SubjectAmino Acid Sequence
Merozoite Surface Protein 1
Molecular Sequence Data
Multilocus Sequence Typing
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Tandem Repeat Sequences
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/5465
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AbstractBackground: Recent findings of Plasmodium in African apes have changed our perspectives on the evolution of malarial parasites in hominids. However, phylogenetic analyses of primate malarias are still missing information from Southeast Asian apes. In this study, we report molecular data for a malaria parasite lineage found in orangutans. Methodology/Principal Findings: We screened twenty-four blood samples from Pongo pygmaeus (Kalimantan, Indonesia) for Plasmodium parasites by PCR. For all the malaria positive orangutan samples, parasite mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) and two antigens: merozoite surface protein 1 42 kDa (MSP-1 42) and circumsporozoite protein gene (CSP) were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Fifteen orangutans tested positive and yielded 5 distinct mitochondrial haplotypes not previously found. The haplotypes detected exhibited low genetic divergence among them, indicating that they belong to one species. We report phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial genomes, MSP-1 42 and CSP. We found that the orangutan malaria parasite lineage was part of a monophyletic group that includes all the known non-human primate malaria parasites found in Southeast Asia; specifically, it shares a recent common ancestor with P. inui (a macaque parasite) and P. hylobati (a gibbon parasite) suggesting that this lineage originated as a result of a host switch. The genetic diversity of MSP-1 42 in orangutans seems to be under negative selection. This result is similar to previous findings in non-human primate malarias closely related to P. vivax. As has been previously observed in the other Plasmodium species found in non-human primates, the CSP shows high polymorphism in the number of repeats. However, it has clearly distinctive motifs from those previously found in other malarial parasites. Conclusion: The evidence available from Asian apes indicates that these parasites originated independently from those found in Africa, likely as the result of host switches from other non-human primates. © 2012 Pacheco et al.
Citation to related workPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
Has partPLoS ONE
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Evolutionary interactions between N-Linked glycosylation sites in the HIV-1 envelopePoon, AFY; Lewis, FI; Kosakovsky Pond, SL; Frost, SDW; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky|0000-0003-4817-4029 (2007-01-01)The addition of asparagine (N)-linked polysaccharide chains (i.e., glycans) to the gp120 and gp41 glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope is not only required for correct protein folding, but also may provide protection against neutralizing antibodies as a "glycan shield." As a result, strong host-specific selection is frequently associated with codon positions where nonsynonymous substitutions can create or disrupt potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGSs). Moreover, empirical data suggest that the individual contribution of PNGSs to the neutralization sensitivity or infectivity of HIV-1 may be critically dependent on the presence or absence of other PNGSs in the envelope sequence. Here we evaluate how glycan-glycan interactions have shaped the evolution of HIV-1 envelope sequences by analyzing the distribution of PNGSs in a large-sequence alignment. Using a "covarion"-type phylogenetic model, we find that the rates at which individual PNGSs are gained or lost vary significantly over time, suggesting that the selective advantage of having a PNGS may depend on the presence or absence of other PNGSs in the sequence. Consequently, we identify specific interactions between PNGSs in the alignment using a new paired-character phylogenetic model of evolution, and a Bayesian graphical model. Despite the fundamental differences between these two methods, several interactions are jointly identified by both. Mapping these interactions onto a structural model of HIV-1 gp120 reveals that negative (exclusive) interactions occur significantly more often between colocalized glycans, while positive (inclusive) interactions are restricted to more distant glycans. Our results imply that the adaptive repertoire of alternative configurations in the HIV-1 glycan shield is limited by functional interactions between the N-linked glycans. This represents a potential vulnerability of rapidly evolving HIV-1 populations that may provide useful glycan-based targets for neutralizing antibodies. © 2007 Poon et al.
A cyclic nucleotide-gated channel mutation associated with canine daylight blindness provides insight into a role for the S2 segment Tri-Asp motif in channel biogenesisTanaka, N; Delemotte, L; Klein, ML; Komáromy, AM; Tanaka, JC (2014-02-21)Cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels are tetramers formed by CNGA3 and CNGB3 subunits; CNGA3 subunits function as homotetrameric channels but CNGB3 exhibits channel function only when co-expressed with CNGA3. An aspartatic acid (Asp) to asparagine (Asn) missense mutation at position 262 in the canine CNGB3 (D262N) subunit results in loss of cone function (daylight blindness), suggesting an important role for this aspartic acid residue in channel biogenesis and/or function. Asp 262 is located in a conserved region of the second transmembrane segment containing three Asp residues designated the Tri-Asp motif. This motif is conserved in all CNG channels. Here we examine mutations in canine CNGA3 homomeric channels using a combination of experimental and computational approaches. Mutations of these conserved Asp residues result in the absence of nucleotide-activated currents in heterologous expression. A fluorescent tag on CNGA3 shows mislocalization of mutant channels. Co-expressing CNGB3 Tri-Asp mutants with wild type CNGA3 results in some functional channels, however, their electrophysiological characterization matches the properties of homomeric CNGA3 channels. This failure to record heteromeric currents suggests that Asp/Asn mutations affect heteromeric subunit assembly. A homology model of S1-S6 of the CNGA3 channel was generated and relaxed in a membrane using molecular dynamics simulations. The model predicts that the Tri-Asp motif is involved in non-specific salt bridge pairings with positive residues of S3/S4. We propose that the D262N mutation in dogs with CNGB3-day blindness results in the loss of these inter-helical interactions altering the electrostatic equilibrium within in the S1-S4 bundle. Because residues analogous to Tri-Asp in the voltage-gated Shaker potassium channel family were implicated in monomer folding, we hypothesize that destabilizing these electrostatic interactions impairs the monomer folding state in D262N mutant CNG channels during biogenesis. © 2014 Tanaka et al.
Organization and differential expression of the GACA/GATA tagged somatic and spermatozoal transcriptomes in Buffalo Bubalus bubalisSrivastava, J; Premi, S; Kumar, S; Ali, S; Kumar, Sudhir|0000-0002-9918-8212 (2008-03-20)Background: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of GACA/GATA have been implicated with differentiation of sex-chromosomes and speciation. However, the organization of these repeats within genomes and transcriptomes, even in the best characterized organisms including human, remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to explore the buffalo transcriptome for its association with GACA/GATA repeats, and study the structural organization and differential expression of the GACA/GATA repeat tagged transcripts. Moreover, the distribution of GACA and GATA repeats in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes was studied to highlight their significance in genome evolution. Results: We explored several genomes and transcriptomes, and observed total absence of these repeats in the prokaryotes, with their gradual accumulation in higher eukaryotes. Further, employing novel microsatellite associated sequence amplification (MASA) approach using varying length oligos based on GACA and GATA repeats; we identified and characterized 44 types of known and novel mRNA transcripts tagged with these repeats from different somatic tissues, gonads and spermatozoa of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. GACA was found to be associated with higher number of transcripts compared to that with GATA. Exclusive presence of several GACA-tagged transcripts in a tissue or spermatozoa, and absence of the GATA-tagged ones in lung/heart highlights their tissue-specific significance. Of all the GACA/GATA tagged transcripts, ∼30% demonstrated inter-tissue and/or tissue-spermatozoal sequence polymorphisms. Significantly, ∼60% of the GACA-tagged and all the GATA-tagged transcripts showed highest or unique expression in the testis and/or spermatozoa. Moreover, ∼75% GACA-tagged and all the GATA-tagged transcripts were found to be conserved across the species. Conclusion: Present study is a pioneer attempt exploring GACA/GATA tagged transcriptome in any mammalian species highlighting their tissue, stage and species-specific expression profiles. Comparative analysis suggests the gradual accumulation of these repeats in the higher eukaryotes, and establishes the GACA richness of the buffalo transcriptome. This is envisaged to establish the roles of integral simple sequence repeats and tagged transcripts in gene expression or regulation. © 2008 Srivastava et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.