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AbstractBackground: A significant number of proteins have been shown to be intrinsically disordered, meaning that they lack a fixed 3 D structure or contain regions that do not posses a well defined 3 D structure. It has also been proven that a protein's disorder content is related to its function. We have performed an exhaustive analysis and comparison of the disorder content of proteins from prokaryotic organisms (i.e., superkingdoms Archaea and Bacteria) with respect to functional categories they belong to, i.e., Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) and groups of COGs-Cellular processes (Cp), Information storage and processing (Isp), Metabolism (Me) and Poorly characterized (Pc).We also analyzed the disorder content of proteins with respect to various genomic, metabolic and ecological characteristics of the organism they belong to. We used correlations and association rule mining in order to identify the most confident associations between specific modalities of the characteristics considered and disorder content.Results: Bacteria are shown to have a somewhat higher level of protein disorder than archaea, except for proteins in the Me functional group. It is demonstrated that the Isp and Cp functional groups in particular (L-repair function and N-cell motility and secretion COGs of proteins in specific) possess the highest disorder content, while Me proteins, in general, posses the lowest. Disorder fractions have been confirmed to have the lowest level for the so-called order-promoting amino acids and the highest level for the so-called disorder promoters.For each pair of organism characteristics, specific modalities are identified with the maximum disorder proteins in the corresponding organisms, e.g., high genome size-high GC content organisms, facultative anaerobic-low GC content organisms, aerobic-high genome size organisms, etc. Maximum disorder in archaea is observed for high GC content-low genome size organisms, high GC content-facultative anaerobic or aquatic or mesophilic organisms, etc. Maximum disorder in bacteria is observed for high GC content-high genome size organisms, high genome size-aerobic organisms, etc.Some of the most reliable association rules mined establish relationships between high GC content and high protein disorder, medium GC content and both medium and low protein disorder, anaerobic organisms and medium protein disorder, Gammaproteobacteria and low protein disorder, etc. A web site Prokaryote Disorder Database has been designed and implemented at the address http://bioinfo.matf.bg.ac.rs/disorder, which contains complete results of the analysis of protein disorder performed for 296 prokaryotic completely sequenced genomes.Conclusions: Exhaustive disorder analysis has been performed by functional classes of proteins, for a larger dataset of prokaryotic organisms than previously done. Results obtained are well correlated to those previously published, with some extension in the range of disorder level and clear distinction between functional classes of proteins. Wide correlation and association analysis between protein disorder and genomic and ecological characteristics has been performed for the first time. The results obtained give insight into multi-relationships among the characteristics and protein disorder. Such analysis provides for better understanding of the evolutionary process and may be useful for taxon determination. The main drawback of the approach is the fact that the disorder considered has been predicted and not experimentally established. © 2011 Pavlović-Lažetić et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
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Has partBMC Bioinformatics
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Quantifying Nucleoporin Stoichiometry Inside Single Nuclear Pore Complexes In vivoMi, L; Goryaynov, A; Lindquist, A; Rexach, M; Yang, W; Yang, Weidong|0000-0002-3554-3035 (2015-01-01)© 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved. The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is one of the largest supramolecular structures in eukaryotic cells. Its octagonal ring-scaffold perforates the nuclear envelope and features a unique molecular machinery that regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport. NPCs are composed of ∼30 different nucleoporins (Nups), averaged at 8, 16 or 32 copies per NPC. This estimate has not been confirmed for individual NPCs in living cells due to the inherent difficulty of counting proteins inside single supramolecular complexes. Here we used single-molecule SPEED microscopy to directly count the copy-number of twenty-four different Nups within individual NPCs of live yeast, and found agreement as well as significant deviation from previous estimates. As expected, we counted 8 copies of four peripheral Nups and 16 copies of fourteen scaffold Nups. Unexpectedly, we counted a maximum of 16 copies of Nsp1 and Nic96, rather than 32 as previously estimated; and found only 10-15 copies of six other Nups, rather than 8 or 16 copies as expected. This in situ molecular-counting technology can test structure-function models of NPCs and other supramolecular structures in cells.
A Spiroligomer α-Helix Mimic That Binds HDM2, Penetrates Human Cells and Stabilizes HDM2 in Cell CultureBrown, ZZ; Akula, K; Arzumanyan, A; Alleva, J; Jackson, M; Bichenkov, E; Sheffield, JB; Feitelson, MA; Schafmeister, CE (2012-10-18)We demonstrate functionalized spiroligomers that mimic the HDM2-bound conformation of the p53 activation domain. Spiroligomers are stereochemically defined, functionalized, spirocyclic monomers coupled through pairs of amide bonds to create spiro-ladder oligomers . Two series of spiroligomers were synthesized, one of structural analogs and one of stereochemical analogs, from which we identified compound 1, that binds HDM2 with a Kd value of 400 nM. The spiroligomer 1 penetrates human liver cancer cells through passive diffusion and in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner increases the levels of HDM2 more than 30-fold in Huh7 cells in which the p53/HDM2 negative feed-back loop is inoperative. This is a biological effect that is not seen with the HDM2 ligand nutlin-3a. We propose that compound 1 modulates the levels of HDM2 by stabilizing it to proteolysis, allowing it to accumulate in the absence of a p53/HDM2 feedback loop. © 2012 Brown et al.
The retinoblastoma family: Twins or distant cousins?Claudio, PP; Tonini, T; Giordano, A; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2002-09-23)The destiny of a cell - whether it undergoes division, differentiation or death - results from an intricate balance of many regulators, including oncoproteins, tumor-suppressor proteins and cell-cycle-associated proteins. One of the better-studied tumor suppressors is the retinoblastoma protein, known as pRb or p105. Two recently identified proteins, pRb2/p130 and p107, show structural and functional similarities to pRb, and these proteins and their orthologs make up the retinoblastoma (Rb) family. Members of the family have been found in animals and plants, and a related protein is known in the alga Chlamydomonas. Members of the Rb family are bound and inactivated by viral proteins and, in turn, bind cellular transcription factors and repress their function, and can also form complexes with cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases and with histone deacetylases. The are found in the nucleus and their subnuclear localization depends on binding to the nuclear matrix. Members of the family form part of a signal-transduction pathway called the Rb pathway, which is important in cell-cycle regulation and have roles in growth suppression, differentiation and apoptosis in different organisms and cell types.