Healthy versus Unhealthy Adipose Tissue Expansion: the Role of Exercise
AuthorMeister, Benjamin M.
GroupCardiovascular Research Center (Temple University)
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/9460
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AbstractAlthough the hallmark of obesity is the expansion of adipose tissue, not all adipose tissue expansion is the same. Expansion of healthy adipose tissue is accompanied by adequate capillary angiogenesis and mitochondria-centered metabolic integrity, whereas expansion of unhealthy adipose tissue is associated with capillary and mitochondrial derangement, resulting in deposition of immune cells (M1-stage macrophages) and excess production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Accumulation of these dysfunctional adipose tissues has been linked to the development of obesity comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease, which are leading causes of human mortality and morbidity in modern society. Mechanistically, vascular rarefaction and mitochondrial incompetency (for example, low mitochondrial content, fragmented mitochondria, defective mitochondrial respiratory function, and excess production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species) are frequently observed in adipose tissue of obese patients. Recent studies have demonstrated that exercise is a potent behavioral intervention for preventing and reducing obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, our understanding of potential cellular mechanisms of exercise, which promote healthy adipose tissue expansion, is at the beginning stage. In this review, we hypothesize that exercise can induce unique physiological stimuli that can alter angiogenesis and mitochondrial remodeling in adipose tissues and ultimately promote the development and progression of healthy adipogenesis. We summarize recent reports on how regular exercise can impose differential processes that lead to the formation of either healthy or unhealthy adipose tissue and discuss key knowledge gaps that warrant future research.
CitationMeister BM, Hong S, Shin J, Rath M, Sayoc J, Park J. Healthy versus Unhealthy Adipose Tissue Expansion: the Role of Exercise. JOMES 2022;31:37-50. https://doi.org/10.7570/jomes21096
Citation to related workKorean Society for the Study of Obesity
Has partJournal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome, Vol. 31
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