• Validation of the Cancer Health Literacy Test-30 for Populations Without Cancer

      Dumenci, Levent; Matsuyama, Robin K; Riddle, Daniel L; Cartwright, Laura; Siminoff, Laura A; Siminoff, Laura|0000-0002-6775-665X (2018-04-01)
      Background: Cancer incidence continues to be common and highly consequential for future cancer patients, family members, and other untrained caregivers. Because low health literacy increases the likelihood of poor health outcomes, those with low health literacy would benefit from interventions to improve cancer health literacy. Objective: Our study was designed to address the need for measuring cancer health literacy in populations without cancer. Methods: The Cancer Health Literacy Test-30 (CHLT-30) was psychometrically tested on 512 people without a cancer diagnosis. Key Results: In this population without cancer, the CHLT-30 had strong psychometric properties including unidimensional measurement structure, high reliability, and invariant measurement between gender, race/ethnicity, and educational-attainment groups. Conclusion: These results support the use of the CHLT-30 to measure cancer health literacy in research studies of family members of people with cancer or the general public. The potential for using the CHLT-30 in clinical practice to assess the need for education for general patient and cancer patient populations is a future direction. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2018;2(2):e58-e66.]. Plain Language Summary: Psychometric evidence suggests that the CHLT-30, originally developed for cancer patients, can be used to measure cancer health literacy of individuals with no history of cancer as well.
    • Valuing Immigrant Lives

      Ramji-Nogales, Jaya (2015)
      In Valuing Foreign Lives, Arden Rowell and Lesley Wexler bring theoretical rigor to bear on a vitally important yet atheorized area of legal policy: the valuation of foreign lives in U.S. policymaking.1 At the heart of the article is a call for transparency, aiming to enable greater understanding of the foreign impacts of American policies.2 This is a radical move that holds the potential to transform the process of making policy in the United States and to alter negotiations and relations with other nations. The article offers substantial food for thought as well as a robust research agenda going forward. In furtherance of that agenda, this brief comment focuses on U.S. immigration law and policy, highlighting the challenging questions that this highly politicized field presents for their theory. In particular, the deep political controversies that surround immigration foreground the difficulty of focusing on process rather than prescribing a normative solution. Though I am in the authors’ camp in favoring a process-based approach,3 this avenue presents thorny problems that remain to be worked through as the authors pursue their larger research agenda. I applaud the authors for their innovative and provocative theory, and offer up these challenges from the field of immigration law in the spirit of a fellow traveler aiming to help them ensure that their theory is as effective as possible.
    • Vanillin prevents doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes

      Sirangelo, I; Sapio, L; Ragone, A; Naviglio, S; Iannuzzi, C; Barone, D; Giordano, A; Borriello, M; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2020-08-01)
      © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Doxorubicin (doxo) is an effective anticancer compound in several tumor types. However, as a consequence of oxidative stress induction and ROS overproduction, its high cardiotoxicity demands urgent attention. Vanillin possesses antioxidant, antiproliferative, antidepressant and anti-glycating properties. Therefore, we investigated the potential vanillin protective effects against doxo-induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Using multiparametric approach, we demonstrated that vanillin restored both cell viability and damage in response to doxo exposure. Contextually, vanillin decreased sub-G1 appearance and caspase-3 and PARP1 activation, reducing the doxo-related apoptosis induction. From a mechanistic point of view, vanillin hindered doxo-induced ROS accumulation and impaired the ERK phosphorylation. Notably, besides the cardioprotective effects, vanillin did not counteract the doxo effectiveness in osteosarcoma cells. Taken together, our results suggest that vanillin ameliorates doxo-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells, opening new avenues for developing alternative therapeutic approaches to prevent the anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity and to improve the long-term outcome of antineoplastic treatment.
    • Vascular thrombus imaging in vivo via near-infrared fluorescent nanodiamond particles bioengineered with the disintegrin bitistatin (Part II)

      Gerstenhaber, JA; Barone, FC; Marcinkiewicz, C; Li, J; Shiloh, AO; Sternberg, M; Lelkes, PI; Feuerstein, G; Lelkes, Peter|0000-0003-4954-3498; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan Arye|0000-0002-8162-7977 (2017-11-24)
      © 2017 Gerstenhaber et al. The aim of this feasibility study was to test the ability of fluorescent nanodiamond particles (F-NDP) covalently conjugated with bitistatin (F-NDP-Bit) to detect vascular blood clots in vivo using extracorporeal near-infrared (NIR) imaging. Specifically, we compared NIR fluorescence properties of F-NDP with N-V (F-NDPNV) and N-V-N color centers and sizes (100-10,000 nm). Optimal NIR fluorescence and tissue penetration across biological tissues (rat skin, porcine axillary veins, and skin) was obtained for F-NDPNV with a mean diameter of 700 nm. Intravital imaging (using in vivo imaging system [IVIS]) in vitro revealed that F-NDPNV-loaded glass capillaries could be detected across 6 mm of rat red-muscle barrier and 12 mm of porcine skin, which equals the average vertical distance of a human carotid artery bifurcation from the surface of the adjacent skin (14 mm). In vivo, feasibility was demonstrated in a rat model of occlusive blood clots generated using FeCl3 in the carotid artery bifurcation. Following systemic infusions of F-NDPNV-Bit (3 or 15 mg/kg) via the external carotid artery or femoral vein (N=3), presence of the particles in the thrombi was confirmed both in situ via IVIS, and ex vivo via confocal imaging. The presence of F-NDPNV in the vascular clots was further confirmed by direct counting of fluorescent particles extracted from clots following tissue solubilization. Our data suggest that F-NDPNV-Bit associate with vascular blood clots, presumably by binding of F-NDPNV-Bit to activated platelets within the blood clot. We posit that F-NDPNV-Bit could serve as a noninvasive platform for identification of vascular thrombi using NIR energy monitored by an extracorporeal device.
    • Vehicle-type detection based on compressed sensing and deep learning in vehicular networks

      Li, Y; Song, B; Kang, X; Du, X; Guizani, M; Du, Xiaojiang|0000-0003-4235-9671 (2018-12-01)
      © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Throughout the past decade, vehicular networks have attracted a great deal of interest in various fields. The increasing number of vehicles has led to challenges in traffic regulation. Vehicle-type detection is an important research topic that has found various applications in numerous fields. Its main purpose is to extract the different features of vehicles from videos or pictures captured by traffic surveillance so as to identify the types of vehicles, and then provide reference information for traffic monitoring and control. In this paper, we propose a step-forward vehicle-detection and-classification method using a saliency map and the convolutional neural-network (CNN) technique. Specifically, compressed-sensing (CS) theory is applied to generate the saliency map to label the vehicles in an image, and the CNN scheme is then used to classify them. We applied the concept of the saliency map to search the image for target vehicles: this step is based on the use of the saliency map to minimize redundant areas. CS was used to measure the image of interest and obtain its saliency in the measurement domain. Because the data in the measurement domain are much smaller than those in the pixel domain, saliency maps can be generated at a low computation cost and faster speed. Then, based on the saliency map, we identified the target vehicles and classified them into different types using the CNN. The experimental results show that our method is able to speed up the window-calibrating stages of CNN-based image classification. Moreover, our proposed method has better overall performance in vehicle-type detection compared with other methods. It has very broad prospects for practical applications in vehicular networks.
    • Viral Evolution and Cytotoxic T Cell Restricted Selection in Acute Infant HIV-1 Infection

      Garcia-Knight, MA; Slyker, J; Payne, BL; Pond, SLK; De Silva, TI; Chohan, B; Khasimwa, B; Mbori-Ngacha, D; John-Stewart, G; Rowland-Jones, SL; Esbjörnsson, J; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky|0000-0003-4817-4029 (2016-07-12)
      Antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1 infected infants experience poor viral containment and rapid disease progression compared to adults. Viral factors (e.g. transmitted cytotoxic T- lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations) or infant factors (e.g. reduced CTL functional capacity) may explain this observation. We assessed CTL functionality by analysing selection in CTL-targeted HIV-1 epitopes following perinatal infection. HIV-1 gag, pol and nef sequences were generated from a historical repository of longitudinal specimens from 19 vertically infected infants. Evolutionary rate and selection were estimated for each gene and in CTL-restricted and non-restricted epitopes. Evolutionary rate was higher in nef and gag vs. pol, and lower in infants with non-severe immunosuppression vs. severe immunosuppression across gag and nef. Selection pressure was stronger in infants with non-severe immunosuppression vs. severe immunosuppression across gag. The analysis also showed that infants with non-severe immunosuppression had stronger selection in CTL-restricted vs. non-restricted epitopes in gag and nef. Evidence of stronger CTL selection was absent in infants with severe immunosuppression. These data indicate that infant CTLs can exert selection pressure on gag and nef epitopes in early infection and that stronger selection across CTL epitopes is associated with favourable clinical outcomes. These results have implications for the development of paediatric HIV-1 vaccines.
    • Virtual Reality for the Assessment of Everyday Cognitive Functions in Older Adults: An Evaluation of the Virtual Reality Action Test and Two Interaction Devices in a 91-Year-Old Woman

      Chirico, A; Giovannetti, T; Neroni, P; Simone, S; Gallo, L; Galli, F; Giancamilli, F; Predazzi, M; Lucidi, F; De Pietro, G; Giordano, A; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2020-02-07)
      © Copyright © 2020 Chirico, Giovannetti, Neroni, Simone, Gallo, Galli, Giancamilli, Predazzi, Lucidi, De Pietro and Giordano. Performance-based functional tests for the evaluation of daily living activities demonstrate strong psychometric properties and solve many of the limitations associated with self- and informant-report questionnaires. Virtual reality (VR) technology, which has gained interest as an effective medium for administering interventions in the context of healthcare, has the potential to minimize the time-demands associated with the administration and scoring of performance-based assessments. To date, efforts to develop VR systems for assessment of everyday function in older adults generally have relied on non-immersive systems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of an immersive VR environment for the assessment of everyday function in older adults. We present a detailed case report of an elderly woman who performed an everyday activity in an immersive VR context (Virtual Reality Action Test) with two different types of interaction devices (controller vs. sensor). VR performance was compared to performance of the same task with real objects outside of the VR system (Real Action Test). Comparisons were made on several dimensions, including (1) quality of task performance (e.g., order of task steps, errors, use and speed of hand movements); (2) subjective impression (e.g., attitudes), and (3) physiological markers of stress. Subjective impressions of performance with the different controllers also were compared for presence, cybersickness, and usability. Results showed that the participant was capable of using controllers and sensors to manipulate objects in a purposeful and goal-directed manner in the immersive VR paradigm. She performed the everyday task similarly across all conditions. She reported no cybersickness and even indicated that interactions in the VR environment were pleasant and relaxing. Thus, immersive VR is a feasible approach for function assessment even with older adults who might have very limited computer experience, no prior VR exposure, average educational experiences, and mild cognitive difficulties. Because of inherent limitations of single case reports (e.g., unknown generalizability, potential practice effects, etc.), group studies are needed to establish the full psychometric properties of the Virtual Reality Action Test.
    • Visual completion from 2D cross-sections: Implications for visual theory and STEM education and practice

      Gagnier, KM; Shipley, TF (2016-12-01)
      © 2016, The Author(s). Accurately inferring three-dimensional (3D) structure from only a cross-section through that structure is not possible. However, many observers seem to be unaware of this fact. We present evidence for a 3D amodal completion process that may explain this phenomenon and provide new insights into how the perceptual system processes 3D structures. Across four experiments, observers viewed cross-sections of common objects and reported whether regions visible on the surface extended into the object. If they reported that the region extended, they were asked to indicate the orientation of extension or that the 3D shape was unknowable from the cross-section. Across Experiments 1, 2, and 3, participants frequently inferred 3D forms from surface views, showing a specific prior to report that regions in the cross-section extend straight back into the object, with little variance in orientation. In Experiment 3, we examined whether 3D visual inferences made from cross-sections are similar to other cases of amodal completion by examining how the inferences were influenced by observers’ knowledge of the objects. Finally, in Experiment 4, we demonstrate that these systematic visual inferences are unlikely to result from demand characteristics or response biases. We argue that these 3D visual inferences have been largely unrecognized by the perception community, and have implications for models of 3D visual completion and science education.
    • Visualising very large phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space

      Hughes, T; Hyun, Y; Liberles, DA; Liberles, David A|0000-0003-3487-8826 (2004-04-29)
      Background: Common existing phylogenetic tree visualisation tools are not able to display readable trees with more than a few thousand nodes. These existing methodologies are based in two dimensional space. Results: We introduce the idea of visualising phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space with the Walrus graph visualisation tool and have developed a conversion tool that enables the conversion of standard phylogenetic tree formats to Walrus' format. With Walrus, it becomes possible to visualise and navigate phylogenetic trees with more than 100,000 nodes. Conclusion: Walrus enables desktop visualisation of very large phylogenetic trees in 3 dimensional hyperbolic space. This application is potentially useful for visualisation of the tree of life and for functional genomics derivatives, like The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED). ©2004 Hughes et al, licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • Visualization of actin polymerization in invasive structures of macrophages and carcinoma cells using photoconvertible β-actin - Dendra2 fusion proteins

      Dovas, A; Gligorijevic, B; Chen, X; Entenberg, D; Condeelis, J; Cox, D; Gligorijevic, Bojana|0000-0001-9071-7467 (2011-02-28)
      Actin polymerization controls a range of cellular processes, from intracellular trafficking to cell motility and invasion. Generation and elongation of free barbed ends defines the regions of actively polymerizing actin in cells and, consequently, is of importance in the understanding of the mechanisms through which actin dynamics are regulated. Herein we present a method that does not involve cell permeabilization and provides direct visualization of growing barbed ends using photoswitchable β-actin - Dendra2 constructs expressed in murine macrophage and rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines. The method exploits the ability of photoconverted (red) G-actin species to become incorporated into pre-existing (green) actin filaments, visualized in two distinct wavelengths using TIRF microscopy. In growing actin filaments, photoconverted (red) monomers are added to the barbed end while only green monomers are recycled from the pointed end. We demonstrate that incorporation of actin into intact podosomes of macrophages occurs constitutively and is amenable to inhibition by cytochalasin D indicating barbed end incorporation. Additionally, actin polymerization does not occur in quiescent invadopodial precursors of carcinoma cells suggesting that the filaments are capped and following epidermal growth factor stimulation actin incorporation occurs in a single but extended peak. Finally, we show that Dendra2 fused to either the N- or the C-terminus of β-actin profoundly affects its localization and incorporation in distinct F-actin structures in carcinoma cells, thus influencing the ability of monomers to be photoconverted. These data support the use of photoswitchable actin-Dendra2 constructs as powerful tools in the visualization of free barbed ends in living cells. © 2011 Dovas et al.
    • Volume 12.1 Is Dedicated in Memory of John M. Lindsey, Professor Emeritus 1932-1998

      Rubin, Randi Lynne; Richardson, Henry J., II; Angel, Marina; Porrata-Doria, Rafael A., Jr.; Reinstein, Robert J. (1998)
    • Warming the postpartum body as a form of postnatal care: An ethnographic study of medical injections and traditional health practices in Cambodia

      Bazzano, AN; Stolow, JA; Duggal, R; Oberhelman, RA; Var, C (2020-02-01)
      © 2020 Bazzano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Postpartum care is a critical element for ensuring survival and health of mothers and newborns but is often inadequate in low- and middle-income countries due to barriers to access and resource constraints. Newly delivered mothers and their families often rely on traditional forms of postnatal care rooted in social and cultural customs or may blend modern and traditional forms of care. This ethnographic study sought to explore use of biomedical and traditional forms of postnatal care. Data were collected through unstructured observation and in-depth interviews with 15 mothers. Participants reported embracing traditional understandings of health and illness in the post-partum period centered on heating the body through diet, steaming, and other applications of heat, yet also seeking injections from private health care providers. Thematic analysis explored concepts related to transitioning forms of postnatal care, valuing of care through different lenses, and diverse sources of advice on postnatal care. Mothers also described concurrent use of both traditional medicine and biomedical postnatal care, and the importance of adhering to cultural traditions of postnatal care for future health. Maternal and newborn health are closely associated with postnatal care, so ensuring culturally appropriate and high-quality care must be an important priority for stakeholders including understand health practices that are evolving to include injections.
    • WearSense: Detecting Autism Stereotypic Behaviors through Smartwatches

      Amiri, Amir Mohammad; Peltier, Nicholas; Goldberg, Cody; Sun, Yan; Nathan, Anoo; Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Mankodiya, Kunal (2017-03)
      Autism is a complex developmental disorder that affects approximately 1 in 68 children (according to the recent survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-CDC) in the U.S., and has become the fastest growing category of special education. Each student with autism comes with her or his own unique needs and an array of behaviors and habits that can be severe and which interfere with everyday tasks. Autism is associated with intellectual disability, impairments in social skills, and physical health issues such as sleep and abdominal disturbances. We have designed an Internet-of-Things (IoT) framework named WearSense that leverages the sensing capabilities of modern smartwatches to detect stereotypic behaviors in children with autism. In this work, we present a study that used the inbuilt accelerometer of a smartwatch to detect three behaviors, including hand flapping, painting, and sibbing that are commonly observed in children with autism. In this feasibility study, we recruited 14 subjects to record the accelerometer data from the smartwatch worn on the wrist. The processing part extracts 34 different features in each dimension of the three-axis accelerometer, resulting in 102 features. Using and comparing various classification techniques revealed that an ensemble of 40 decision trees has the best accuracy of around 94.6%. This accuracy shows the quality of the data collected from the smartwatch and feature extraction methods used in this study. The recognition of these behaviors by using a smartwatch would be helpful in monitoring individuals with autistic behaviors, since the smartwatch can send the data to the cloud for comprehensive analysis and also to help parents, caregivers, and clinicians make informed decisions.
    • What Causes Polarization on IP Policy?

      Wittlin, Maggie Wittlin; Ouellette, Lisa Larrimore; Mandel, Gregory N. (2018)
      Polarization on contentious policy issues is a problem of national concern for both hot-button cultural issues such as climate change and gun control and for issues of interest to more specialized constituencies. Cultural debates have become so contentious that in many cases people are unable to agree even on the underlying facts needed to resolve these issues. Here, we tackle this problem in the context of intellectual property (“IP”) law. Despite an explosion in the quantity and quality of empirical evidence about the IP system, IP policy debates have become increasingly polarized. This disagreement about existing evidence concerning the effects of the IP system hinders democratic deliberation and stymies progress. Based on a survey of U.S. IP practitioners, this Article investigates the source of polarization on IP issues, with the goal of understanding how to better enable evidence-based IP policymaking. We hypothesized that, contrary to intuition, more evidence on the effects of IP law would not resolve IP disputes but would instead exacerbate them. Specifically, IP polarization might stem from “cultural cognition,” a form of motivated reasoning in which people form factual beliefs that conform to their cultural predispositions and interpret new evidence in light of those beliefs. The cultural cognition framework has helped explain polarization over other issues of national concern, but it has never been tested in a private-law context. Our survey results provide support for the influence of cultural cognition, as respondents with a relatively hierarchical or individualistic worldview are more likely to believe strong patent protection is necessary to spur innovation. Additionally, having a hierarchical or individualistic worldview and also viewing patent rights as property rights may be a better predictor of patent strength preferences than either alone. Taken together, our findings suggest that individuals’ cultural preferences affect how they understand new information about the IP system. We discuss the implications of these results for fostering evidence-based IP policymaking, as well as for addressing polarization more broadly. For example, we suggest that empirical legal studies borrow from medical research by initiating a practice of advance registration of new projects — in which the planned methodology is publicly disclosed before data are gathered — to promote broader acceptance of the results.
    • What do social groups have to do with culture? The crucial role of shared experience

      Bergey, Bradley W.; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-0495-7219; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2010)
    • What Drives Task Performance During Animal Fluency in People With Alzheimer’s Disease?

      Rofes, A; de Aguiar, V; Jonkers, R; Oh, SJ; DeDe, G; Sung, JE (2020-07-21)
      © Copyright © 2020 Rofes, de Aguiar, Jonkers, Oh, DeDe and Sung. Background: Animal fluency is a widely used task to assess people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders. The mechanisms that drive performance in this task are argued to rely on language and executive functions. However, there is little information regarding what specific aspects of these cognitive processes drive performance on this task. Objective: To understand which aspects of language (i.e., semantics, phonological output lexicon, phonological assembly) and executive function (i.e., mental set shifting; information updating and monitoring; inhibition of possible responses) are involved in the performance of animal fluency in people with AD. Methods: Animal fluency data from 58 people with probable AD from the DementiaBank Pittsburgh Corpus were analyzed. Number of clusters and switches were measured and nine word properties (e.g., frequency, familiarity) for each of the correct words (i.e., each word counting toward the total score, disregarding non-animals and repetitions) were determined. Random forests were used to understand which variables predicted the total number of correct words, and conditional inference trees were used to search for interactions between the variables. Finally, Wilcoxon tests were implemented to cross-validate the results, by comparing the performance of participants with scores below the norm in animal fluency against participants with scores within the norm based on a large normative sample. Results: Switches and age of acquisition emerged as the most important variables to predict total number of correct words in animal fluency in people with AD. Cross-validating the results, people with AD whose animal fluency scores fell below the norm produced fewer switches and words with lower age of acquisition than people with AD with scores in the normal range. Conclusion: The results indicate that people with AD rely on executive functioning (information updating and monitoring) and language (phonological output lexicon, not necessarily semantics) to produce words on animal fluency.
    • What fraction of duplicates observed in recently sequenced genomes is segregating and destined to fail to fix?

      Teufel, AI; Masel, J; Liberles, DA; Liberles, David A|0000-0003-3487-8826 (2015-07-27)
      © The Author(s) 2015. Most sequenced eukaryotic genomes show a large excess of recent duplicates. As duplicates age, both the population genetic process of failed fixation and the mutation-driven process of nonfunctionalization act to reduce the observed number of duplicates. Understanding the processes generating the age distributions of recent duplicates is important to also understand the role of duplicate genes in the functional divergence of genomes. To date, mechanistic models for duplicate gene retention only account for the mutation-driven nonfunctionalization process. Here, a neutral model for the distribution of synonymous substitutions in duplicated genes which are segregating and expected to never fix in a population is introduced. This model enables differentiation of neutral loss due to failed fixation from loss due to mutation-driven nonfunctionalization. The model has been validated on simulated data and subsequent analysis with the model on genomic data from human and mouse shows that conclusions about the underlying mechanisms for duplicate gene retention can be sensitive to consideration of population genetic processes.
    • What is IP For? Experiments in Lay and Expert Perceptions

      Mandel, Gregory N. (2016)
      The normative justifications for intellectual property (“IP”) law are richly debated. Some policymakers and experts argue that intellectual property should serve utilitarian goals, while others contend that the law should seek to protect natural rights or expressive ends. Such debates have historically lacked data concerning how human actors in the IP system actually conceive of the law. This Essay examines the results of experiments on the understanding of IP law for two critical components of the IP system: the public at large and IP attorneys. The studies of popular perceptions of IP law reveal that the most prevalent perception does not align with any of the commonly accepted bases. Rather, the modal response is that IP law exists to prevent plagiarism. The study of IP attorneys displays much greater alignment with an incentivist approach to IP rights. That being said, even here there is still variation in this conception and in how IP conceptions align with opinions on the strength of protection. These results raise significant questions about the legitimacy and function of IP law under its traditional justifications.
    • What Is Required for Neuronal Calcium Waves? A Numerical Parameter Study

      Breit, M; Queisser, G (2018-12-01)
      © 2018, The Author(s). Neuronal calcium signals propagating by simple diffusion and reaction with mobile and stationary buffers are limited to cellular microdomains. The distance intracellular calcium signals can travel may be significantly increased by means of calcium-induced calcium release from internal calcium stores, notably the endoplasmic reticulum. The organelle, which can be thought of as a cell-within-a-cell, is able to sequester large amounts of cytosolic calcium ions via SERCA pumps and selectively release them into the cytosol through ryanodine receptor channels leading to the formation of calcium waves. In this study, we set out to investigate the basic properties of such dendritic calcium waves and how they depend on the three parameters dendrite radius, ER radius and ryanodine receptor density in the endoplasmic membrane. We demonstrate that there are stable and abortive regimes for calcium waves, depending on the above morphological and physiological parameters. In stable regimes, calcium waves can travel across long dendritic distances, similar to electrical action potentials. We further observe that abortive regimes exist, which could be relevant for spike-timing dependent plasticity, as travel distances and wave velocities vary with changing intracellular architecture. For some of these regimes, analytic functions could be derived that fit the simulation data. In parameter spaces, that are non-trivially influenced by the three-dimensional calcium concentration profile, we were not able to derive such a functional description, demonstrating the mathematical requirement to model and simulate biochemical signaling in three-dimensional space.