The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5): Development and First Psychometric Evidence of a New Scale for Assessing Anxiety Disorders Symptoms of Children and Adolescents
Hoff Esbjørn, B
de Hullu, E
SubjectAnxiety disorders symptoms
Children and adolescents
Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Reproducibility of Results
Test Anxiety Scale
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/5144
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Abstract© 2016, The Author(s). The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a new self- and parent-report questionnaire to assess anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. International panels of childhood anxiety researchers and clinicians were used to construct a scale consisting of two parts: part one consists of 28 items and measures the major anxiety disorders including separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, whereas part two contains 22 items that focus on specific phobias and (given its overlap with situational phobias) agoraphobia. In general, the face validity of the new scale was good; most of its items were successfully linked to the intended anxiety disorders. Notable exceptions were the selective mutism items, which were frequently considered as symptoms of social anxiety disorder, and some specific phobia items especially of the natural environment, situational and other type, that were regularly assigned to an incorrect category. A preliminary investigation of the YAM-5 in non-clinical (N = 132) and clinically referred (N = 64) children and adolescents indicated that the measure was easy to complete by youngsters. In addition, support was found for the psychometric qualities of the measure: that is, the internal consistency was good for both parts, as well as for most of the subscales, the parent–child agreement appeared satisfactory, and there was also evidence for the validity of the scale. The YAM-5 holds promise as a tool for assessing anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents.
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Has partChild Psychiatry and Human Development
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AN ETIOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF BIPOLAR DISORDER-ANXIETY DISORDER COMORBIDITY: THE ROLE OF ANXIETY SENSITIVITY AND TRAIT ANXIETYAlloy, Lauren B.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Drabick, Deborah A.; Weisberg, Robert W.; Fauber, Robert L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)Little to no research has evaluated factors that explain the manifestation and maintenance of bipolar disorder-anxiety disorder (BD-AD) comorbidity. The literature has shown that disruption of social and circadian rhythms is associated with mood episode onset. This association is especially pronounced among individuals who have a sensitive behavioral approach system (BAS). Inasmuch as anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety have been associated both with BD and social rhythm disruption, it is worth examining whether anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety confer risk for mood episode onset. The aims of this project were to: 1) evaluate trait anxiety and anxiety sensitivity as predictors of social rhythm disruption and BD-AD comorbidity, 2) examine social rhythm disruption (SRD) as a mediator of the association between trait anxiety and anxiety sensitivity and BD-AD comorbidity status, and 3) explore behavioral approach system sensitivity in these processes as contributing to the vulnerability to BD-AD comorbidity. A sample of 156 young adults participated in a multi-wave study in which they completed diagnostic interviews, symptom measures, and life event interviews which assessed the occurrence of positive and negative life events and the degree of SRD following these events every six months. Partial support for the hypotheses was found. Initial anxiety sensitivity, but not trait anxiety, positively predicted SRD for rewarding life events and follow-up bipolar symptoms. Additionally, SRD following positive life events predicted increases in depressive symptoms, but not hypomanic symptoms. SRD mediated the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, this relationship was stronger for healthy controls than for those with a bipolar disorder (BD) diagnosis or at-risk for developing BD. Moreover, individuals with a comorbid BD-AD diagnosis tended to have greater social rhythm disruption following negative life events than BD only or healthy individuals. Unexpectedly, individuals with comorbid BD-AD did not exhibit greater anxiety sensitivity or trait anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that anxiety sensitivity is a factor that may help to identify individuals who are vulnerable to bipolar symptoms. Furthermore, SRD is a mechanism that may partially explain this relationship.
Attention Bias and Attentional Control in the Development of Social Anxiety DisorderHeimberg, Richard G.; Giovannetti, Tania; Chein, Jason M.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Kendall, Philip C. (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)Although several efficacious treatments exist for social anxiety disorder (SAD), less research has been devoted to identifying specific mechanisms involved in the etiology of SAD using high-risk, longitudinal designs. Given the high prevalence and personal and societal burden associated with a diagnosis of SAD, research is needed to elucidate causal factors at play in the development of SAD to inform innovative prevention programs for at-risk individuals. Theoretical models and empirical research suggest that biased attention toward threat-relevant information is an important factor in the maintenance of SAD. However, relatively little is known about the role of attention bias to threat in the development of SAD, and evidence is inconclusive with regard to whether attention biases lead to increases in anxiety over time. Also, only one study has examined attentional control as a potential factor moderating this relationship despite long-held assertions that "control over cognitive processes" may be an important individual difference factor determining the strength of the relationship between attention bias and development of excessive anxiety. Finally, a few studies have shown that attention bias to threat predicts stress reactivity, but these studies have only been conducted in unselected samples rather than with individuals at risk for developing SAD. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine the moderating effects of risk for SAD and attentional control on the relationships between attention bias to threat and (1) psychological and biological social stress reactivity and (2) development of SAD. The primary aim of the study was to examine the aforementioned relationships using attention bias to threat as assessed using the modified probe detection task (MPDT). In an exploratory analysis, the relationships were examined using an index of attention disengagement bias assessed with the Posner spatial cueing task (PSCT). Attentional control was represented by four indices, analyzed in separate regression analyses given their weak bivariate associations (i.e., Antisaccade task reaction time and accuracy rate, Attention Network Test executive control score, and total score on the Attentional Control Scale). First-year college students at low or high risk for developing SAD completed assessments of attention bias, attentional control, and anxiety during their first month of college. Approximately four months later, they completed a social stressor task and the same self-report measures of social anxiety. At the end of their first year in college, they completed the self-report measures of social anxiety once more, as well as a diagnostic interview for SAD. Correlational analyses indicated that attention bias to threat on the MPDT was associated with concurrent self-reported social anxiety but did not prospectively predict psychological or biological social stress reactivity, self-reported social anxiety, or SAD diagnostic status at the end of the first year in college. Hierarchical regression analyses supported the hypothesized double moderation for concurrent social anxiety, such that high levels of attentional control weakened the association between attention bias toward threat and social anxiety, only among the individuals at high risk for SAD. However, analyses did not support this relationship in predicting prospective outcomes, and several unexpected patterns emerged in which interactions between attention bias and attentional control were observed to predict prospective outcomes, but only among individuals at low risk for developing SAD. Likewise, exploratory analyses using the PSCT index of attention bias revealed unexpected interactions between risk group, attention bias, and attentional control. Considered together, results of the current study highlight the importance of considering individual differences in attention bias and attentional control in the maintenance and development of SAD.
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