• Warming the postpartum body as a form of postnatal care: An ethnographic study of medical injections and traditional health practices in Cambodia

      Bazzano, AN; Stolow, JA; Duggal, R; Oberhelman, RA; Var, C (2020-02-01)
      © 2020 Bazzano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Postpartum care is a critical element for ensuring survival and health of mothers and newborns but is often inadequate in low- and middle-income countries due to barriers to access and resource constraints. Newly delivered mothers and their families often rely on traditional forms of postnatal care rooted in social and cultural customs or may blend modern and traditional forms of care. This ethnographic study sought to explore use of biomedical and traditional forms of postnatal care. Data were collected through unstructured observation and in-depth interviews with 15 mothers. Participants reported embracing traditional understandings of health and illness in the post-partum period centered on heating the body through diet, steaming, and other applications of heat, yet also seeking injections from private health care providers. Thematic analysis explored concepts related to transitioning forms of postnatal care, valuing of care through different lenses, and diverse sources of advice on postnatal care. Mothers also described concurrent use of both traditional medicine and biomedical postnatal care, and the importance of adhering to cultural traditions of postnatal care for future health. Maternal and newborn health are closely associated with postnatal care, so ensuring culturally appropriate and high-quality care must be an important priority for stakeholders including understand health practices that are evolving to include injections.
    • WearSense: Detecting Autism Stereotypic Behaviors through Smartwatches

      Amiri, Amir Mohammad; Peltier, Nicholas; Goldberg, Cody; Sun, Yan; Nathan, Anoo; Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Mankodiya, Kunal (2017-03)
      Autism is a complex developmental disorder that affects approximately 1 in 68 children (according to the recent survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-CDC) in the U.S., and has become the fastest growing category of special education. Each student with autism comes with her or his own unique needs and an array of behaviors and habits that can be severe and which interfere with everyday tasks. Autism is associated with intellectual disability, impairments in social skills, and physical health issues such as sleep and abdominal disturbances. We have designed an Internet-of-Things (IoT) framework named WearSense that leverages the sensing capabilities of modern smartwatches to detect stereotypic behaviors in children with autism. In this work, we present a study that used the inbuilt accelerometer of a smartwatch to detect three behaviors, including hand flapping, painting, and sibbing that are commonly observed in children with autism. In this feasibility study, we recruited 14 subjects to record the accelerometer data from the smartwatch worn on the wrist. The processing part extracts 34 different features in each dimension of the three-axis accelerometer, resulting in 102 features. Using and comparing various classification techniques revealed that an ensemble of 40 decision trees has the best accuracy of around 94.6%. This accuracy shows the quality of the data collected from the smartwatch and feature extraction methods used in this study. The recognition of these behaviors by using a smartwatch would be helpful in monitoring individuals with autistic behaviors, since the smartwatch can send the data to the cloud for comprehensive analysis and also to help parents, caregivers, and clinicians make informed decisions.
    • What Causes Polarization on IP Policy?

      Wittlin, Maggie Wittlin; Ouellette, Lisa Larrimore; Mandel, Gregory N. (2018)
      Polarization on contentious policy issues is a problem of national concern for both hot-button cultural issues such as climate change and gun control and for issues of interest to more specialized constituencies. Cultural debates have become so contentious that in many cases people are unable to agree even on the underlying facts needed to resolve these issues. Here, we tackle this problem in the context of intellectual property (“IP”) law. Despite an explosion in the quantity and quality of empirical evidence about the IP system, IP policy debates have become increasingly polarized. This disagreement about existing evidence concerning the effects of the IP system hinders democratic deliberation and stymies progress. Based on a survey of U.S. IP practitioners, this Article investigates the source of polarization on IP issues, with the goal of understanding how to better enable evidence-based IP policymaking. We hypothesized that, contrary to intuition, more evidence on the effects of IP law would not resolve IP disputes but would instead exacerbate them. Specifically, IP polarization might stem from “cultural cognition,” a form of motivated reasoning in which people form factual beliefs that conform to their cultural predispositions and interpret new evidence in light of those beliefs. The cultural cognition framework has helped explain polarization over other issues of national concern, but it has never been tested in a private-law context. Our survey results provide support for the influence of cultural cognition, as respondents with a relatively hierarchical or individualistic worldview are more likely to believe strong patent protection is necessary to spur innovation. Additionally, having a hierarchical or individualistic worldview and also viewing patent rights as property rights may be a better predictor of patent strength preferences than either alone. Taken together, our findings suggest that individuals’ cultural preferences affect how they understand new information about the IP system. We discuss the implications of these results for fostering evidence-based IP policymaking, as well as for addressing polarization more broadly. For example, we suggest that empirical legal studies borrow from medical research by initiating a practice of advance registration of new projects — in which the planned methodology is publicly disclosed before data are gathered — to promote broader acceptance of the results.
    • What do social groups have to do with culture? The crucial role of shared experience

      Bergey, Bradley W.; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-0495-7219; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2010)
    • What Drives Task Performance During Animal Fluency in People With Alzheimer’s Disease?

      Rofes, A; de Aguiar, V; Jonkers, R; Oh, SJ; DeDe, G; Sung, JE (2020-07-21)
      © Copyright © 2020 Rofes, de Aguiar, Jonkers, Oh, DeDe and Sung. Background: Animal fluency is a widely used task to assess people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders. The mechanisms that drive performance in this task are argued to rely on language and executive functions. However, there is little information regarding what specific aspects of these cognitive processes drive performance on this task. Objective: To understand which aspects of language (i.e., semantics, phonological output lexicon, phonological assembly) and executive function (i.e., mental set shifting; information updating and monitoring; inhibition of possible responses) are involved in the performance of animal fluency in people with AD. Methods: Animal fluency data from 58 people with probable AD from the DementiaBank Pittsburgh Corpus were analyzed. Number of clusters and switches were measured and nine word properties (e.g., frequency, familiarity) for each of the correct words (i.e., each word counting toward the total score, disregarding non-animals and repetitions) were determined. Random forests were used to understand which variables predicted the total number of correct words, and conditional inference trees were used to search for interactions between the variables. Finally, Wilcoxon tests were implemented to cross-validate the results, by comparing the performance of participants with scores below the norm in animal fluency against participants with scores within the norm based on a large normative sample. Results: Switches and age of acquisition emerged as the most important variables to predict total number of correct words in animal fluency in people with AD. Cross-validating the results, people with AD whose animal fluency scores fell below the norm produced fewer switches and words with lower age of acquisition than people with AD with scores in the normal range. Conclusion: The results indicate that people with AD rely on executive functioning (information updating and monitoring) and language (phonological output lexicon, not necessarily semantics) to produce words on animal fluency.
    • What fraction of duplicates observed in recently sequenced genomes is segregating and destined to fail to fix?

      Teufel, AI; Masel, J; Liberles, DA; Liberles, David A|0000-0003-3487-8826 (2015-07-27)
      © The Author(s) 2015. Most sequenced eukaryotic genomes show a large excess of recent duplicates. As duplicates age, both the population genetic process of failed fixation and the mutation-driven process of nonfunctionalization act to reduce the observed number of duplicates. Understanding the processes generating the age distributions of recent duplicates is important to also understand the role of duplicate genes in the functional divergence of genomes. To date, mechanistic models for duplicate gene retention only account for the mutation-driven nonfunctionalization process. Here, a neutral model for the distribution of synonymous substitutions in duplicated genes which are segregating and expected to never fix in a population is introduced. This model enables differentiation of neutral loss due to failed fixation from loss due to mutation-driven nonfunctionalization. The model has been validated on simulated data and subsequent analysis with the model on genomic data from human and mouse shows that conclusions about the underlying mechanisms for duplicate gene retention can be sensitive to consideration of population genetic processes.
    • What is IP For? Experiments in Lay and Expert Perceptions

      Mandel, Gregory N. (2016)
      The normative justifications for intellectual property (“IP”) law are richly debated. Some policymakers and experts argue that intellectual property should serve utilitarian goals, while others contend that the law should seek to protect natural rights or expressive ends. Such debates have historically lacked data concerning how human actors in the IP system actually conceive of the law. This Essay examines the results of experiments on the understanding of IP law for two critical components of the IP system: the public at large and IP attorneys. The studies of popular perceptions of IP law reveal that the most prevalent perception does not align with any of the commonly accepted bases. Rather, the modal response is that IP law exists to prevent plagiarism. The study of IP attorneys displays much greater alignment with an incentivist approach to IP rights. That being said, even here there is still variation in this conception and in how IP conceptions align with opinions on the strength of protection. These results raise significant questions about the legitimacy and function of IP law under its traditional justifications.
    • What Is Required for Neuronal Calcium Waves? A Numerical Parameter Study

      Breit, M; Queisser, G (2018-12-01)
      © 2018, The Author(s). Neuronal calcium signals propagating by simple diffusion and reaction with mobile and stationary buffers are limited to cellular microdomains. The distance intracellular calcium signals can travel may be significantly increased by means of calcium-induced calcium release from internal calcium stores, notably the endoplasmic reticulum. The organelle, which can be thought of as a cell-within-a-cell, is able to sequester large amounts of cytosolic calcium ions via SERCA pumps and selectively release them into the cytosol through ryanodine receptor channels leading to the formation of calcium waves. In this study, we set out to investigate the basic properties of such dendritic calcium waves and how they depend on the three parameters dendrite radius, ER radius and ryanodine receptor density in the endoplasmic membrane. We demonstrate that there are stable and abortive regimes for calcium waves, depending on the above morphological and physiological parameters. In stable regimes, calcium waves can travel across long dendritic distances, similar to electrical action potentials. We further observe that abortive regimes exist, which could be relevant for spike-timing dependent plasticity, as travel distances and wave velocities vary with changing intracellular architecture. For some of these regimes, analytic functions could be derived that fit the simulation data. In parameter spaces, that are non-trivially influenced by the three-dimensional calcium concentration profile, we were not able to derive such a functional description, demonstrating the mathematical requirement to model and simulate biochemical signaling in three-dimensional space.
    • What journalists retweet: Opinion, humor, and brand development on Twitter

      Molyneux, Logan; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-09-25)
      Using Twitter, journalists may pass along comment from other users without, at least ostensibly, taking accountability for that message. Minimizing responsibility and editorial oversight, as is the case with retweets, allows a different view of individual journalists as gatekeepers. Through a qualitative textual analysis, this study finds that journalists are challenging norms of objectivity and independence on Twitter. Journalists frequently pass along subtle interpretation and analysis rather than strong opinions. Many retweets are humorous, sometimes even at journalism’s expense. Journalists also retweet many messages about themselves, working to build a personal brand and relationships with their audience. Implications for journalists, their industry, and the audience are discussed.
    • What shall I be, what must I be: Neural correlates of personal goal activation

      Strauman, TJ; Detloff, AM; Sestokas, R; Smith, DV; Goetz, EL; Rivera, C; Kwapil, L (2012-12-09)
      How is the brain engaged when people are thinking about their hopes, dreams, and obligations? Regulatory focus theory postulates two classes of personal goals and motivational systems for pursuing them. Ideal goals, such as hopes and aspirations, are pursued via the promotion system through "making good things happen." Ought goals, such as obligations or responsibilities, are pursued via the prevention system through "keeping bad things from happening." This study investigated the neural correlates of ideal and ought goal priming using an event-related fMRI design with rapid masked stimulus presentations. We exposed participants to their self-identified ideal and ought goals, yoked control words and nonwords. We also examined correlations between goal-related activation and measures of regulatory focus, behavioral activation/inhibition, and negative affect. Ideal priming led to activation in frontal and occipital regions as well as caudate and thalamus, whereas prevention goal priming was associated with activation in precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. Individual differences in dysphoric/anxious affect and regulatory focus, but not differences in BAS/BIS strength, were predictive of differential activation in response to goal priming. The regions activated in response to ideal and ought goal priming broadly map onto the cortical midline network that has been shown to index processing of self-referential stimuli. Individual differences in regulatory focus and negative affect impact this network and appeared to influence the strength and accessibility of the promotion and prevention systems. The results support a fundamental distinction between promotion and prevention and extend our understanding of how personal goals influence behavior. © 2012 Strauman, Detloff, Sestokas, Smith, Goetz, Rivera and Kwapil.
    • When green infrastructure turns grey: Plant water stress as a consequence of overdesign in a tree trench system

      Tu, Min-cheng; Caplan, Joshua; Eisenman, Sasha W.; Wadzuk, Bridget M.; Caplan|0000-0003-4624-2956 (2020-02-19)
      Green infrastructure (GI) systems are often overdesigned. This may be a byproduct of static sizing (e.g., accounting for a design storm’s runoff volume but not exfiltration rates) or may be deliberate (e.g., buffering against performance loss through time). In tree trenches and other GI systems that require stormwater to accumulate in an infiltration bed before it contacts the planting medium, overdesign could reduce plant water availability significantly. This study investigated the hydrological dynamics and water relations of an overdesigned tree trench system and identified factors contributing to, compounding, and mitigating the risk of plant stress. Water in the infiltration bed reached soil pits only once in three years, with that event occurring during a hydrant release. Moreover, minimal water was retained in soil pits during the event due to the hydraulic properties of the soil media. Through a growing season, one of the two tree types frequently experienced water stress, while the other did so only rarely. These contrasting responses can likely be attributed to roots being largely confined to the soil pits vs. reaching a deeper water source, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that, in systems where soil pits are embedded in infiltration beds, overdesign can raise the storm size required for water to reach the soil media, reducing plant water availability between storms, and ultimately inducing physiological stress.
    • When to Open Infrastructure Access

      Mandel, Gregory N. (2008)
      This Essay comments on and develops Professor Brett Frischmann's concept of infrastructure commons, a theory which suggests that a variety of public and social resources (including information, transportation, environmental, and intellectual property resources) should be managed through open access regimes. Infrastructure theory remains underdeveloped, as it does not identify under which circumstances public and social infrastructure should be managed as commons or how the commons should operate for such resources. Differentiating the developmental stage of an infrastructure resource-whether it is yet to be conceived, yet to be produced, or needs to be managed-can help to fill this gap. Infrastructure at different stages of development poses different challenges for optimizing social value, and the nature and strength of rationales supporting open access vary significantly across the different infrastructure stages. This Essay is based on a presentation at a panel on infrastructure commons at the Law & Society Annual Conference in Berlin, Germany.
    • When to Recommend a PEG Tube: A Decision Tree for Clinicians from a Catholic Perspective

      Catholic Medical Association (2012-02-01)
      The question of tube feeding often presents great challenges for the physician. Catholic moral teaching can be of great help to all people of good will in meeting this challenge. The Church teaches that tube feeding is, in principle, ordinary care and hence morally obligatory. How should clinicians go about deciding when to recommend tube feeding in a manner that serves the best interests of the patient and is in harmony with the Church's teaching? A PEG tube should be recommended when a patient is not eating or drinking adequately, has more than a short-term need, is not imminently dying, and has no contraindication to a PEG. This article presents a step-by-step discussion of the decision-making process to assist physicians and other health-care professionals. A decision tree is included that is clinically focused, practical, and straightforward. The authors represent a broad range of Catholic clinical experience. Practical suggestions are offered regarding how to go about discussing this difficult subject with patients and their families. The issues of patient refusal, advance directives, and physician recusal from care are addressed. A chronological reading list on the subject of PEG tubes is provided.
    • When user-centered design meets implementation science: Integrating provider perspectives in the development of an intimate partner violence intervention for women treated in the United States' largest integrated healthcare system

      Danitz, SB; Stirman, SW; Grillo, AR; Dichter, ME; Driscoll, M; Gerber, MR; Gregor, K; Hamilton, AB; Iverson, KM (2019-11-27)
      © 2019 The Author(s). Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global health problem that is a substantial source of human suffering. Within the United States (US), women veterans are at high risk for experiencing IPV. There is an urgent need for feasible, acceptable, and patient-centered IPV counseling interventions for the growing number of women treated in the US's largest integrated healthcare system, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Implementation science and user-centered-design (UCD) can play an important role in accelerating the research-To-practice pipeline. Recovering from IPV through Strengths and Empowerment (RISE) is a flexible, patient-centered, modular-based program that holds promise as a brief counseling intervention for women veterans treated in VHA. We utilized a UCD approach to develop and refine RISE (prior to formal effectiveness evaluations) by soliciting early feedback from the providers where the intervention will ultimately be implemented. The current study reports on the feedback from VHA providers that was used to tailor and refine RISE. Method: We conducted and analyzed semi-structured, key-informant interviews with VHA providers working in clinics relevant to the delivery of IPV interventions (n = 23) at two large medical centers in the US. Participants' mean age was 42.6 years (SD = 11.6), they were predominately female (91.3%) and from a variety of relevant disciplines (39.1% psychologists, 21.7% social workers, 17.4% physicians, 8.7% registered nurses, 4.3% psychiatrists, 4.3% licensed marriage and family therapists, 4.3% peer specialists). We conducted rapid content analysis using a hybrid inductive-deductive approach. Results: Providers perceived RISE as highly acceptable and feasible, noting strengths including RISE's structure, patient-centered agenda, and facilitation of provider comfort in addressing IPV. Researchers identified themes related to content and context modifications, including requests for additional safety check-ins, structure for goal-setting, and suggestions for how to develop and implement RISE-specific trainings. Conclusions: These findings have guided refinements to RISE prior to formal effectiveness testing in VHA. We discuss implications for the use of UCD in intervention development and refinement for interventions addressing IPV and other trauma in health care settings globally. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03261700; Date of registration: 8/25/2017, date of enrollment of first participant in trial: 10/22/2018. Unique Protocol ID: IIR 16-062.
    • White matter structural connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood

      Ngo, CT; Alm, KH; Metoki, A; Hampton, W; Riggins, T; Newcombe, NS; Olson, IR (2017-12-01)
      © 2017 The Authors Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children. Using diffusion weighted imaging, we examined whether white matter connectivity between brain regions implicated in episodic memory differed with age, and were associated with memory performance differences in 4- and 6-year-old children. Results revealed that white matter connecting the hippocampus to the inferior parietal lobule significantly predicted children's performance on episodic memory tasks. In contrast, variation in the white matter connecting the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex did not relate to memory performance. These findings suggest that structural connectivity between the hippocampus and lateral parietal regions is relevant to the development of episodic memory.
    • White, affluent, educated parents are least likely to choose HPV vaccination for their children: A cross-sectional study of the National Immunization Study - teen

      Warner, EL; Ding, Q; Pappas, LM; Henry, K; Kepka, D (2017-12-01)
      © 2017 The Author(s). Background: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage is below national goals in the United States. Research is needed to inform strategically designed interventions that target sociodemographic groups with underutilization of HPV vaccination. Methods: Secondary data analysis of the National Immunization Survey-Teen 2013 measured association of sociodemographic factors (e.g., ethnicity/race, insurance) with HPV vaccination among females and males ages 13-17 (N=18,959). Chi-square and multivariable Poisson regressions were conducted using survey-weighted statistics. Results: Having a mother ≥35 years, a mother with some college, being of "Other" ethnicity/race, and having no providers who order vaccines from health departments was negatively associated with females initiating HPV vaccination. Having a mother with some college, being of Non-Hispanic White or "Other" ethnicity/race, and having some or no providers who order vaccines from health departments was negatively associated with males initiating HPV vaccination. These same factors were negatively associated with males completing HPV vaccination with the exception of "Other" ethnicity/race. In contrast, having an unmarried mother, being ages 15-17, having a hospital based provider, and receiving other adolescent vaccinations were positively associated with females initiating and completing HPV vaccination. Having an unmarried mother, health insurance that is not employer or union sponsored, and influenza and meningitis vaccinations was positively associated with male's initiating HPV vaccination. For males, being 15 or 17 years old and having other adolescent vaccinations was positively associated with vaccine completion. All findings p≤0.05. Conclusions: Future HPV vaccination interventions may benefit from targeting certain sociodemographic groups that were negatively associated with HPV vaccination in this study.
    • Who Should Set the Anti-Trafficking Agenda?

      Ramji-Nogales, Jaya (2017-03-08)
      As immigrant communities and immigrants’ rights advocates stare down the barrel of the Trump administration, anti-trafficking appears to be the sole immigration-related issue that might gain bipartisan traction. As has historically been the case with refugees and asylum seekers, Democrats and Republicans may find common ground in concern over the situation of trafficked individuals, especially those subject to sexual trafficking. Refugee advocates and scholars have long raised concerns about the impact of collaborations with strange bedfellows on law and policy-making. Janie Chuang’s article, Giving as Governance? Philanthrocapitalism and Modern-Day Slavery Abolitionism, raises a similar set of worries around the anti-trafficking agenda, introducing a new character to the cast: the philanthrocapitalist. This piece presents a comprehensive and thoughtful set of concerns about the outsized and largely unaccountable role of a new generation of hyperengaged donors in shaping the anti-trafficking policy agenda.