The National Park Service Division of International Affairs: The Case for International Perspectives, 1916-2016
AdvisorBruggeman, Seth C., 1975-
Committee memberLowe, Hilary Iris
Sprinkle, John H.
Division of International Affairs
National Park Service
Office of International Affairs
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/704
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractIn 1916 the United States National Park Service (NPS) was founded to conserve the nation’s natural and cultural landscapes as well as “to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” While much historical analysis has been done by historians and the NPS on the agency’s national history, these scholars have ignored how the NPS was shaped by and contributed to an international history of national parks. Thus, this thesis addresses this historiographical gap and institutional forgetfulness by examining the agency’s Division of International Affairs (DIA). The DIA was established in 1961 by the NPS to foster international cooperation by building national parks overseas, which often advanced foreign policy containment initiatives in the developing world during the Cold War. Following the end of the Cold War, a significant decline in activity and staffing made it more difficult for the DIA to return to the pull of its influence just a decade or two earlier. In 1987 the DIA was renamed the Office of International Affairs (OIA) and has since suffered from many of its parent agency’s larger issues including a decline in staffing, funding, and a host of other issues that have compromised the NPS’s ability to meet its mission. As the NPS celebrates its centennial in 2016, I argue that examining the NPS’s history of international work challenges the agency to consider its past in new ways in the hopes that it reconfigure its mission and future to best meet the needs of its audiences in a globally connected twenty-first century world.
ADA complianceFor Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) accommodation, including help with reading this content, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
RETURN TO THE FIRST IMAGE: A PLACE FOR PEOPLES IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSPollack, Mark A., 1966-; Fioretos, Karl Orfeo, 1966-; Guisinger, Alexandra; Búzás, Zoltán I. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)This project examines the relationship between the international system and the lived experience of peoples. This dissertation is aimed at understanding the ways in which recognition at the international level can shape not only the way people choose to behave, but also the way they conceive of their own identities. It introduces theorizing on the concepts of identity, habitus, and hysteresis to the field of international relations (IR) in an attempt to better understand often overlooked conflicts created by the international state system. In doing so, it includes an exploration of the role that recognition plays in creating idealized identities for everyone in the state system and the resulting conflicts that arise when individuals possess group identities that do not align with the state-based identities that the international system and its structures are premised upon. Through a return to studying the first image in the IR literature I explore the ways in which varying forms of recognition in international institutions (states, collections of law, and IO positions, agreements, and membership rules) impact the way different groups of people view themselves within the larger global order, and how that in turn alters the way they behave politically over time. I argue that misrecognition of the identities of individuals and collectives of individuals by international institutions and actors threatens their habitus, potentially resulting in shifts in their political behavior dependent upon the cohesion of the collective’s sense of self and the support they have from other members of the international community.
The Rise of Global Health: Consensus, Expansion and SpecializationFioretos, Karl Orfeo, 1966-; Pollack, Mark A., 1966-; Deeg, Richard, 1961-; Haignere, Clara S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)This dissertation examines the rise of global health assistance among states, multilateral institutions and NGOs. Resources devoted to global public health expanded rapidly in the 1990s and 2000s, outpacing other areas of development. New agencies have emerged to address public health issues, and existing organizations such as the UNDP, World Bank and EU have expanded their global health operations. Critics fear that the global health regime will become inefficient as it grows, duplicating tasks and skewing resources. The regime complex literature predicts similar suboptimal outcomes. These fears are overblown. While certain inefficiencies are likely as any regime expands, data shows that the allocation of resources generally reflects global health needs. Increased competition, thought to lessen efficiency, has actually pressured multilateral actors to specialize. Specialization offsets the problem of overlapping tasks. The modern global health regime is characterized by increased size, competition, specialization, and a prevailing consensus that emphasizes health as a central component of international development. This consensus holds that societal health prefigures economic growth. The international community, moreover, should cost effectively use increased aid to address the worst disease burdens in the poorest countries. In the cases of states, domestic interests play a role in shaping specialization patterns. Pressure from increased international competition has pressed multilateral institutions to reform and adapt to changing conditions in order to remain relevant in a denser global environment. The diverse cases explored in this dissertation (US, Japan, Sweden, Canada, World Bank, WHO, UNDP and EU) show high degrees of specialization and a surprisingly similar adherence to the consensus.
Who Participates? International Organizations and Non-State Actors in Global GovernancePollack, Mark A., 1966-; Fioretos, Karl Orfeo, 1966-; Bush, Sarah S.; Spiro, Peter J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)Although all Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) interact with non-state actors (NSAs) in some capacity, the extent to which NSAs are granted participatory roles in the governance of IGOs varies substantially. Why do some intergovernmental organizations - intergovernmental clubs of sovereign states - extend access, participatory opportunity or even participatory rights, to non-state actors? The goal of this project is to address the question of variation. I investigate the interests of the actors with power to determine the rules regarding engagement with NSAs - member states and IGO secretariats - and identify specific incentives for each actor to establish rules or practice of engagement with NSAs in each type of engagement. I find that the member states and secretariats that determine these engagement practices benefit from the inclusion or participation of NSAs in specific and predictable ways. By identifying the interests and incentives of the relevant actors, it is possible to predict the creation of particular sorts of engagement and explain variation in those engagement mechanisms across different intergovernmental organizations. I test the proposed relationship between IGO interests and participatory rules through examination of the United Nations system and three UN organizations: The UN Development Programme (UNDP), the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP). I find that the historical evidence supports an interest-based theory for the granting of participation rights to NSAs within IGOS. Secretariats frequently support selective partnerships with NSAs for the purpose of advancing their mission, and assemblies generally prefer to establish informal consultation mechanisms rather than formal rights of participation for NSAs. Formal participation rights linked to the member-state venue of an IGO assembly are advanced only when in the shadow of strong support from states, or where the assembly recognizes that NSA participation provides benefits that cannot be gained through informal consultation alone.