New and Recurrent Concussions in High-School Athletes Before and After Traumatic Brain Injury Laws, 2005–2016
GroupCenter for Public Health Law Research (Temple University Beasley School of Law)
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/7418
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AbstractObjectives. To examine the trends of new and recurrent sports-related concussions in high-school athletes before and after youth sports traumatic brain injury laws. Methods. We used an interrupted time-series design and analyzed the concussion data (2005–2016) from High School Reporting Injury Online. We examined the trends of new or recurrent concussion rates among US representative high-school athletes participating in 9 sports across prelaw, immediate-postlaw, and postlaw periods by using general linear models. We defined 1 athlete exposure as attending 1 competition or practice. Results. We included a total of 8043 reported concussions (88.7% new, 11.3% recurrent). The average annual concussion rate was 39.8 per 100 000 athlete exposures. We observed significantly increased trends of reported new and recurrent concussions from the prelaw, through immediate-postlaw, into the postlaw period. However, the recurrent concussion rate showed a significant decline 2.6 years after the laws went into effect. Football exhibited different trends compared with other boys’ sports and girls’ sports. Conclusions. Observed trends of increased concussion rates are likely attributable to increased identification and reporting. Additional research is needed to evaluate intended long-term impact of traumatic brain injury laws.
DescriptionUsing data from LawAtlas and the High School Report Injury Online between the 2005-2006 and 2015-2016 academic years, the researchers examined the statistical association between the implementation of state laws addressing concussions and actual concussion rates in high school athletes reported by athletic trainers. The study focused on nine common high-school sports: boys’ football, basketball, soccer, baseball, and wrestling; and girls’ basketball, soccer, softball, and volleyball. The study finds a significant decrease in the number of recurrent concussions among high school athletes — meaning the athlete had experienced at least one previous concussion, which are a type of traumatic brain injury. The trend toward decreasing recurrent concussion rates was first seen a little more than two and a half years after the enactment of now-common state-level laws that address removal from play, requirements for clearance to return to play after a concussion, and annual education of coaches, parents and athletes. While the rates of recurrent concussions decreased after 2.6 years, the researchers from the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Temple Univeristy’s Beasley School of Law, and University of Colorado find that rates of concussions actually went up in the years leading up to when the laws became effective, and in the year immediately following a law’s effective dates. During the 11-year period studied, the researchers find a national estimate of nearly 2.7 million concussions, or 671 concussions per day among US high school athletes participating in at least one of the nine sports included in the study. Concussions were more frequently reported during competitions rather than during practice. Football accounted for roughly half of all reported concussions in this study. In gender-comparbale sports, girls’ sports had consistently higher concussion rates than boys’ sports over time.
CitationJingzhen Yang et al., New And Recurrent Concussions In High School Athletes Before And After Traumatic Brain Injury Laws, 2005-2016, 107 Am. J. of Pub. Health 1916 (2017).
Citation to related workAmerican Public Health Association
Has partAmerican Journal of Public Health, Vol. 108, Iss. 4
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