• Saving the World's Terrestrial Megafauna

      Ripple, WJ; Chapron, G; López-Bao, JV; Durant, SM; Macdonald, DW; Lindsey, PA; Bennett, EL; Beschta, RL; Bruskotter, JT; Campos-Arceiz, A; Corlett, RT; Darimont, CT; Dickman, AJ; Dirzo, R; Dublin, HT; Estes, JA; Everatt, KT; Galetti, M; Goswami, VR; Hayward, MW; Hedges, S; Hoffmann, M; Hunter, LTB; Kerley, GIH; Letnic, M; Levi, T; Maisels, F; Morrison, JC; Nelson, MP; Newsome, TM; Painter, L; Pringle, RM; Sandom, CJ; Terborgh, J; Treves, A; Van Valkenburgh, B; Vucetich, JA; Wirsing, AJ; Wallach, AD; Wolf, C; Woodroffe, R; Young, H; Zhang, L (2016-10-01)
    • Scholar, Innovator, Mentor

      Rebouché, Rachel (2020)
    • School-based preventive dental program in rural communities of the republic of Armenia

      Gasoyan, H; Safaryan, A; Sahakyan, L; Gasoyan, N; Aaronson, WE; Bagramian, RA (2019-01-01)
      © 2019 Gasoyan, Safaryan, Sahakyan, Gasoyan, Aaronson and Bagramian. Objectives: This paper describes a school-based preventive dental program implemented in 14 rural schools within nine villages of Armenia. As part of the program, school-based toothbrushing stations (called Brushadromes) were installed in the participating schools. The intervention included school-based supervised toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste and oral hygiene education. Methods: The study evaluates the prevalence and levels of dental caries among rural schoolchildren in 2013 (beforethe implementationof the preventiveprogram, referredto as a pre-intervention group) and 2017 (4 years after the start of the program, referred to as an intervention group) in two randomly selected villages where the program was implemented. A repeated cross-sectional study design was used. The prevalence of caries and the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in permanent dentition (DMFT) and primary dentition (dmft) were recorded among 6–7 and 10–11-year-old schoolchildren in 2013 (n = 166) and 2017 (n = 148). The pre-intervention and intervention groups include different children in the same age range, from the same villages,examinedatdifferenttimepoints. In both instances, theyrepresentedover95% of the 6–7 and 10–11-year-old student populations of the studied villages. Pearson Chi-square, Fisher’s Exact test, independent t-test, and quasi-likelihood Poisson regression were utilized for data analysis. Results: Schoolchildren involved in the intervention had significantly less decay levels compared to same-age pre-intervention groups. For 10–11-year-old schoolchildren involved in the program, the mean number of permanent teeth with caries was lower by a factor of 0.689 (lower by 31.1%), p = 0.008, 95% CI, 0.523; 0.902, compared to the 10–11-year-old pre-intervention group, after controlling for age, sex, child’s socio-economic vulnerability status, the village of residence, and the number of permanent teeth with fillings. Conclusions: The study indicates a significantly lower level of caries among schoolchildren in the studied two villages where the intervention was implemented. The described intervention is particularly suitable in rural settings where water fluoridation is not available and homes have limited availability of running water.
    • School-based preventive dental program in rural communities of the republic of Armenia

      Gasoyan, H; Safaryan, A; Sahakyan, L; Gasoyan, N; Aaronson, WE; Bagramian, RA (2019-01-01)
      © 2019 Gasoyan, Safaryan, Sahakyan, Gasoyan, Aaronson and Bagramian. Objectives: This paper describes a school-based preventive dental program implemented in 14 rural schools within nine villages of Armenia. As part of the program, school-based toothbrushing stations (called Brushadromes) were installed in the participating schools. The intervention included school-based supervised toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste and oral hygiene education. Methods: The study evaluates the prevalence and levels of dental caries among rural schoolchildren in 2013 (beforethe implementationof the preventiveprogram, referredto as a pre-intervention group) and 2017 (4 years after the start of the program, referred to as an intervention group) in two randomly selected villages where the program was implemented. A repeated cross-sectional study design was used. The prevalence of caries and the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in permanent dentition (DMFT) and primary dentition (dmft) were recorded among 6–7 and 10–11-year-old schoolchildren in 2013 (n = 166) and 2017 (n = 148). The pre-intervention and intervention groups include different children in the same age range, from the same villages,examinedatdifferenttimepoints. In both instances, theyrepresentedover95% of the 6–7 and 10–11-year-old student populations of the studied villages. Pearson Chi-square, Fisher’s Exact test, independent t-test, and quasi-likelihood Poisson regression were utilized for data analysis. Results: Schoolchildren involved in the intervention had significantly less decay levels compared to same-age pre-intervention groups. For 10–11-year-old schoolchildren involved in the program, the mean number of permanent teeth with caries was lower by a factor of 0.689 (lower by 31.1%), p = 0.008, 95% CI, 0.523; 0.902, compared to the 10–11-year-old pre-intervention group, after controlling for age, sex, child’s socio-economic vulnerability status, the village of residence, and the number of permanent teeth with fillings. Conclusions: The study indicates a significantly lower level of caries among schoolchildren in the studied two villages where the intervention was implemented. The described intervention is particularly suitable in rural settings where water fluoridation is not available and homes have limited availability of running water.
    • Selection analyses of paired HIV-1 gag and gp41 sequences obtained before and after antiretroviral therapy

      Tzou, PL; Rhee, SY; Pond, SLK; Manasa, J; Shafer, RW; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky|0000-0003-4817-4029 (2018-12-18)
      © 2018, The Author(s). Most HIV-1-infected individuals with virological failure on a pharmacologically-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) regimen do not develop PI-resistance protease mutations. One proposed explanation is that HIV-1 gag or gp41 cytoplasmic domain mutations might also reduce PI susceptibility. In a recent study of paired gag and gp41 sequences from individuals with virological failure on a PI regimen, we did not identify PI-selected mutations and concluded that if such mutations existed, larger numbers of paired sequences from multiple studies would be needed for their identification. In this study, we generated site-specific amino acid profiles using gag and gp41 published sequences from 5,338 and 4,242 ART-naïve individuals, respectively, to assist researchers identify unusual mutations arising during therapy and to provide scripts for performing established and novel maximal likelihood estimates of dN/dS substitution rates in paired sequences. The pipelines used to generate the curated sequences, amino acid profiles, and dN/dS analyses will facilitate the application of consistent methods to paired gag and gp41 sequence datasets and expedite the identification of potential sites under PI-selection pressure.
    • Selection on metabolic pathway function in the presence of mutation-selection-drift balance leads to rate-limiting steps that are not evolutionarily stable

      Orlenko, A; Teufel, AI; Chi, PB; Liberles, DA; Liberles, David A|0000-0003-3487-8826 (2016-01-01)
      © 2013 van Poelgeest et al. Background: While commonly assumed in the biochemistry community that the control of metabolic pathways is thought to be critical to cellular function, it is unclear if metabolic pathways generally have evolutionarily stable rate limiting (flux controlling) steps. Results: A set of evolutionary simulations using a kinetic model of a metabolic pathway was performed under different conditions to evaluate the evolutionary stability of rate limiting steps. Simulations used combinations of selection for steady state flux, selection against the cost of molecular biosynthesis, and selection against the accumulation of high concentrations of a deleterious intermediate. Two mutational regimes were used, one with mutations that on average were neutral to molecular phenotype and a second with a preponderance of activity-destroying mutations. The evolutionary stability of rate limiting steps was low in all simulations with non-neutral mutational processes. Clustering of parameter co-evolution showed divergent inter-molecular evolutionary patterns under different evolutionary regimes. Conclusions: This study provides a null model for pathway evolution when compensatory processes dominate with potential applications to predicting pathway functional change. This result also suggests a possible mechanism in which studies in statistical genetics that aim to associate a genotype to a phenotype assuming independent action of variants may be mis-specified through a mis-characterization of the link between individual gene function and pathway function. A better understanding of the genotype-phenotype map has potential applications in differentiating between compensatory changes and directional selection on pathways as well as detecting SNPs and fixed differences that might have phenotypic effects.
    • Semantic feature training in combination with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for progressive anomia

      Hung, J; Bauer, A; Grossman, M; Hamilton, RH; Coslett, HB; Reilly, J (2017-05-16)
      © 2017 Hung, Bauer, Grossman, Hamilton, Coslett and Reilly. We examined the effectiveness of a 2-week regimen of a semantic feature training in combination with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for progressive naming impairment associated with primary progressive aphasia (N = 4) or early onset Alzheimer’s Disease (N = 1). Patients received a 2-week regimen (10 sessions) of anodal tDCS delivered over the left temporoparietal cortex while completing a language therapy that consisted of repeated naming and semantic feature generation. Therapy targets consisted of familiar people, household items, clothes, foods, places, hygiene implements, and activities. Untrained items from each semantic category provided item level controls. We analyzed naming accuracies at multiple timepoints (i.e., pre-, post-, 6-month follow-up) via a mixed effects logistic regression and individual differences in treatment responsiveness using a series of non-parametric McNemar tests. Patients showed advantages for naming trained over untrained items. These gains were evident immediately post tDCS. Trained items also showed a shallower rate of decline over 6-months relative to untrained items that showed continued progressive decline. Patients tolerated stimulation well, and sustained improvements in naming accuracy suggest that the current intervention approach is viable. Future implementation of a sham control condition will be crucial toward ascertaining whether neuro stimulation and behavioral treatment act synergistically or alternatively whether treatment gains are exclusively attributable to either tDCS or the behavioral intervention.
    • Semi-inclusive π0 target and beam-target asymmetries from 6 GeV electron scattering with CLAS

      Jawalkar, S; Koirala, S; Avakian, H; Bosted, P; Griffioen, KA; Keith, C; Kuhn, SE; Adhikari, KP; Adhikari, S; Adikaram, D; Akbar, Z; Amaryan, MJ; Anefalos Pereira, S; Ball, J; Baltzell, NA; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, AS; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, WJ; Brock, J; Brooks, WK; Bültmann, S; Burkert, VD; Cao, FT; Carlin, C; Carman, DS; Celentano, A; Charles, G; Chetry, T; Ciullo, G; Clark, L; Colaneri, L; Cole, PL; Contalbrigo, M; Cortes, O; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Defurne, M; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Ddoge, G; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fersch, R; Filippi, A; Fleming, JA; Forest, TA; Fradi, A; Garçon, M; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, GP; Giovanetti, KL; Girod, FX; Gleason, C; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, RW; Guidal, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Harrison, N; Hattawy, M; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Hollis, G; Holtrop, M; Hughes, SM; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, DG; Ishkhanov, BS; Isupov, EL; Jenkins, D; Jiang, H; Joo, K; Joosten, S; Keller, D; Khachatryan, G; Khachatryan, M; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, FJ; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, SV; Lanza, L; Lenisa, P (2018-07-10)
      © 2018 The Authors We present precision measurements of the target and beam-target spin asymmetries from neutral pion electroproduction in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. We scattered 6-GeV, longitudinally polarized electrons off longitudinally polarized protons in a cryogenic 14NH3 target, and extracted double and single target spin asymmetries for ep→e′π0X in multidimensional bins in four-momentum transfer (1.0<Q2<3.2 GeV2), Bjorken-x (0.12<x<0.48), hadron energy fraction (0.4<z<0.7), transverse pion momentum (0<PT<1.0 GeV), and azimuthal angle ϕh between the lepton scattering and hadron production planes. We extracted asymmetries as a function of both x and PT, which provide access to transverse-momentum distributions of longitudinally polarized quarks. The double spin asymmetries depend weakly on PT. The sin⁡2ϕh moments are zero within uncertainties, which is consistent with the expected suppression of the Collins fragmentation function. The observed sin⁡ϕh moments suggest that quark gluon correlations are significant at large x.
    • Sensory Stimulation and Music Therapy Programs for Treating Disorders of Consciousness

      Schnakers, Caroline; Magee, Wendy L.; Harris, Brian; Magee|0000-0003-4350-1289 (2016-03-07)
    • Sex differences in corticotropin releasing factor regulation of medial septum-mediated memory formation

      Wiersielis, KR; Ceretti, A; Hall, A; Famularo, ST; Salvatore, M; Ellis, AS; Jang, H; Wimmer, ME; Bangasser, DA (2019-02-01)
      © 2019 The Authors Stress can disrupt memory and contribute to cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. These diseases are more common in men than in women, with men showing greater cognitive impairments. Mnemonic deficits induced by stress are mediated, in part, by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). However, where CRF is acting to regulate memory, and sex differences therein, is understudied. Here we assessed whether CRF in the medial septum (MS), which projects to the hippocampus, affected memory formation in male and female rats. CRF in the MS did not alter hippocampal-independent object recognition memory, but impaired hippocampal-dependent object location memory in both sexes. Interestingly, males were more sensitive than females to the disruptive effect of a low dose of CRF in the MS. Female resistance was not due to circulating ovarian hormones. However, compared to males, females had higher MS expression of CRF binding protein, which reduces CRF bioavailability and thus may mitigate the effect of the low dose of CRF in females. In contrast, there was no sex difference in CRF 1 expression in the MS. Consistent with this finding, CRF 1 antagonism blocked the memory impairment caused by the high dose of CRF in the MS in both sexes. Collectively, these results suggest that males are more vulnerable than females to the memory impairments caused by CRF in the MS. In both sexes, CRF 1 antagonists prevented MS-mediated memory deficits caused by high levels of CRF, and such levels can result from very stressful events. Thus, CRF 1 antagonists may be a viable option for treating cognitive deficits in stressed individuals with psychiatric disorders.
    • Sex differences in psychiatric disease: A focus on the glutamate system

      Wickens, MM; Bangasser, DA; Briand, LA (2018-06-05)
      © 2018 Wickens, Bangasser and Briand. Alterations in glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, are implicated in several psychiatric diseases. Many of these psychiatric diseases display epidemiological sex differences, with either males or females exhibiting different symptoms or disease prevalence. However, little work has considered the interaction of disrupted glutamatergic transmission and sex on disease states. This review describes the clinical and preclinical evidence for these sex differences with a focus on two conditions that are more prevalent in women: Alzheimer’s disease and major depressive disorder, and three conditions that are more prevalent in men: schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. These studies reveal sex differences at multiple levels in the glutamate system including metabolic markers, receptor levels, genetic interactions, and therapeutic responses to glutamatergic drugs. Our survey of the current literature revealed a considerable need for more evaluations of sex differences in future studies examining the role of the glutamate system in psychiatric disease. Gaining a more thorough understanding of how sex differences in the glutamate system contribute to psychiatric disease could provide novel avenues for the development of sex-specific pharmacotherapies.
    • Sex differences: To freeze or not to freeze

      Bangasser, D (2015-12-23)
      © 2015, eLife Sciences Publications Ltd. All rights reserved. Male and female rats respond to a fearful experience in different ways, but this was not previously taken into account in research into psychiatric disorders.
    • Sex-biased cellular signaling: Molecular basis for sex differences in neuropsychiatric diseases

      Valentino, RJ; Bangasser, DA (2016-01-01)
      © 2016 AICH-Servier Research Group. All rights reserved. The recognition that there are fundamental biological sex differences that extend beyond those that define sexual behavior and reproductive function has inspired the drive toward inclusion of both sexes in research design. This is supported by an underlying clinical rationale that studying both sexes is necessary to elucidate pathophysiology and develop treatments for the entire population. However, at a more basic level, sex differences, like genetic differences, can be exploited to better understand biology. Here, we discuss how sex differences at the molecular level of cell signaling and protein trafficking are amplified to create a state of vulnerability that under the right conditions can result in symptoms of neuropsychiatric disease. Although this dialogue focuses on the specific example of corticotropin- releasing factor, the potential for analogous sex differences in signaling and/or trafficking of receptors for other neuromodulators has broad biological and therapeutic implications.
    • Sex-Biased Networks and Nodes of Sexually Antagonistic Conflict in Drosophila

      Hansen, Matthew EB; Kulathinal, Rob J; Kulathinal, Rob|0000-0003-1907-2744 (2013-01-22)
      <jats:p>Sexual antagonism, or conflict, can occur when males and females harbor opposing reproductive strategies. The large fraction of sex-biased genes in genomes present considerable opportunities for conflict to occur, suggesting that sexual antagonism may potentially be a general phenomenon at the molecular level. Here, we employ a novel strategy to identify potential nodes of sexual conflict in <jats:italic>Drosophila melanogaster</jats:italic> by coupling male, female, and sex-unbiased networks derived from genome-wide expression data with available genetic and protein interaction data. We find that sex-biased networks comprise a large fraction (<jats:italic>~</jats:italic>1/3) of the total interaction network with the male network possessing nearly twice the number of nodes (genes) relative to the female network. However, there are far less edges or interaction partners among male relative to female subnetworks as seen in their power law distributions. We further identified 598 sex-unbiased genes that can act as indirect nodes of interlocus sexual conflict as well as 271 direct nodal pairs of potential conflict between male- and female-biased genes. The pervasiveness of such potentially conflicting nodes may explain the rapid evolution of sex-biased as well as non-sex-biased genes via this molecular mechanism of sexual selection even among taxa such as <jats:italic>Drosophila</jats:italic> that are nominally sexually dimorphic.</jats:p>
    • Sexual functioning of men and women with severe obesity prior to bariatric surgery

      Steffen, Kristine J.; King, Wendy C.; White, Gretchen E.; Subak, Leslee L.; Mitchell, James E.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Flum, David R.; Strain, Gladys; Sarwer, David; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Pories, Walter; Huang, Alison J.; 0000-0003-1033-5528 (2016-09-28)
      Background: Obesity may impair sexual function through multiple mechanisms, but little is known about sexual dysfunction among adults with severe obesity seeking bariatric procedures. Objectives: To describe sexual function and associated factors before bariatric surgery. Setting: Ten U.S. clinical facilities. Methods: Before bariatric surgery, 2225 of 2458 Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 study participants (79% female, median age 45 years and median body mass index 46 kg/m2) completed a survey about sexual function over the past month. Mixed effects ordinal logistic regression models were used to identify factors independently related to 4 domains of sexual function. Results: One third of women (34%) and one quarter of men (25%) were not sexually active, alone or with a partner, in the past month. Twenty-six percent of women and 12% of men reported no sexual desire. Physical health limited sexual activity at least moderately in 38% of women and 44% of men. About one half of the women (49%) and the men (54%) were moderately or very dissatisfied with their sexual life. Among women, older age, being Caucasian, urinary incontinence, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant medication use were associated with poorer sexual function in multiple domains. In men, older age, not being married, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant medication use were associated with poorer sexual function in multiple domains. Conclusion: Before bariatric surgery, approximately one half of women and men with severe obesity are dissatisfied with their sexual life. Older age, severity of depressive symptoms, and antidepressant medication use are associated with poorer sexual function in both sexes.
    • Shared decision making and patient-centered care in Israel, jordan, and the united states: Exploratory and comparative survey study of physician perceptions

      Zisman-Ilani, Y; Obeidat, R; Fang, L; Hsieh, S; Berger, Z (2020-08-01)
      © Yaara Zisman-Ilani, Rana Obeidat, Lauren Fang, Sarah Hsieh, Zackary Berger. Originally published in JMIR Formative Research (http://formative.jmir.org), 03.08.2020. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Formative Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http://formative.jmir.org, as well as this copyright and license information must be included. Background: Shared decision making (SDM) is a health communication model that evolved in Europe and North America and largely reflects the values and medical practices dominant in these areas. Objective: This study aims to understand the beliefs, perceptions, and practices related to SDM and patient-centered care (PCC) of physicians in Israel, Jordan, and the United States. Methods: A hypothesis-generating comparative survey study was administered to physicians from Israel, Jordan, and the United States. Results: A total of 36 surveys were collected via snowball sampling (Jordan: n=15; United States: n=12; Israel: n=9). SDM was perceived as a way to inform patients and allow them to participate in their care. Barriers to implementing SDM varied based on place of origin; physicians in the United States mentioned limited time, physicians in Jordan reported that a lack of patient education limits SDM practices, and physicians in Israel reported lack of communication training. Most US physicians defined PCC as a practice for prioritizing patient preferences, whereas both Jordanian and Israeli physicians defined PCC as a holistic approach to care and to prioritizing patient needs. Barriers to implementing PCC, as seen by US physicians, were mostly centered on limited appointment time and insurance coverage. In Jordan and Israel, staff shortage and a lack of resources in the system were seen as major barriers to PCC implementation. Conclusions: The study adds to the limited, yet important, literature on SDM and PCC in areas of the world outside the United States, Canada, Australia, and Western Europe. The study suggests that perceptions of PCC might widely differ among these regions, whereas concepts of SDM might be shared. Future work should clarify these differences.
    • Sharing and re-use of phylogenetic trees (and associated data) to facilitate synthesis

      Stoltzfus, A; O'Meara, B; Whitacre, J; Mounce, R; Gillespie, EL; Kumar, S; Rosauer, DF; Vos, RA; Kumar, Sudhir|0000-0002-9918-8212 (2012-10-25)
      Background: Recently, various evolution-related journals adopted policies to encourage or require archiving of phylogenetic trees and associated data. Such attention to practices that promote sharing of data reflects rapidly improving information technology, and rapidly expanding potential to use this technology to aggregate and link data from previously published research. Nevertheless, little is known about current practices, or best practices, for publishing trees and associated data so as to promote re-use. Findings. Here we summarize results of an ongoing analysis of current practices for archiving phylogenetic trees and associated data, current practices of re-use, and current barriers to re-use. We find that the technical infrastructure is available to support rudimentary archiving, but the frequency of archiving is low. Currently, most phylogenetic knowledge is not easily re-used due to a lack of archiving, lack of awareness of best practices, and lack of community-wide standards for formatting data, naming entities, and annotating data. Most attempts at data re-use seem to end in disappointment. Nevertheless, we find many positive examples of data re-use, particularly those that involve customized species trees generated by grafting to, and pruning from, a much larger tree. Conclusions: The technologies and practices that facilitate data re-use can catalyze synthetic and integrative research. However, success will require engagement from various stakeholders including individual scientists who produce or consume shareable data, publishers, policy-makers, technology developers and resource-providers. The critical challenges for facilitating re-use of phylogenetic trees and associated data, we suggest, include: a broader commitment to public archiving; more extensive use of globally meaningful identifiers; development of user-friendly technology for annotating, submitting, searching, and retrieving data and their metadata; and development of a minimum reporting standard (MIAPA) indicating which kinds of data and metadata are most important for a re-useable phylogenetic record. © 2012 Stoltzfus et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • Shedding Liberalism, All Over Again

      Levitt, Laura S. (2011)
      As the editor of this special issue of the journal explains: "Laura Levitt, in "Shedding Liberalism All Over Again," focuses more closely on the role of the Christian Secular in the "exclusionary inclusion" of different kinds of social bodies in liberalism in the U.S., focusing in particular on the example of the historical experience of Jews who emigrated to the United States. While on the one hand, America has served as a welcome respite for Jews, particularly Eastern European Jews like her ancestors, this has not come without a cost. Like today's Islamic cultures in the U.S., or yesterday's Catholics, the Christian Secular is ostensibly welcoming, but only to the extent outside groups fit into and conform to the frame of its Protestant structure and outlook. It is "okay" to be different, as long as you are a recognizable variation on its theme. For Jews, Levitt argues, this has been recognition of inclusion only to the extent that Jews are seen as "religious" and belong to a "church" (synagogue). "Secular," unbelieving, or merely "cultural" Jews are excluded from acceptable recognition in today's ostensibly "neutral" public sphere."
    • Shifting the optimal stiffness for cell migration

      Bangasser, BL; Shamsan, GA; Chan, CE; Opoku, KN; Tüzel, E; Schlichtmann, BW; Kasim, JA; Fuller, BJ; McCullough, BR; Rosenfeld, SS; Odde, DJ (2017-05-22)
      © The Author(s) 2017. Cell migration, which is central to many biological processes including wound healing and cancer progression, is sensitive to environmental stiffness, and many cell types exhibit a stiffness optimum, at which migration is maximal. Here we present a cell migration simulator that predicts a stiffness optimum that can be shifted by altering the number of active molecular motors and clutches. This prediction is verified experimentally by comparing cell traction and F-actin retrograde flow for two cell types with differing amounts of active motors and clutches: embryonic chick forebrain neurons (ECFNs; optimum ∼ 1 kPa) and U251 glioma cells (optimum ∼ 100 kPa). In addition, the model predicts, and experiments confirm, that the stiffness optimum of U251 glioma cell migration, morphology and F-actin retrograde flow rate can be shifted to lower stiffness by simultaneous drug inhibition of myosin II motors and integrin-mediated adhesions.
    • Shipboard design and fabrication of custom 3D-printed soft robotic manipulators for the investigation of delicate deep-sea organisms

      Vogt, DM; Becker, KP; Phillips, BT; Graule, MA; Rotjan, RD; Shank, TM; Cordes, EE; Wood, RJ; Gruber, DF; Cordes, Erik|0000-0002-6989-2348 (2018-08-01)
      © 2018 Vogt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Soft robotics is an emerging technology that has shown considerable promise in deep-sea marine biological applications. It is particularly useful in facilitating delicate interactions with fragile marine organisms. This study describes the shipboard design, 3D printing and integration of custom soft robotic manipulators for investigating and interacting with deep-sea organisms. Soft robotics manipulators were tested down to 2224m via a Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) in the Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA) and facilitated the study of a diverse suite of soft-bodied and fragile marine life. Instantaneous feedback from the ROV pilots and biologists allowed for rapid re-design, such as adding “fingernails”, and re-fabrication of soft manipulators at sea. These were then used to successfully grasp fragile deep-sea animals, such as goniasterids and holothurians, which have historically been difficult to collect undamaged via rigid mechanical arms and suction samplers. As scientific expeditions to remote parts of the world are costly and lengthy to plan, on-the-fly soft robot actuator printing offers a real-time solution to better understand and interact with delicate deep-sea environments, soft-bodied, brittle, and otherwise fragile organisms. This also offers a less invasive means of interacting with slow-growing deep marine organisms, some of which can be up to 18,000 years old.