD, RMSF, and rGyr were tracked throughout the MD simulations. Fpocket was used to identify druggable protein pockets (cavities) over the simulation trajectories. The binding modes of marketed NS5A inhibitors were then generated and refined with the aid of docking predictions made by FRED and AutoDock Vina. The stability of these drugs in complex with GT-4a was investigated by using energetic and structural analyses over MD simulations. The Prime MM-GBSA (molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area) method was used as a validation tool after the docking stage and for the averaged clusters after the MD simulation stage. We utilized PyMOL and VMD to visualize the data.
    • ATHENA detector proposal — a totally hermetic electron nucleus apparatus proposed for IP6 at the Electron-Ion Collider

      Kunnath, A.; Nam, Jae; Posik, M.; Surrow, Bernd; The ATHENA Collaboration; Nam|0000-0003-1893-5237; Surrow|0000-0001-5839-707X (2022-10-10)
      ATHENA has been designed as a general purpose detector capable of delivering the full scientific scope of the Electron-Ion Collider. Careful technology choices provide fine tracking and momentum resolution, high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, hadron identification over a wide kinematic range, and near-complete hermeticity. This article describes the detector design and its expected performance in the most relevant physics channels. It includes an evaluation of detector technology choices, the technical challenges to realizing the detector and the R&D required to meet those challenges.
    • Burkhardt-Cottingham-type sum rules for light-cone and quasi-PDFs

      Bhattacharya, Shohini; Metz, Andreas; Bhattacharya|0000-0001-8536-082X (2022-03-25)
      The Burkhardt-Cottingham (BC) sum rule connects the twist-3 light-cone parton distribution function (PDF) gT(x) to the twist-2 helicity PDF g1(x). The chiral-odd counterpart of the BC sum rule relates the twist-3 light-cone PDF hL(x) to the twist-2 transversity PDF h1(x). These BC-type sum rules can also be derived for the corresponding quasi-PDFs. We perform a perturbative check of the BC-type sum rules in the quark target model and the Yukawa model, by going beyond the ultraviolet (UV) divergent terms. We employ dimensional regularization (DR) and cutoff schemes to regulate UV divergences, and show that the BC-type sum rules hold for DR, while they are generally violated when using a cutoff. This violation can be traced back to the breaking of rotational invariance. We find corresponding results for the sum rule relating the mass of the target to the twist-3 PDF e(x). Moreover, we supplement our analytical results with numerical calculations.
    • How bad is crime for business? Evidence from consumer behavior

      Fe, Hao; Sanfelice, Viviane; Sanfelice|0000-0003-0942-1138 (2022-03-30)
      Understanding how consumers respond to crime offers evidence of how safety perception impacts individuals daily choices and has important implications for economic development of communities. This paper investigates the impact of local crime on subsequent consumer visits to food and entertainment retails using a novel longitudinal dataset with point-specific crime and consumer visit data. We leverage the richness of our data to account for unobserved heterogeneity and time variant confounders through temporal and geographical variation. Our results show that consumers respond more strongly to property and street crimes. The response concentrates on the venue visit decision rather than the intensity of consumption (i.e. duration) in the venue.
    • The geographical dispersion of inventor networks in peripheral economies

      Cano-Kollmann, Marcelo; Mudambi, Ram; Tavares-Lehmann, Ana Teresa; Mudambi|0000-0002-5396-5602 (2022-05-07)
      In this paper we explore patenting activity in two peripheral economies (Portugal and Greece), to analyze the dispersion of inventor networks. Inventor networks are key conduits through which knowledge flows. Therefore, they can be critical in the catch-up process of peripheral economies – economies that belong to the group of rich countries but have weaker innovation systems. As global value chains fragment into geographically dispersed activities, opportunities arise for peripheral economies to participate in global innovation processes. However, different types of innovation activities have distinct network properties. More codifiable innovative activities can be carried out through collaboration by internationally dispersed teams. On the other hand, activities that are more dependent on tacit knowledge are likely to require the co-location of knowledge workers. This implies that innovation that relies mostly on tacit knowledge will provide limited connectivity benefits for peripheral economies’ innovation systems. We hypothesize that, while this is generally true, “leading” innovative multinational enterprises may possess more sophisticated capabilities for transnational collaboration than less innovative firms. Therefore, innovation in activities involving tacit knowledge may show different network characteristics depending on who performs them: leading firms or “laggards”. Our results, based on data from Portugal and Greece are consistent with our hypotheses.
    • Modeling of Dynamic Mechanical Response of Li-Ion cells with Homogenized Electrolyte-Solid Interactions

      Electric Vehicle Safety Lab (EVSL) (Temple Unviersity) (2022-01-25)
      Several recent studies have revealed substantial strain-rate dependence of lithium-ion batteries subjected to dynamic mechanical loadings. This behavior has been shown to be strongly dependent on the cell type, geometry, and setting. While still far from being fully understood, this dependence is believed to be connected to the solid-liquid interactions between the porous solid materials inside the electrodes and separators and the liquid electrolyte. This understanding has been supported by tests on dry cells revealing a significantly simpler behavior, being determined primarily by the constitutive material properties as compared to wet cells. This paper provides a modeling approach for the fluid-solid interaction inside battery cells by utilizing a pore fluid movement feature originally developed for geo-materials. By applying this module to the dry cell structure, the essentials of the peculiar load displacement patterns observed with active cells could be reproduced for two types of cells, a prismatic and a pouch cell. It is believed that this procedure, elucidating the underlying physics, and yet being simple, effective, and less time consuming than potential alternative techniques, will be exceedingly useful for evaluating crash behavior of electric vehicles. It allows making realistic calculations feasible based on experiments performed only on dry cells quasi-statically.
    • Effects of Intimate Partner Violence During COVID-19 and Pandemic-Related Stress on the Mental and Physical Health of Women Veterans

      Iverson, Katherine M.; Dardis, Christina M.; Cowlishaw, Sean; Webermann, Aliya R.; Shayani, Danielle R.; Dichter, Melissa E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Mattocks, Kristin M.; Gerber, Megan R.; Portnoy, Galina R. (2022-08-30)
      Background: Little is known about women veterans’ intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic or the impacts of pandemic-related stress on their mental and physical health. Objectives: To identify IPV experiences among women veterans prior to and during the pandemic, pandemic-related stressors, and examine their respective contributions to mental and physical health. Design: National sample of women veterans drawn from a larger web-based longitudinal study. Relationships between recent IPV and pandemic-related stressors were tested with linear regressions, controlling for pre-pandemic IPV and mental and physical health symptoms, demographic, and military-related covariates. Participants: One hundred forty-two women veterans (Mage=58.8 years). Main Measures: We assessed IPV (CTS-2), PTSD (PCL-5), depression (CESD), anxiety (DASS-A), physical health (PHQ-15), and physical health–related quality of life (SF-12) prior to the pandemic (June 2016–December 2016/January 2017) and during the pandemic study period (March 2020–December 2020/January 2021). We assessed pandemic-related stressors (EPII) during the pandemic study period. Key Results: Over a third (38.7%) of participants experienced IPV during the pandemic study period (psychological: 35.9%, physical: 9.9%, sexual: 4.2%). Overall rates, frequency, and severity of IPV experience did not significantly differ between the pre-pandemic and pandemic study periods. Few participants tested positive for COVID-19 (4.2%); however, most participants reported experiencing pandemic-related stressors across life domains (e.g., social activities: 88%, physical health: 80.3%, emotional health: 68.3%). IPV during the pandemic and pandemic-related stressors were both associated with greater PTSD and depressive symptoms. Pandemic-related stressors were associated with worse anxiety and physical health symptoms. Neither IPV during the pandemic nor pandemic-related stressors were associated with physical health–related quality of life. Conclusions: IPV experiences during the pandemic were common among women veterans, as were pandemic-related stressors. Although IPV did not increase in the context of COVID-19, IPV experiences during the pandemic and pandemic-related stressors were linked with poorer mental and physical health.
    • First Measurement of High-Energy Reactor Antineutrinos at Daya Bay

      Daya Bay Collaboration; Jones|0000-0003-0299-2210 (2022-07-18)
      This Letter reports the first measurement of high-energy reactor antineutrinos at Daya Bay, with nearly 9000 inverse beta decay candidates in the prompt energy region of 8–12 MeV observed over 1958 days of data collection. A multivariate analysis is used to separate 2500 signal events from background statistically. The hypothesis of no reactor antineutrinos with neutrino energy above 10 MeV is rejected with a significance of 6.2 standard deviations. A 29% antineutrino flux deficit in the prompt energy region of 8–11 MeV is observed compared to a recent model prediction. We provide the unfolded antineutrino spectrum above 7 MeV as a data-based reference for other experiments. This result provides the first direct observation of the production of antineutrinos from several high-Qβ isotopes in commercial reactors.