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dc.contributor.advisorPerdew, John P.
dc.creatorBhattarai, Puskar
dc.date.accessioned2021-05-24T18:55:40Z
dc.date.available2021-05-24T18:55:40Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/6534
dc.description.abstractThe Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) finds an approximate solution for the many-electron problem for the ground state energy and density by solving the self-consistent one-electron Schr\"{o}dinger equations. KS-DFT would be an exact theory if we could find the precise form of exchange-correlation energy $(E_{xc})$. However, this would not be computationally feasible. The density functional approximations (DFAs) are designed to be exact in the limit of uniform densities. They require a parametrization of the correlation energy per electron $(\varepsilon_c)$ of the uniform electron gas (UEG). These DFAs take the parametrizations of correlation energy as their input since the exact analytical form of $\varepsilon_c$ is still unknown. Almost all the DFAs of higher rungs of Jacob's ladder employ an additional function on top of $\varepsilon_c$ for approximating their correlation energy. Exchange energies in these DFAs are also approximated by applying an enhancement factor to the exchange energy per electron of the UEG. Exchange-correlation energy is the glue that holds the atoms and molecules together. The correlation energy is an important part of ``nature's glue" that binds one atom to another, and it changes significantly when the bonding of the molecule changes. It is a measure of the effect of Coulomb repulsion due to electronic mutual avoidance and is necessarily negative. We compared three parametrizations of the correlation energy per electron of the uniform electron gas to the original and the corrected density parameter interpolation (DPI), which is almost independent of QMC input, and with the recent QMC of Spink \textit{et al.}, which extends the Ceperley-Alder results to fractional spin polarization and higher densities or smaller Seitz radius $r_s$. These three parametrizations are Perdew-Zunger or PZ 1981, Vosko-Wilk-Nusair or VWN 1980, and Perdew-Wang or PW 1992. The three parametrizations (especially the sophisticated PW92) are closer to the constraint satisfying DPI and are very close to the high-density limit rather than the QMC results of Spink \textit{et al.}. These DFAs suffer from self-interaction error (SIE) which arises due to an imperfect cancellation of self-Hartree energy by self-exchange-correlation energy of a single fully occupied orbital. The self-interaction correction (SIC) method introduced by Perdew and Zunger (PZ) in 1981 to remove the SIE encounters a size-extensivity problem when applied to the Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals. Hence, we make use of Fermi L\"owdin orbitals (FLO) for applying the PZ-SIC to the density functional approximations (DFAs). FLOs are the unitary transformation of the KS orbitals localized at the Fermi orbital descriptor (FOD) positions and then orthonormalized using L\"owdin's symmetric method. The PZ-SIC makes any approximation exact only in the region of one-electron density and no correction if applied to the exact functional. But it spoils the slowly varying (in space) limits of the uncorrected approximate functionals, where those functionals are right by construction. Hence, scaling of PZ-SIC is required such that it remains intact in the region of one-electron density and scales down in the region of many-electron densities. The PZ-SIC improves the performance of DFAs for the properties that involve significant SIE, as in stretched bond situations, but overcorrects for equilibrium properties where SIE is insignificant. This overcorrection is often reduced by LSIC, local scaling of the PZ-SIC to the local spin density approximation (LSDA). We propose a new scaling factor to use in an LSIC-like approach that satisfies an additional important constraint: the correct coefficient of Z in the asymptotic expansion of the $E_{xc}$ for atoms of atomic number Z, which is neglected by LSIC. LSIC and LSIC+ are scaled by functions of the iso-orbital indicator $z_{\sigma}$ that distinguishes one-electron regions from many-electron regions. LSIC+ applied to LSDA works better than LSDA-LSIC and the Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and gives comparable results to the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-GGA in predicting the total energies of atoms, atomization energies, barrier heights, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and bond-length of molecules. LSDA-LSIC and LSDA-LSIC+ both fail to predict interaction energies involving weaker bonds, in sharp contrast to their earlier successes. It is found that more than one set of localized SIC orbitals can yield a nearly degenerate energetic description of the same multiple covalent bonds, suggesting that a consistent chemical interpretation of the localized orbitals requires a new way to choose their Fermi orbital descriptors. A spurious correction to the exact functional would be found unless the self-Hartree and exact self-exchange-correlation terms of the PZ-SIC energy density were expressed in the same gauge. Therefore, LSIC and LSIC+ are applied only to LSDA since only LSDA has the exchange-correlation (xc) energy density in the gauge of the Hartree energy density. The transformation of energy density that achieves the Hartree gauge for the exact xc functional can be applied to approximate functionals. The use of this compliance function guarantees that scaled-down self-interaction correction (sdSIC) will make no spurious non-zero correction to the exact functional and transforms the xc energy density into the Hartree gauge. We start from the interior scaling of PZ-SIC and end at exterior scaling after the gauge transformation. SCAN-sdSIC evaluated on SCAN-SIC total and localized orbital densities is applied to the highly accurate SCAN functional, which is already much better than LSDA. Hence, the predictive power of SCAN-sdSIC is much better, even though it is scaled by $z_\sigma$ too. It provides good results for several ground state properties discussed here, including the interaction energy of weakly bonded systems. SCAN-sdSIC leads to an acceptable description of many equilibrium properties, including the dissociation energies of weak bonds. However, sdSIC fails to produce the correct asymptotic behavior $-\frac{1}{r}$ of xc potential. The xc potential as seen by the outermost electron will be $\frac{-X_{HO}^{sd}}{r}$ where HO labels the highest occupied orbital and hence doesn't guarantee a good description of charge transfer. The optimal SIC that remains to be developed might be PZ-SIC evaluated on complex Fermi-L\"owdin orbitals (with nodeless orbital densities) and Fermi orbital descriptors chosen to minimize a measure of the inhomogeneity of the orbital densities.
dc.format.extent151 pages
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherTemple University. Libraries
dc.relation.ispartofTheses and Dissertations
dc.rightsIN COPYRIGHT- This Rights Statement can be used for an Item that is in copyright. Using this statement implies that the organization making this Item available has determined that the Item is in copyright and either is the rights-holder, has obtained permission from the rights-holder(s) to make their Work(s) available, or makes the Item available under an exception or limitation to copyright (including Fair Use) that entitles it to make the Item available.
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
dc.subjectPhysics
dc.subjectCondensed matter physics
dc.subjectComputational physics
dc.subjectApproximate exchange-correlation functionals
dc.subjectCorrelation energy
dc.subjectDensity functional theory
dc.subjectKohn-Sham theory
dc.subjectScaling of SIC
dc.subjectSelf-interaction correction
dc.titleAssessment of the scaled Perdew-Zunger self-interaction correction applied to three levels of density functional approximations
dc.typeText
dc.type.genreThesis/Dissertation
dc.contributor.committeememberRuzsinzsky, Adrienn
dc.contributor.committeememberYan, Qimin
dc.contributor.committeememberCarnevale, Vincenzo
dc.description.departmentPhysics
dc.relation.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.34944/dspace/6516
dc.ada.noteFor Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) accommodation, including help with reading this content, please contact scholarshare@temple.edu
dc.description.degreePh.D.
dc.identifier.proqst14432
dc.creator.orcid0000-0002-5613-7028
dc.date.updated2021-05-19T16:10:08Z
refterms.dateFOA2021-05-24T18:55:40Z
dc.identifier.filenameBhattarai_temple_0225E_14432.pdf


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