DING Proteins from Phylogenetically Different Species Share High Degrees of Sequence and Structure Homology and Block Transcription of HIV-1 LTR Promoter
SubjectAmino Acid Sequence
Cell Line, Tumor
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Molecular Sequence Data
NF-kappa B p50 Subunit
Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Protein Structure, Quaternary
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Terminal Repeat Sequences
Transcription Factor RelA
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/5385
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AbstractIndependent research groups reported that DING protein homologues isolated from bacterial, plant and human cells demonstrate the anti-HIV-1 activity. This might indicate that diverse organisms utilize a DING-mediated broad-range protective innate immunity response to pathogen invasion, and that this mechanism is effective also against HIV-1. We performed structural analyses and evaluated the anti-HIV-1 activity for four DING protein homologues isolated from different species. Our data show that bacterial PfluDING, plant p38SJ (pDING), human phosphate binding protein (HPBP) and human extracellular DING from CD4 T cells (X-DING-CD4) share high degrees of structure and sequence homology. According to earlier reports on the anti-HIV-1 activity of pDING and X-DING-CD4, other members of this protein family from bacteria and humans were able to block transcription of HIV-1 and replication of virus in cell based assays. The efficacy studies for DING-mediated HIV-1 LTR and HIV-1 replication blocking activity showed that the LTR transcription inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values ranged from 0.052-0.449 ng/ml; and the HIV-1 replication IC50 values ranged from 0.075-0.311 ng/ml. Treatment of cells with DING protein alters the interaction between p65-NF-κB and HIV-1 LTR. Our data suggest that DING proteins may be part of an innate immunity defense against pathogen invasion; the conserved structure and activity makes them appealing candidates for development of a novel therapeutics targeting HIV-1 transcription. © 2013 Sachdeva et al.
Citation to related workPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
Has partPLoS ONE
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A cyclic nucleotide-gated channel mutation associated with canine daylight blindness provides insight into a role for the S2 segment Tri-Asp motif in channel biogenesisTanaka, N; Delemotte, L; Klein, ML; Komáromy, AM; Tanaka, JC (2014-02-21)Cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels are tetramers formed by CNGA3 and CNGB3 subunits; CNGA3 subunits function as homotetrameric channels but CNGB3 exhibits channel function only when co-expressed with CNGA3. An aspartatic acid (Asp) to asparagine (Asn) missense mutation at position 262 in the canine CNGB3 (D262N) subunit results in loss of cone function (daylight blindness), suggesting an important role for this aspartic acid residue in channel biogenesis and/or function. Asp 262 is located in a conserved region of the second transmembrane segment containing three Asp residues designated the Tri-Asp motif. This motif is conserved in all CNG channels. Here we examine mutations in canine CNGA3 homomeric channels using a combination of experimental and computational approaches. Mutations of these conserved Asp residues result in the absence of nucleotide-activated currents in heterologous expression. A fluorescent tag on CNGA3 shows mislocalization of mutant channels. Co-expressing CNGB3 Tri-Asp mutants with wild type CNGA3 results in some functional channels, however, their electrophysiological characterization matches the properties of homomeric CNGA3 channels. This failure to record heteromeric currents suggests that Asp/Asn mutations affect heteromeric subunit assembly. A homology model of S1-S6 of the CNGA3 channel was generated and relaxed in a membrane using molecular dynamics simulations. The model predicts that the Tri-Asp motif is involved in non-specific salt bridge pairings with positive residues of S3/S4. We propose that the D262N mutation in dogs with CNGB3-day blindness results in the loss of these inter-helical interactions altering the electrostatic equilibrium within in the S1-S4 bundle. Because residues analogous to Tri-Asp in the voltage-gated Shaker potassium channel family were implicated in monomer folding, we hypothesize that destabilizing these electrostatic interactions impairs the monomer folding state in D262N mutant CNG channels during biogenesis. © 2014 Tanaka et al.
Organization and differential expression of the GACA/GATA tagged somatic and spermatozoal transcriptomes in Buffalo Bubalus bubalisSrivastava, J; Premi, S; Kumar, S; Ali, S; Kumar, Sudhir|0000-0002-9918-8212 (2008-03-20)Background: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of GACA/GATA have been implicated with differentiation of sex-chromosomes and speciation. However, the organization of these repeats within genomes and transcriptomes, even in the best characterized organisms including human, remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to explore the buffalo transcriptome for its association with GACA/GATA repeats, and study the structural organization and differential expression of the GACA/GATA repeat tagged transcripts. Moreover, the distribution of GACA and GATA repeats in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes was studied to highlight their significance in genome evolution. Results: We explored several genomes and transcriptomes, and observed total absence of these repeats in the prokaryotes, with their gradual accumulation in higher eukaryotes. Further, employing novel microsatellite associated sequence amplification (MASA) approach using varying length oligos based on GACA and GATA repeats; we identified and characterized 44 types of known and novel mRNA transcripts tagged with these repeats from different somatic tissues, gonads and spermatozoa of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. GACA was found to be associated with higher number of transcripts compared to that with GATA. Exclusive presence of several GACA-tagged transcripts in a tissue or spermatozoa, and absence of the GATA-tagged ones in lung/heart highlights their tissue-specific significance. Of all the GACA/GATA tagged transcripts, ∼30% demonstrated inter-tissue and/or tissue-spermatozoal sequence polymorphisms. Significantly, ∼60% of the GACA-tagged and all the GATA-tagged transcripts showed highest or unique expression in the testis and/or spermatozoa. Moreover, ∼75% GACA-tagged and all the GATA-tagged transcripts were found to be conserved across the species. Conclusion: Present study is a pioneer attempt exploring GACA/GATA tagged transcriptome in any mammalian species highlighting their tissue, stage and species-specific expression profiles. Comparative analysis suggests the gradual accumulation of these repeats in the higher eukaryotes, and establishes the GACA richness of the buffalo transcriptome. This is envisaged to establish the roles of integral simple sequence repeats and tagged transcripts in gene expression or regulation. © 2008 Srivastava et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.