Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/5514
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AbstractBackground: A significant number of proteins have been shown to be intrinsically disordered, meaning that they lack a fixed 3 D structure or contain regions that do not posses a well defined 3 D structure. It has also been proven that a protein's disorder content is related to its function. We have performed an exhaustive analysis and comparison of the disorder content of proteins from prokaryotic organisms (i.e., superkingdoms Archaea and Bacteria) with respect to functional categories they belong to, i.e., Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) and groups of COGs-Cellular processes (Cp), Information storage and processing (Isp), Metabolism (Me) and Poorly characterized (Pc).We also analyzed the disorder content of proteins with respect to various genomic, metabolic and ecological characteristics of the organism they belong to. We used correlations and association rule mining in order to identify the most confident associations between specific modalities of the characteristics considered and disorder content.Results: Bacteria are shown to have a somewhat higher level of protein disorder than archaea, except for proteins in the Me functional group. It is demonstrated that the Isp and Cp functional groups in particular (L-repair function and N-cell motility and secretion COGs of proteins in specific) possess the highest disorder content, while Me proteins, in general, posses the lowest. Disorder fractions have been confirmed to have the lowest level for the so-called order-promoting amino acids and the highest level for the so-called disorder promoters.For each pair of organism characteristics, specific modalities are identified with the maximum disorder proteins in the corresponding organisms, e.g., high genome size-high GC content organisms, facultative anaerobic-low GC content organisms, aerobic-high genome size organisms, etc. Maximum disorder in archaea is observed for high GC content-low genome size organisms, high GC content-facultative anaerobic or aquatic or mesophilic organisms, etc. Maximum disorder in bacteria is observed for high GC content-high genome size organisms, high genome size-aerobic organisms, etc.Some of the most reliable association rules mined establish relationships between high GC content and high protein disorder, medium GC content and both medium and low protein disorder, anaerobic organisms and medium protein disorder, Gammaproteobacteria and low protein disorder, etc. A web site Prokaryote Disorder Database has been designed and implemented at the address http://bioinfo.matf.bg.ac.rs/disorder, which contains complete results of the analysis of protein disorder performed for 296 prokaryotic completely sequenced genomes.Conclusions: Exhaustive disorder analysis has been performed by functional classes of proteins, for a larger dataset of prokaryotic organisms than previously done. Results obtained are well correlated to those previously published, with some extension in the range of disorder level and clear distinction between functional classes of proteins. Wide correlation and association analysis between protein disorder and genomic and ecological characteristics has been performed for the first time. The results obtained give insight into multi-relationships among the characteristics and protein disorder. Such analysis provides for better understanding of the evolutionary process and may be useful for taxon determination. The main drawback of the approach is the fact that the disorder considered has been predicted and not experimentally established. © 2011 Pavlović-Lažetić et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Citation to related workSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
Has partBMC Bioinformatics
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Identification of the effector domain of biglycan that facilitates BMP-2 osteogenic functionJongwattanapisan, P; Terajima, M; Miguez, PA; Querido, W; Nagaoka, H; Sumida, N; Gurysh, EG; Ainslie, KM; Pleshko, N; Perera, L; Yamauchi, M; Pleshko, Nancy|0000-0001-8656-3936 (2018-12-01)© 2018 The Author(s). We have reported that recombinant biglycan (BGN) core protein accelerates bone formation in vivo by enhancing bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 function. The purpose of the present study was to identify the specific domain ("effector") within the BGN core protein that facilitates BMP-2 osteogenic function. Thus, we generated various recombinant and synthetic peptides corresponding to several domains of BGN, and tested their effects on BMP-2 functions in vitro. The results demonstrated that the leucine-rich repeats 2-3 domain (LRR2-3) of BGN significantly enhanced the BMP-2 induced Smad1/5/9 phosphorylation, osteogenic gene expression, and alkaline phosphatase activity in myogenic C2C12 cells. Furthermore, addition of LRR2-3 to osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells accelerated in vitro mineralization without compromising the quality of the mineral and matrix. These data indicate that LRR2-3 is, at least in part, responsible for BGN's ability to enhance BMP-2 osteogenic function, and it could be useful for bone tissue regeneration.
Perturbation of synapsins homeostasis through HIV-1 Tat-mediated suppression of BAG3 in primary neuronal cellsMohseni Ahooyi, T; Torkzaban, B; Shekarabi, M; Tahrir, FG; Decoppet, EA; Cotto, B; Langford, D; Amini, S; Khalili, K (2019-07-01)© 2019, The Author(s). HIV-1 Tat is known to be released by HIV infected non-neuronal cells in the brain, and after entering neurons, compromises brain homeostasis by impairing pro-survival pathways, thus contributing to the development of HIV-associated CNS disorders commonly observed in individuals living with HIV. Here, we demonstrate that synapsins, phosphoproteins that are predominantly expressed in neuronal cells and play a vital role in modulating neurotransmitter release at the pre-synaptic terminal, and neuronal differentiation become targets for Tat through autophagy and protein quality control pathways. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat in neurons results in downregulation of BAG3, a co-chaperone for heat shock proteins (Hsp70/Hsc70) that is implicated in protein quality control (PQC) processes by eliminating mis-folded and damaged proteins, and selective macroautophagy. Our results show that treatment of cells with Tat or suppression of BAG3 expression by siRNA in neuronal cells disturbs subcellular distribution of synapsins and synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) leading to their accumulation in the neuronal soma and along axons in a punctate pattern, rather than being properly distributed at axon-terminals. Further, our results revealed that synapsins partially lost their stability and their removal via lysosomal autophagy was noticeably impaired in cells with low levels of BAG3. The observed impairment of lysosomal autophagy, under this condition, is likely caused by cells losing their ability to process LC3-I to LC3-II, in part due to a decrease in the ATG5 levels upon BAG3 knockdown. These observations ascribe a new function for BAG3 in controlling synaptic communications and illuminate a new downstream target for Tat to elicit its pathogenic effect in impacting neuronal cell function and behavior.
A Spiroligomer α-Helix Mimic That Binds HDM2, Penetrates Human Cells and Stabilizes HDM2 in Cell CultureBrown, ZZ; Akula, K; Arzumanyan, A; Alleva, J; Jackson, M; Bichenkov, E; Sheffield, JB; Feitelson, MA; Schafmeister, CE (2012-10-18)We demonstrate functionalized spiroligomers that mimic the HDM2-bound conformation of the p53 activation domain. Spiroligomers are stereochemically defined, functionalized, spirocyclic monomers coupled through pairs of amide bonds to create spiro-ladder oligomers . Two series of spiroligomers were synthesized, one of structural analogs and one of stereochemical analogs, from which we identified compound 1, that binds HDM2 with a Kd value of 400 nM. The spiroligomer 1 penetrates human liver cancer cells through passive diffusion and in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner increases the levels of HDM2 more than 30-fold in Huh7 cells in which the p53/HDM2 negative feed-back loop is inoperative. This is a biological effect that is not seen with the HDM2 ligand nutlin-3a. We propose that compound 1 modulates the levels of HDM2 by stabilizing it to proteolysis, allowing it to accumulate in the absence of a p53/HDM2 feedback loop. © 2012 Brown et al.