• Target and double spin asymmetries of deeply virtual π<sup>0</sup> production with a longitudinally polarized proton target and CLAS

      Kim, A; Avakian, H; Burkert, V; Joo, K; Kim, W; Adhikari, KP; Akbar, Z; Anefalos Pereira, S; Badui, RA; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, AS; Boiarinov, S; Bosted, P; Briscoe, WJ; Brooks, WK; Bültmann, S; Cao, T; Carman, DS; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Chetry, T; Colaneri, L; Cole, PL; Compton, N; Contalbrigo, M; Cortes, O; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Djalali, C; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fersch, R; Filippi, A; Fleming, JA; Fradi, A; Garc con, M; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, GP; Giovanetti, KL; Girod, FX; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, RW; Griffioen, KA; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hanretty, C; Hattawy, M; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, DG; Ishkhanov, BS; Jenkins, D; Jiang, H; Jo, HS; Joosten, S; Keller, D; Khachatryan, G; Khandaker, M; Klein, A; Klein, FJ; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, SE; Kuleshov, SV; Lanza, L; Lenisa, P; Lu, HY; MacGregor, IJD; Markov, N; Mattione, P; McCracken, ME; McKinnon, B; Mokeev, V; Movsisyan, A; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Net, LA; Niccolai, S; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, AI; Paolone, M; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, W; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, JW; Prok, Y; Ripani, M (2017-05-10)
      © 2017 The Author(s) The target and double spin asymmetries of the exclusive pseudoscalar channel e→p→→epπ0 were measured for the first time in the deep-inelastic regime using a longitudinally polarized 5.9 GeV electron beam and a longitudinally polarized proton target at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The data were collected over a large kinematic phase space and divided into 110 four-dimensional bins of Q2, xB, −t and ϕ. Large values of asymmetry moments clearly indicate a substantial contribution to the polarized structure functions from transverse virtual photon amplitudes. The interpretation of experimental data in terms of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) provides the first insight on the chiral-odd GPDs H˜T and ET, and complement previous measurements of unpolarized structure functions sensitive to the GPDs HT and E¯T. These data provide a crucial input for parametrizations of essentially unknown chiral-odd GPDs and will strongly influence existing theoretical calculations based on the handbag formalism.
    • Targeted multidrug delivery system to overcome chemoresistance in breast cancer

      Tang, Y; Soroush, F; Tong, Z; Kiani, MF; Wang, B; Kiani, Mohammad|0000-0003-1533-0179 (2017-01-21)
      © 2017 Tang et al. Chemotherapy has been widely used in breast cancer patients to reduce tumor size. However, most anticancer agents cannot differentiate between cancerous and normal cells, resulting in severe systemic toxicity. In addition, acquired drug resistance during the chemotherapy treatment further decreases treatment efficacy. With the proper treatment strategy, nanodrug carriers, such as liposomes/immunoliposomes, may be able to reduce undesired side effects of chemotherapy, to overcome the acquired multidrug resistance, and to further improve the treatment efficacy. In this study, a novel combinational targeted drug delivery system was developed by encapsulating antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab into liposomes and encapsulating chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) into immunoliposomes where the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) antibody was used as a targeting ligand. This novel combinational system was tested in vitro using a HER2 positive and multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line (BT-474/MDR), and in vivo using a xenograft mouse tumor model. In vitro cell culture experiments show that immunoliposome delivery led to a high cell nucleus accumulation of DOX, whereas free DOX was observed mostly near the cell membrane and in cytoplasm due to the action of P-gp. Combining liposomal bevacizumab with immunoliposomal DOX achieved the best tumor growth inhibition and the lowest toxicity. Tumor size decreased steadily within a 60-day observation period indicating a potential synergistic effect between DOX and bevacizumab through the targeted delivery. Our findings clearly indicate that tumor growth was significantly delayed in the combinational liposomal drug delivery group. This novel combinational therapy has great potential for the treatment of patients with HER2/MDR double positive breast cancer.
    • Targeting immune response with therapeutic vaccines in premalignant lesions and cervical cancer: hope or reality from clinical studies

      Vici, P; Pizzuti, L; Mariani, L; Zampa, G; Santini, D; Di Lauro, L; Gamucci, T; Natoli, C; Marchetti, P; Barba, M; Maugeri-Saccà, M; Sergi, D; Tomao, F; Vizza, E; Di Filippo, S; Paolini, F; Curzio, G; Corrado, G; Michelotti, A; Sanguineti, G; Giordano, A; De Maria, R; Venuti, A; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2016-10-02)
      © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely known as a cause of cervical cancer (CC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPVs related to cancer express two main oncogenes, i.e. E6 and E7, considered as tumorigenic genes; their integration into the host genome results in the abnormal regulation of cell cycle control. Due to their peculiarities, these oncogenes represent an excellent target for cancer immunotherapy. In this work the authors highlight the potential use of therapeutic vaccines as safe and effective pharmacological tools in cervical disease, focusing on vaccines that have reached the clinical trial phase. Many therapeutic HPV vaccines have been tested in clinical trials with promising results. Adoptive T-cell therapy showed clinical activity in a phase II trial involving advanced CC patients. A phase II randomized trial showed clinical activity of a nucleic acid-based vaccine in HPV16 or HPV18 positive CIN. Several trials involving peptide-protein-based vaccines and live-vector based vaccines demonstrated that these approaches are effective in CIN as well as in advanced CC patients. HPV therapeutic vaccines must be regarded as a therapeutic option in cervical disease. The synergic combination of HPV therapeutic vaccines with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunomodulators or immune checkpoint inhibitors opens a new and interesting scenario in this disease.
    • Targeting intracellular B2 receptors using novel cell-penetrating antagonists to arrest growth and induce apoptosis in human triple-negative breast cancer

      Dubuc, C; Savard, M; Bovenzi, V; Lessard, A; Fortier, A; Côté, J; Neugebauer, W; Rizzolio, F; Geha, S; Giordano, A; Chemtob, S; Gobeil, F; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2018-01-01)
      © Dubuc et al. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral cell-surface proteins having a central role in tumor growth and metastasis. However, several GPCRs retain an atypical intracellular/nuclear location in various types of cancer. The pathological significance of this is currently unknown. Here we extend this observation by showing that the bradykinin B2R (BK-B2R) is nuclearly expressed in the human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 and in human clinical specimens of TNBC. We posited that these "nuclearized" receptors could be involved in oncogenic signaling linked to aberrant growth and survival maintenance of TNBC. We used cell-penetrating BK-B2R antagonists, including FR173657 and novel transducible, cell-permeable forms of the peptide B2R antagonist HOE 140 (NG68, NG134) to demonstrate their superior efficacy over impermeable ones (HOE 140), in blocking proliferation and promoting apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Some showed an even greater antineoplastic activity over conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. The cell-permeable B2R antagonists had less to no anticancer effects on B2R shRNA-knockdown or non-B2R expressing (COS-1) cells, indicating specificity in their action. Possible mechanisms of their anticancer effects may involve activation of p38kinase/p27Kip1 pathways. Together, our data support the existence of a possible intracrine signaling pathway via internal/nuclear B2R, critical for the growth of TNBC cells, and identify new chemical entities that enable to target the corresponding intracellular GPCRs.
    • Targeting SRC family kinases in mesothelioma: Time to upgrade

      Indovina, P; Forte, IM; Pentimalli, F; Giordano, A; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2020-07-01)
      © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a deadly tumor mainly caused by exposure to asbestos. Unfortunately, no current treatment is able to change significantly the natural history of the disease, which has a poor prognosis in the majority of patients. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase SRC and other SRC family kinase (SFK) members are frequently hyperactivated in many cancer types, including MM. Several works have indeed suggested that SFKs underlie MM cell proliferation, survival, motility, and invasion, overall affecting multiple oncogenic pathways. Consistently, SFK inhibitors effectively counteracted MM cancerous features at the preclinical level. Dasatinib, a multi-kinase inhibitor targeting SFKs, was also assessed in clinical trials either as second-line treatment for patients with unresectable MM or, more recently, as a neoadjuvant agent in patients with resectable MM. Here, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms implicating SFKs in MM progression and discuss possible strategies for a more successful clinical application of SFK inhibitors. Our aim is to stimulate discussion and further consideration of these agents in better designed preclinical and clinical studies to make the most of another class of powerful antitumoral drugs, which too often are lost in translation when applied to MM.
    • Technology Wars: The Failure of Democratic Discourse

      Mandel, Gregory N. (2005)
      Conflicts over the use and regulation of various technologies pervade public discourse and have dramatic implications for the public interest. Controversies over the regulation of genetically modified products, nuclear power, and nanotechnology, among others, provoke some of the most socially and politically volatile debates of our time. These technology conflicts extract a substantial price from society--they create costly inefficiencies, prevent society from optimally managing new technologies, consume vast resources, and retard technological growth. This Article develops a framework for understanding technology controversies, and consequently proposes new means for resolving or ameliorating a variety of seemingly intractable legal and regulatory standoffs. These teachings have potentially far-reaching consequences for conflict resolution in non-technology areas as well.
    • Telomere fragment induced amnion cell senescence: A contributor to parturition?

      Polettini, J; Behnia, F; Taylor, BD; Saade, GR; Taylor, RN; Menon, R; Taylor, Brandie|0000-0002-8234-1815 (2015-09-23)
      © 2015 Polettini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Oxidative stress (OS)-induced senescence of the amniochorion has been associated with parturition at term. We investigated whether telomere fragments shed into the amniotic fluid (AF) correlated with labor status and tested if exogenous telomere fragments (T-oligos) could induce human and murine amnion cell senescence. In a cross-sectional clinical study, AF telomere fragment concentrations quantitated by a validated real-time PCR assay were higher in women in labor at term compared to those not in labor. In vitro treatment of primary human amnion epithelial cells with 40 μMT-oligos ([TTAGGG]2) thatmimic telomere fragments, activated p38MAPK, produced senescence-associated (SA) β-gal staining and increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 production compared to cells treated with complementary DNA sequences (Cont-oligos, [AATCCC]2). T-oligos injected into the uteri of pregnant CD1 mice on day 14 of gestation, led to increased p38MAPK, SA-β-gal (SA β-gal) staining in murine amniotic sacs and higher AF IL-8 levels on day 18, compared to saline treated controls. In summary, term labor AF samples had higher telomere fragments than term not in labor AF. In vitro and in situ telomere fragments increased human and murine amnion p38MAPK, senescence and inflammatory cytokines.We propose that telomere fragments released from senescent fetal cells are indicative of fetal cell aging. Based on our data, these telomere fragments cause oxidative stress associated damages to the term amniotic sac and force them to release other DAMPS, which, in turn, provide a sterile immune response that may be one of the many inflammatory signals required to initiate parturition at term.
    • Temporal Discrimination of Sub- and Suprasecond Time Intervals: A Voxel-Based Lesion Mapping Analysis

      Gooch, Cynthia M; Wiener, Martin; Hamilton, A Cris; Coslett, H Branch (2011)
      We used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to determine which brain areas are necessary for discriminating time intervals above and below 1 s. VLSM compares behavioral scores of patients that have damage to a given voxel to those that do not on a voxel-by-voxel basis to determine which voxels are critical for the given behavior. Forty-seven subjects with unilateral hemispheric lesions performed a temporal discrimination task in which a standard stimulus was compared on each trial to a test stimulus. In different blocks of trials, standard stimuli were either 600 or 2000 ms. Behavioral measures included the point of subjective equality, a measure of accuracy, and the coefficient of variation, a measure of variability. Lesions of the right middle and inferior frontal gyri were associated with decrements in performance on both durations. In addition, lesions of the left temporal lobe and right precentral gyrus were associated exclusively with impaired performance for subsecond stimuli. In line with results from other studies, these data suggest that different circuits are necessary for timing intervals in these ranges, and that right frontal areas are particularly important to timing.
    • Temporal trends of cardiovascular health factors among 366 270 French adults

      Gaye, B; Tajeu, GS; Offredo, L; Vignac, M; Johnson, S; Thomas, F; Jouven, X (2020-04-01)
      © 2019 The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. Aims: We aimed to investigate time trends in cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics in the population at large, as well as in important subgroups. Methods and results: In this study, we used a community-based sample of 366 270 adults from France who had a standardized examination to assess cardiovascular risk factors between 1992 and 2011 (20 years). Cardiovascular health metrics categorized into ideal, intermediate, and poor categories were computed using smoking, physical activity, body mass index, total cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure. Matching on age, sex, and depression across 5-year periods (1992-96, 1997-2001, 2002-06, and 2007-11) was performed in order to correct for the sociodemographic differences between the examinations at different periods of times. Mean age across all four time periods was 44.7 (SD 13) years and 38% (138 228) were women. Overall, few participants (≤3.5%) met all six ideal CVH metrics at any time point. The prevalence of meeting ≥5 ideal CVH metrics increased from 6.7% in 1992-96 to 15.0% in 2007-11 (P < 0.001). A significant improvement in CVH (meeting ≥5 ideal CVH metrics) from 1992 to 2011 was observed among younger (from 7.5% to 16.6%) and older individuals (from 1.3% to 4.2%), men (from 4.4% to 11.8%) and women (from 10.4% to 20.1%), those with low (from 9.1% to 10.4%) and high education status (from 15% to 18.1%) and those with (from 5.1% to 12.7%) and without depressive symptoms (from 6.8% to 15.1%). However, the rate of improvement was steepest in the most affluent group in comparison with those with lower socio-economic status. Conclusion: Overall CVH improved from 1992 until 2006 and slightly decreased between 2006 and 2011 in French adults. From 1992 until 2006, the improvement in CVH was less pronounced among those with low socio-economic status as compared to those with a higher socio-economic status.
    • Testing Sex

      Rebouché, Rachel (2015)
      A simple blood sample taken from a pregnant women can now determine a fetus's sex beginning at seven weeks of pregnancy. In the next decade, these prenatal genetic tests, which are increasingly paid for by health insurance plans, will permit expectant parents to learn much more information about their potential child. Although new "non-invasive" prenatal genetic tests are largely unregulated, their popularity and growing availability have spurred Congress, as well as legislatures in over twenty states, to consider prohibiting abortion for reason of fetal sex. This article describes the laws relevant to prenatal genetic testing and explores the purported justifications for legislative bans on sex-selective abortion. The article demonstrates how sex-selective abortion bans co-opt longstanding women's rights claims and why the constitutional and empirical rebuttals offered by abortion rights supporters have not been persuasive. This article concludes by considering how law, medical ethics, and prenatal diagnosis intersect and what regulatory options reproductive health advocates might have moving forward.
    • The adaptive evolution database (TAED).

      Liberles, DA; Schreiber, DR; Govindarajan, S; Chamberlin, SG; Benner, SA; Liberles, David A|0000-0003-3487-8826 (2001-01-01)
      BACKGROUND: The Master Catalog is a collection of evolutionary families, including multiple sequence alignments, phylogenetic trees and reconstructed ancestral sequences, for all protein-sequence modules encoded by genes in GenBank. It can therefore support large-scale genomic surveys, of which we present here The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED). In TAED, potential examples of positive adaptation are identified by high values for the normalized ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates (KA/KS values) on branches of an evolutionary tree between nodes representing reconstructed ancestral sequences. RESULTS: Evolutionary trees and reconstructed ancestral sequences were extracted from the Master Catalog for every subtree containing proteins from the Chordata only or the Embryophyta only. Branches with high KA/KS values were identified. These represent candidate episodes in the history of the protein family when the protein may have undergone positive selection, where the mutant form conferred more fitness than the ancestral form. Such episodes are frequently associated with change in function. An unexpectedly large number of families (between 10% and 20% of those families examined) were found to have at least one branch with high KA/KS values above arbitrarily chosen cut-offs (1 and 0.6). Most of these survived a robustness test and were collected into TAED. CONCLUSIONS: TAED is a raw resource for bioinformaticists interested in data mining and for experimental evolutionists seeking candidate examples of adaptive evolution for further experimental study. It can be expanded to include other evolutionary information (for example changes in gene regulation or splicing) placed in a phylogenetic perspective.
    • The association between marital transitions, body mass index, and weight: A review of the literature

      Dinour, L; Leung, MM; Tripicchio, G; Khan, S; Yeh, MC (2012-10-16)
      Objective. To examine the association between different marital transitions and changes in body mass index (BMI) and body weight. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. Longitudinal studies were included if they compared dependent variables, such as BMI or weight, before and after a change in marital status. Results. Twenty articles were included: 4 articles described only transitions into marriage and/or cohabitation, 2 articles described only transitions out of marriage and/or cohabitation, and 14 articles described both. Overall, transitions into marriage were associated with weight gain, whereas transitions out of marriage were associated with weight loss. No major differences were observed between genders or across specific marital transition states. Conclusions. Additional research is warranted to better understand this phenomenon and the impact of marital transitions on obesity and obesity-related behaviors. This paper highlights potential opportunities to incorporate programs, practices, and policies that aim to promote and support healthy weights and lifestyles upon entering or leaving a marriage or cohabiting relationship. © 2012 Lauren Dinour et al.
    • The association of breastfeeding duration with later maternal feeding styles in infancy and toddlerhood: A cross-sectional analysis

      DiSantis, KI; Hodges, EA; Fisher, JO (2013-04-26)
      Background: Breastfeeding modestly reduces obesity risk, yet the mechanisms are not well understood. The goal of the current research was to evaluate the association of breastfeeding duration with a wide range of maternal feeding approaches in late infancy and toddlerhood.Methods: A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from an ethnically-diverse sample of 154 mothers of infants (aged 7-11 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) was performed. Breastfeeding history was self-reported where 75% of mothers had weaned by the time of the interview. Multiple dimensions of maternal feeding approaches were measured using the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire which assesses pressuring, restriction, responsive, laissez-faire, and indulgent approaches to feeding. Analyses were performed separately for infants and toddlers and adjusted for maternal education level, ethnicity, and marital status.Results: Mothers of infants who breastfed for longer durations tended to report greater responsiveness to infant satiety cues (p≤0.01) and reduced pressuring in feeding complementary foods (p<0.05). Mothers of toddlers who breastfed for longer durations tended to report reduced pressuring in feeding complementary foods (p<0.01).Conclusion: These results suggest that breastfeeding may shape maternal feeding approaches related to responsiveness to infant cues as infants enter a period of complementary feeding, even after considering a range of demographic characteristics previously associated with breastfeeding behaviors. That responsiveness to feeding cues was not associated with breastfeeding duration in the toddler sample suggests that some aspects of this association might be isolated to infancy. © 2013 DiSantis et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • The authority of next-of-kin in explicit and presumed consent systems for deceased organ donation: An analysis of 54 nations

      Rosenblum, AM; Horvat, LD; Siminoff, LA; Prakash, V; Beitel, J; Garg, AX; Siminoff, Laura|0000-0002-6775-665X (2012-06-01)
      Background. The degree of involvement by the next-of-kin in deceased organ procurement worldwide is unclear. We investigated the next-of-kin's authority in the procurement process in nations with either explicit or presumed consent.Methods.We collected data from 54 nations, 25 with presumed consent and 29 with explicit consent. We characterized the authority of the next-of-kin in the decision to donate deceased organs. Specifically, we examined whether the next-of-kin's consent to procure organs was always required and whether the next-of-kin were able to veto procurement when the deceased had expressed a wish to donate.Results.The next-of-kin are involved in the organ procurement process in most nations regardless of the consent principle and whether the wishes of the deceased to be a donor were expressed or unknown. Nineteen of the 25 nations with presumed consent provide a method for individuals to express a wish to be a donor. However, health professionals in only four of these nations responded that they do not override a deceased's expressed wish because of a family's objection. Similarly, health professionals in only four of the 29 nations with explicit consent proceed with a deceased's pre-existing wish to be a donor and do not require next-of-kin's consent, but caveats still remain for when this is done.Conclusions.The next-of-kin have a considerable influence on the organ procurement process in both presumed and explicit consent nations. © 2012 The Author.
    • The burden of breast cancer in Italy: Mastectomies and quadrantectomies performed between 2001 and 2008 based on nationwide hospital discharge records

      Piscitelli, P; Barba, M; Crespi, M; Di Maio, M; Santoriello, A; D'Aiuto, M; Fucito, A; Losco, A; Pentimalli, F; Maranta, P; Chitano, G; Argentiero, A; Neglia, C; Distante, A; Di Tanna, GL; Brandi, ML; Mazza, A; Marino, IR; Giordano, A; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2012-11-22)
      Background: Where population coverage is limited, the exclusive use of Cancer Registries might limit ascertainment of incident cancer cases. We explored the potentials of Nationwide hospital discharge records (NHDRs) to capture incident breast cancer cases in Italy. Methods. We analyzed NHDRs for mastectomies and quadrantectomies performed between 2001 and 2008. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) and related 95% Confidence Interval (CI) in the actual number of mastectomies and quadrantectomies performed during the study period were computed for the full sample and for subgroups defined by age, surgical procedure, macro-area and singular Region. Re-admissions of the same patients were separately presented. Results: The overall number of mastectomies decreased, with an AAPC of -2.1% (-2.3 -1.8). This result was largely driven by the values observed for women in the 45 to 64 and 65 to 74 age subgroups (-3.0%, -3.4 -3.6 and -3.3%, -3.8 -2.8, respectively). We observed no significant reduction in mastectomies for women in the remaining age groups. Quadrantectomies showed an overall +4.7 AAPC (95%CI:4.5-4.9), with no substantial differences by age. Analyses by geographical area showed a remarkable decrease in mastectomies, with inter-regional discrepancies possibly depending upon variability in mammography screening coverage and adherence. Quadrantectomies significantly increased, with Southern Regions presenting the highest average rates. Data on repeat admissions within a year revealed a total number of 46,610 major breast surgeries between 2001 and 2008, with an overall +3.2% AAPC (95%CI:2.8-3.6). Conclusions: In Italy, NHDRs might represent a valuable supplemental data source to integrate Cancer Registries in cancer surveillance. © 2012 Piscitelli et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • The carnitine system and cancer metabolic plasticity review-article

      Melone, MAB; Valentino, A; Margarucci, S; Galderisi, U; Giordano, A; Peluso, G; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2018-02-01)
      © 2018 The Author(s). Metabolic flexibility describes the ability of cells to respond or adapt its metabolism to support and enable rapid proliferation, continuous growth, and survival in hostile conditions. This dynamic character of the cellular metabolic network appears enhanced in cancer cells, in order to increase the adaptive phenotype and to maintain both viability and uncontrolled proliferation. Cancer cells can reprogram their metabolism to satisfy the energy as well as the biosynthetic intermediate request and to preserve their integrity from the harsh and hypoxic environment. Although several studies now recognize these reprogrammed activities as hallmarks of cancer, it remains unclear which are the pathways involved in regulating metabolic plasticity. Recent findings have suggested that carnitine system (CS) could be considered as a gridlock to finely trigger the metabolic flexibility of cancer cells. Indeed, the components of this system are involved in the bi-directional transport of acyl moieties from cytosol to mitochondria and vice versa, thus playing a fundamental role in tuning the switch between the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Therefore, the CS regulation, at both enzymatic and epigenetic levels, plays a pivotal role in tumors, suggesting new druggable pathways for prevention and treatment of human cancer.
    • The causal effect of student mobility on standardized test performance: A case study with possible implications for accountability mandates within the elementary and secondary education act

      Selya, AS; Engel-Rebitzer, E; Dierker, L; Stephen, E; Rose, J; Coffman, DL; Otis, M; Coffman, Donna L|0000-0001-6305-6579 (2016-07-19)
      © 2016 Selya, Engel-Rebitzer, Dierker, Stephen, Rose, Coffman and Otis. This paper presents a limited case study examining the causal inference of student mobility on standardized test performance, within one middle-class high school in suburban Connecticut. Administrative data were used from a district public high school enrolling 319 10th graders in 2010. Propensity score methods were used to estimate the causal effect of student mobility on Math, Science, Reading, and Writing portions of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT), after matching mobile vs. stable students on gender, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free/reduced lunches, and special education status. Analyses showed that mobility was associated with lower performance in the CAPT Writing exam. Follow-up analyses revealed that this trend was only significant among those who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches, but not among eligible students. Additionally, mobile students who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches had lower performance in the CAPT Science exam according to some analyses. Large numbers of students transferring into a school district may adversely affect standardized test performance. This is especially relevant for policies that affect student mobility in schools, given the accountability measures in the No Child Left Behind that are currently being re-considered in the recent Every Student Succeeds Act.
    • The causal effect of student mobility on standardized test performance: A case study with possible implications for accountability mandates within the elementary and secondary education act

      Selya, AS; Engel-Rebitzer, E; Dierker, L; Stephen, E; Rose, J; Coffman, DL; Otis, M; Coffman, Donna L|0000-0001-6305-6579 (2016-07-19)
      © 2016 Selya, Engel-Rebitzer, Dierker, Stephen, Rose, Coffman and Otis. This paper presents a limited case study examining the causal inference of student mobility on standardized test performance, within one middle-class high school in suburban Connecticut. Administrative data were used from a district public high school enrolling 319 10th graders in 2010. Propensity score methods were used to estimate the causal effect of student mobility on Math, Science, Reading, and Writing portions of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT), after matching mobile vs. stable students on gender, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free/reduced lunches, and special education status. Analyses showed that mobility was associated with lower performance in the CAPT Writing exam. Follow-up analyses revealed that this trend was only significant among those who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches, but not among eligible students. Additionally, mobile students who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches had lower performance in the CAPT Science exam according to some analyses. Large numbers of students transferring into a school district may adversely affect standardized test performance. This is especially relevant for policies that affect student mobility in schools, given the accountability measures in the No Child Left Behind that are currently being re-considered in the recent Every Student Succeeds Act.
    • The challenges and benefits of a genuine partnership between Music Therapy and Neuroscience: a dialog between scientist and therapist

      Magee, Wendy L.; Stewart, Lauren; Magee|0000-0003-4350-1289 (2015-05-01)
      Collaborations between neuroscience and music therapy promise many mutual benefits given the different knowledge bases, experiences and specialist skills possessed by each discipline. Primarily, music therapists deliver music-based interventions on a daily basis with numerous populations; neuroscientists measure clinical changes in ways that provide an evidence base for progressing clinical care. Although recent developments suggest that partnerships between the two can produce positive outcomes for both fields, these collaborations are not considered mainstream. The following dialog between an experienced professional from each discipline explores the potential for collaboration, as well as the misconceptions that may be preventing further synergies from developing.