Polysubstance Use and Overdose Visualized via Maps: Amphetamines and Cocaine
AuthorRaffa, Robert B.
Pergolizzi, Joseph V., Jr.
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/8142
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AbstractAbuse of drug substances and resultant overdose deaths are no longer very straightforward—viz., attributable to a single chemical entity of known purity. The reality is that most overdose deaths involve polysubstance use (i.e., the use of combinations of substances). Further, the combinations are often of unknown purity, and even of unknown composition. Overdose deaths are at all-time highs. The depressing statistics are monitored and reported by several international and governmental organizations such as the WHO (World Health Organization), CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), several Institutes of the NIH (National Institutes of Health), Regulators, and Enforcement Agencies (e.g., DEA). The information is disseminated for free for review and use. But it is our observation that although numeric presentation is helpful and adequate for professionals, the non-expert and the visual learner often find a visual representation clearer and compelling. With this in mind, we present the “gestalt” of polysubstance use and overdose using available maps of the data. The previous article in the series considered the opioids. This one considers amphetamines and cocaine, and places the rise in opioid-associated overdose deaths in the context of other abused drugs.
CitationRaffa, R. , Jr., J. and Cukier, H. (2022) Polysubstance Use and Overdose Visualized via Maps: Amphetamines and Cocaine. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 13, 140-148. doi: 10.4236/pp.2022.135011.
Citation to related workScientific Research Publishing
Has partPharmacology & Pharmacy, Vol. 13
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