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dc.contributor.advisorMcKenzie, Erica R.
dc.creatorEsfandiar, Narges
dc.date.accessioned2022-08-15T19:07:09Z
dc.date.available2022-08-15T19:07:09Z
dc.date.issued2022
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/8061
dc.description.abstractBioretention is increasingly being employed as a stormwater management tool in urban areas, with the intent of using infiltration to address both water quantity and quality concerns. However, bioretention soil media (BSM) has limited removal capacity for dissolved contaminants; hence, amendments may be justified to improve performance. In this study, the potential of five low-cost sorbents as BSM amendments – waste tire crumb rubber (WTCR), coconut coir fiber (CCF), blast furnace slag (BFS), biochar (BC) and iron coated biochar (FeBC) – were investigated for removing several classes of contaminants from simulated stormwater (SSW). The contaminated SSW contained a mixture of metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn), nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate) and PAHs (pyrene (PYR), phenanthrene (PHE), acenaphthylene (ACY) and naphthalene (NAP)). First, batch studies were used to investigate the sorption capacities, kinetics, and the effects of different water quality parameters on sorbents performance. Then, a long-term vegetated column study was conducted to investigate the performance of three amendments (CCF, WTCR, and BFS) under intermittent runoff condition considering different runoff intensities and antecedent dry periods (ADP). The long-term effects of amendments on plant health and infiltration rate of all media were also investigated. Finally, HYDRUS-1D and a cost model were used to investigate longevity and cost-effectiveness of all BSM. Batch test results revealed that among all sorbents, BC and FeBC were only effective for removing PAHs; CFF had high sorption capacity for both metals and PAHs; BFS was very effective for metals; and WTCR was effective for some of metals and PAHs. Metal removal by BFS occurred primarily via precipitation was due to the BFS mineral structure and high/alkaline pH. The effectiveness of CCF for removing both metals and PAHs was due to its lignocellulose structure and diverse functional groups. CCF could remove metals through several mechanisms including cation exchange, complexation, and electrostatic attraction, and remove PAHs through hydrophobic interaction. Biochar in this study had a highly aromatic structure with less O-containing functional groups, and PAHs were sorbed through hydrophobic pi-pi interactions. The selectivity orders of sorbents for the removal of different metals and PAHs were Cr~Cu~Pb > Ni > Cd > Zn and PYR > PHE > ACY > NAP. This selectivity was mainly caused by differences in properties of metal ions (e.g., ionic radius, hydrogen energy, etc.) and PAHs (e.g., hydrophobicity). Phosphate was removed by BFS due to its Al, Fe and Ca contents, but the other sorbents were ineffective for nutrient removal. Metals sorption capacity of sorbents was greater at higher pH, lower salinity and lower DOC; however, PAHs sorption capacity of sorbents was generally not sensitive to water quality parameters. Column experiments showed that almost all amended and non-amended BSM were able to remove > 99% of influent metals over the 7-month experiment period (except Zn in WTCR media). Cu and Cr effluent concentrations in all media (except BFS media) increased to ~ 10% of influent concentrations during heavy rainfall which was probably due to decomposition of Cu/Cr-organic matter complexes. All bioretention columns removed > 99% of PHE and PYR (higher molecular weight PAHs) regardless of rain intensity and ADP, while the performance of different media for removing the lower molecular weight PAHs (NAP and ACY) varied with the rain intensity, and removal decreased when larger storms were experimentally simulated. For nutrients, among all media, BFS-amended media had high phosphate removal capacity (> 90%). Nitrate removal in all columns was notably affected by changes in stormwater intensity and ADP, likely due to difference in degree of saturation and the potential that anoxic conditions were created, which are favorable for denitrification. All media were ineffective in ammonium removal, and ammonium production occurred throughout experiment which might be due to the lack of nitrifiers in the media. Hydraulic properties of all media were appropriate over the entire experiment. BFS-amended media had the greatest negative effect on plant health, while CCF-amended media was supportive for plants. The transport model results showed that the predicted metal breakthrough times (according to EPA criteria) for different media were 6 years for non-amended media, 7 years for WTCR media, 25 years for CCF media, and 70 years for BFS media. Modeling PAHs, nutrients and some metals (Cr and Cu) under intermittent flow conditions are complicated and other processes and models need to be investigated as future study. Finally, cost analysis results showed that among all bioretention media, CCF- and BFS-amended media with the lowest capital and maintenance costs were the most cost-effective BSM. This research will improve our understanding of BSM amendments that will improve water quality while simultaneously support bioretention system hydrologic function as well as estimating costs of bioretention systems for a long-term application.
dc.format.extent341 pages
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherTemple University. Libraries
dc.relation.ispartofTheses and Dissertations
dc.rightsIN COPYRIGHT- This Rights Statement can be used for an Item that is in copyright. Using this statement implies that the organization making this Item available has determined that the Item is in copyright and either is the rights-holder, has obtained permission from the rights-holder(s) to make their Work(s) available, or makes the Item available under an exception or limitation to copyright (including Fair Use) that entitles it to make the Item available.
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
dc.subjectEnvironmental engineering
dc.subjectCivil engineering
dc.subjectBioretention systems
dc.subjectContaminant transport modeling
dc.subjectContaminants adsorption
dc.subjectLife cycle cost analysis
dc.subjectStormwater management
dc.subjectWater quality
dc.titleStrengths and limitations of bioretention sorbent amendments to simultaneously remove metals, PAHs, and nutrients from urban stormwater runoff
dc.typeText
dc.type.genreThesis/Dissertation
dc.contributor.committeememberSuri, Rominder P. S.
dc.contributor.committeememberRyan, Robert J.
dc.contributor.committeememberUlrich, Bridget A.
dc.description.departmentCivil Engineering
dc.relation.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.34944/dspace/8033
dc.ada.noteFor Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) accommodation, including help with reading this content, please contact scholarshare@temple.edu
dc.description.degreePh.D.
dc.identifier.proqst14938
dc.creator.orcid0000-0002-1528-7943
dc.date.updated2022-08-11T22:08:42Z
dc.embargo.lift08/11/2023
dc.identifier.filenameEsfandiar_temple_0225E_14938.pdf


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