• Quantitative analysis of the Drosophila segmentation regulatory network using pattern generating potentials

      Kazemian, M; Blatti, C; Richards, A; McCutchan, M; Wakabayashi-Ito, N; Hammonds, AS; Celniker, SE; Kumar, S; Wolfe, SA; Brodsky, MH; Sinha, S; Kumar, Sudhir|0000-0002-9918-8212 (2010-08-01)
      Cis-regulatory modules that drive precise spatial-temporal patterns of gene expression are central to the process of metazoan development. We describe a new computational strategy to annotate genomic sequences based on their "pattern generating potential" and to produce quantitative descriptions of transcriptional regulatory networks at the level of individual protein-module interactions. We use this approach to convert the qualitative understanding of interactions that regulate Drosophila segmentation into a network model in which a confidence value is associated with each transcription factor-module interaction. Sequence information from multiple Drosophila species is integrated with transcription factor binding specificities to determine conserved binding site frequencies across the genome. These binding site profiles are combined with transcription factor expression information to create a model to predict module activity patterns. This model is used to scan genomic sequences for the potential to generate all or part of the expression pattern of a nearby gene, obtained from available gene expression databases. Interactions between individual transcription factors and modules are inferred by a statistical method to quantify a factor's contribution to the module's pattern generating potential. We use these pattern generating potentials to systematically describe the location and function of known and novel cis-regulatory modules in the segmentation network, identifying many examples of modules predicted to have overlapping expression activities. Surprisingly, conserved transcription factor binding site frequencies were as effective as experimental measurements of occupancy in predicting module expression patterns or factor-module interactions. Thus, unlike previous module prediction methods, this method predicts not only the location of modules but also their spatial activity pattern and the factors that directly determine this pattern. As databases of transcription factor specificities and in vivo gene expression patterns grow, analysis of pattern generating potentials provides a general method to decode transcriptional regulatory sequences and networks. © 2010 Kazemian et al.
    • Quantitative examination of the bone health status of older adults with intellectual and developmental disability in Ireland: A cross-sectional nationwide study

      Burke, E; Carroll, R; O'Dwyer, M; Walsh, JB; McCallion, P; McCarron, M; Mccallion, Philip|0000-0001-5129-6399 (2019-04-01)
      © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. Objectives (1) To investigate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and (2) to examine alternative optimal bone screening techniques. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting Wave 2 (2013-2106) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Participants A national representative sample of 604 male and female persons with ID aged 43 years and over. In total, 575 participants completed quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements for one or both feet. Outcome measures Participants underwent health assessments consisting of eight objective health measures including the standardised QUS of the calcaneus bone using a GE Lunar Achilles. A preinterview questionnaire and face-to-face interview were also completed. Results Objectively QUS identified poorer rates of bone health in people with ID overall with 74% indicating evidence of osteopenia (33.2%) or osteoporosis (41%). Females scored lower than males in the QUS t-scores a '2.208 (±1.77) versus a '1.78(±1.734). Bone status was stratified by gender (p=0.114), age (p=0.003), level of ID (p<0.0001) and living circumstance (p<0.0001). Conclusions This study has shown the prevalence of poor bone health in people with ID is substantial implying an increased risk of fracture due to reduced skeletal integrity. QUS screening has been shown to be useful when combined with clinical risk factors.
    • Quantitative single cell monitoring of protein synthesis at subcellular resolution using fluorescently labeled tRNA

      Barhoom, S; Kaur, J; Cooperman, BS; Smorodinsky, NI; Smilansky, Z; Ehrlich, M; Elroy-Stein, O (2011-10-01)
      We have developed a novel technique of using fluorescent tRNA for translation monitoring (FtTM). FtTM enables the identification and monitoring of active protein synthesis sites within live cells at submicron resolution through quantitative microscopy of transfected bulk uncharged tRNA, fluorescently labeled in the D-loop (fl-tRNA). The localization of fl-tRNA to active translation sites was confirmed through its co-localization with cellular factors and its dynamic alterations upon inhibition of protein synthesis. Moreover, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signals, generated when fl-tRNAs, separately labeled as a FRET pair occupy adjacent sites on the ribosome, quantitatively reflect levels of protein synthesis in defined cellular regions. In addition, FRET signals enable detection of intra-populational variability in protein synthesis activity. We demonstrate that FtTM allows quantitative comparison of protein synthesis between different cell types, monitoring effects of antibiotics and stress agents, and characterization of changes in spatial compartmentalization of protein synthesis upon viral infection. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.
    • Quasiparticle dynamics across the full Brillouin zone of Bi<inf>2</inf>Sr<inf>2</inf>CaCu<inf>2</inf>O<inf>8+δ</inf> traced with ultrafast time and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

      Dakovski, GL; Durakiewicz, T; Zhu, JX; Riseborough, PS; Gu, G; Gilbertson, SM; Taylor, A; Rodriguez, G (2015-09-01)
      © 2015 Author(s). A hallmark in the cuprate family of high-temperature superconductors is the nodal-antinodal dichotomy. In this regard, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has proven especially powerful, providing band structure information directly in energy-momentum space. Time-resolved ARPES (trARPES) holds great promise of adding ultrafast temporal information, in an attempt to identify different interaction channels in the time domain. Previous studies of the cuprates using trARPES were handicapped by the low probing energy, which significantly limits the accessible momentum space. Using 20.15 eV, 12 fs pulses, we show for the first time the evolution of quasiparticles in the antinodal region of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and demonstrate that non-monotonic relaxation dynamics dominates above a certain fluence threshold. The dynamics is heavily influenced by transient modification of the electron-phonon interaction and phase space restrictions, in stark contrast to the monotonic relaxation in the nodal and off-nodal regions.
    • Questioning Hierarchies of Harm: Women, Forced Migration and International Criminal Law

      Ramji-Nogales, Jaya (2011-01-01)
      Though international criminal law has made great strides in addressing harm perpetrated against women in wartime, its gendered structure diverts attention away from other significant harms that women endure as a result of armed conflict. In particular, international criminal law’s hierarchy of harm elevates crimes committed as part of a plan or pattern across political groups over equally serious forms of harm perpetrated randomly, often within political groups. Thus the private and opportunistic harms enabled by situations of displacement and perpetrated against female forced migrants do not fall clearly within the framework of international criminal law. This vacuum of accountability extends beyond international criminal law, as female forced migrants cannot rely on their own governments, their host governments, and often even international humanitarian organizations to protect them against opportunistic violence. International criminal law could fill the void only after quite serious reconstruction, namely expansion of its scope and restructuring of its focus. It may be that a structure designed specifically to prevent and account for opportunistic violence against female forced migrants would be better equipped to perform that task. Criminal accountability might be better performed in national legal systems or informal justice systems created within camp environments. There are also solutions other than criminal accountability, such as human rights law, that might be more appropriate in addressing such harms. In the meantime, until a solution is found that places these ‘private’ crimes on equal footing with ‘public’ attacks currently prohibited by international criminal law, the serious and frequent harms suffered by forcibly displaced women will continue to be overlooked, relegated to the bottom of the hierarchy of harm.
    • R-Roscovitine (Seliciclib) prevents DNA damage-induced cyclin A1 upregulation and hinders non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair

      Federico, M; Symonds, CE; Bagella, L; Rizzolio, F; Fanale, D; Russo, A; Giordano, A; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2010-08-04)
      Background: CDK-inhibitors can diminish transcriptional levels of cell cycle-related cyclins through the inhibition of E2F family members and CDK7 and 9. Cyclin A1, an E2F-independent cyclin, is strongly upregulated under genotoxic conditions and functionally was shown to increase NHEJ activity. Cyclin A1 outcompetes with cyclin A2 for CDK2 binding, possibly redirecting its activity towards DNA repair. To see if we could therapeutically block this switch, we analyzed the effects of the CDK-inhibitor R-Roscovitine on the expression levels of cyclin A1 under genotoxic stress and observed subsequent DNA damage and repair mechanisms.Results: We found that R-Roscovitine alone was unable to alter cyclin A1 transcriptional levels, however it was able to reduce protein expression through a proteosome-dependent mechanism. When combined with DNA damaging agents, R-Roscovitine was able to prevent the DNA damage-induced upregulation of cyclin A1 on a transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. This, moreover resulted in a significant decrease in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) paired with an increase in DNA DSBs and overall DNA damage over time. Furthermore, microarray analysis demonstrated that R-Roscovitine affected DNA repair mechanisms in a more global fashion.Conclusions: Our data reveal a new mechanism of action for R-Roscovitine on DNA repair through the inhibition of the molecular switch between cyclin A family members under genotoxic conditions resulting in reduced NHEJ capability. © 2010 Federico et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • Racial differences in the responses to shear stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

      Feairheller, DL; Park, JY; Rizzo, V; Kim, B; Brown, MD (2011-01-01)
      Background: African American ethnicity is an independent risk factor for exaggerated oxidative stress, which is related to inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Recently, we reported that in vitro oxidative stress and inflammation levels differ between African American and Caucasian human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), African American HUVECs having higher levels of both. However, it remains to be shown whether the cells would respond differently to external stimuli. Methods: We used a cone and plate viscometer to apply laminar shear stress (LSS) as an aerobic exercise mimetic to compare the responses by race. HUVECs were exposed to static conditions (no LSS), low LSS (5 dyne/cm2), and moderate LSS (20 dyne/cm2). Results: It was found that African American HUVECs had higher levels of oxidative stress under static conditions, and when LSS was applied protein expression levels (NADPH oxidase NOX2, NOX4 and p47phox subunits, eNOS, SOD2, and catalase) and biomarkers (NO, SOD, and total antioxidant capacity) were modulated to similar levels between race. Conclusion: African American HUVECs may be more responsive to LSS stimulus indicating that aerobic exercise prescriptions may be valuable for this population since the potential exists for large in vivo improvements in oxidative stress levels along the endothelial layer in response to increased shear flow. © 2011 Feairheller et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
    • Racial differences in tumor necrosis factor-α-induced endothelial microparticles and interleukin-6 production

      Brown, MD; Feairheller, DL; Thakkar, S; Veerabhadrappa, P; Park, JY (2011-01-01)
      African Americans (AA) tend to have heightened systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are released from activated/apoptotic endothelial cells (EC) when stimulated by inflammation. The purpose of our study was to assess EMP responses to inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, SOD) conditions in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) obtained from AA and Caucasians. EMPs were measured under four conditions: control (basal), TNF-α, SOD, and TNF-α + SOD. Culture supernatant was collected for EMP analysis by flow cytometry and IL-6 assay by ELISA. IL-6 protein expression was assessed by Western blot. AA HUVECs had greater EMP levels under the TNF-α condition compared to the Caucasian HUVECs (6.8 ± 1.1 vs 4.7% ± 0.4%, P = 0.04). The EMP level increased by 89% from basal levels in the AA HUVECs under the TNF-α condition (P = 0.01) compared to an 8% increase in the Caucasian HUVECs (P = 0.70). Compared to the EMP level under the TNF-α condition, the EMP level in the AA HUVECs was lower under the SOD only condition (2.9% ± 0.3%, P = 0.005) and under the TNF-α + SOD condition (2.1% ± 0.4%, P = 0.001). Basal IL-6 concentrations were 56.1 ± 8.8 pg/mL/μg in the AA and 30.9 ± 14.9 pg/mL/μg in the Caucasian HUVECs (P = 0.17), while basal IL-6 protein expression was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the AA HUVECs. These preliminary observational results suggest that AA HUVECs may be more susceptible to the injurious effects of the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α. © 2011 Brown et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
    • Racial/ethnic differences in health insurance adequacy and consistency among children: Evidence from the 2011/12 National Survey of Children’s Health

      Soylu, TG; Elashkar, E; Aloudah, F; Ahmed, M; Kitsantas, P; Soylu, Tulay G.|0000-0003-2620-766X (2018-02-05)
      © T.G. Soylu et al., 2018. As the number of minority US children increases, monitoring racial/ethnic differences in health insurance coverage becomes critical in creating insurance programs that can provide adequate and consistent coverage. Using a nationally representative sample, the findings of this study suggest that low income and poor maternal health can adversely affect insurance consistency and adequacy for both minority and white children. This indicates that research studies on inequalities of healthcare coverage should also focus on underserved white populations of children as their insurance coverage is affected by similar factors as those for minority children. Elimination of inequalities may require targeted interventions that include the well-being of the entire family, cross-cultural education of healthcare providers, policy changes to grant low-income children with appropriate and reliable health insurance, and an ongoing monitoring of disparities by health plans.
    • Radiotherapy prolongs the survival of advanced non-smallcell lung cancer patients undergone to an immune-modulating treatment with dose-fractioned cisplatin and metronomic etoposide and bevacizumab (mPEBev)

      Pastina, P; Nardone, V; Botta, C; Croci, S; Tini, P; Battaglia, G; Ricci, V; Cusi, MG; Gandolfo, C; Misso, G; Zappavigna, S; Caraglia, M; Giordano, A; Aldinucci, D; Tassone, P; Tagliaferri, P; Pirtoli, L; Correale, P; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2017-01-01)
      © Pastina et al. Radiotherapy (RT), together with a direct cytolytic effect on tumor tissue, also elicits systemic immunological events, which sometimes result in the regression of distant metastases (abscopal effect). We have shown the safety and anti-tumor activity of a novel metronomic chemotherapy (mCH) regimen with dose-fractioned cisplatin, oral etoposide and bevacizumab, a mAb against the vasculo-endothelial-growthfactor (mPEBev regimen), in metastatic non-small-cell-lung cancer (mNSCLC). This regimen, designed on the results of translational studies, showed immune-modulating effects that could trigger and empower the immunological effects associated with tumor irradiation. In order to assess this, we carried out a retrospective analysis in a subset of 69 consecutive patients who received the mPEBev regimen within the BEVA2007 trial. Forty-five of these patients, also received palliative RT of one or more metastatic sites. Statistical analysis (a Log-rank test) revealed a much longer median survival in the group of patients who received RT [mCH vs mCH + RT: 12.1 +/-2.5 (95%CI 3.35-8.6) vs 22.12 +/-4.3 (95%CI 11.9-26.087) months; P=0.015] with no difference in progression-free survival. In particular, their survival correlated with the mPEBev regimen ability to induce the percentage of activated dendritic cells (DCs) (CD3-CD11b+CD15-CD83+CD80+) [Fold to baseline value (FBV) ≤1 vs > 1: 4+/-5.389 (95%CI,0-14.56) vs 56+/-23.05 (95%CI,10.8-101.2) months; P:0.049)] and central-memory-T-cells (CD3+CD8+CD45RA-CCR7+) [FBV ≤1 vs > 1: 8+/-5.96 (95%CI,0-19.68) vs 31+/-12.3 (95%CI,6.94-55.1) months; P:0.045].
    • Randomised trial to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of offering postvisit decision support and assistance in obtaining physician-recommended colorectal cancer screening: The e-assist: Colon Health study - A protocol study

      Lafata, JE; Shin, Y; Flocke, SA; Hawley, ST; Jones, RM; Resnicow, K; Schreiber, M; Shires, DA; Tu, SP; Jones, Resa Marie|0000-0002-0080-4047 (2019-01-01)
      © © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. Introduction How to provide practice-integrated decision support to patients remains a challenge. We are testing the effectiveness of a practice-integrated programme targeting patients with a physician recommendation for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods and analysis In partnership with healthcare teams, we developed 'e-assist: Colon Health', a patient-targeted, postvisit CRC screening decision support programme. The programme is housed within an electronic health record (EHR)-embedded patient portal. It leverages a physician screening recommendation as the cue to action and uses the portal to enrol and intervene with patients. Programme content complements patient-physician discussions by encouraging screening, addressing common questions and assisting with barrier removal. For evaluation, we are using a randomised trial in which patients are randomised to receive e-assist: Colon Health or one of two controls (usual care plus or usual care). Trial participants are average-risk, aged 50-75 years, due for CRC screening and received a physician order for stool testing or colonoscopy. Effectiveness will be evaluated by comparing screening use, as documented in the EHR, between trial enrollees in the e-assist: Colon Health and usual care plus (CRC screening information receipt) groups. Secondary outcomes include patient-perceived benefits of, barriers to and support for CRC screening and patient-reported CRC screening intent. The usual care group will be used to estimate screening use without intervention and programme impact at the population level. Differences in outcomes by study arm will be estimated with hierarchical logit models where patients are nested within physicians. Ethics and dissemination All trial aspects have been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the health system in which the trial is being conducted. We will disseminate findings in diverse scientific venues and will target clinical and quality improvement audiences via other venues. The intervention could serve as a model for filling the gap between physician recommendations and patient action. Trial registration number NCT02798224; Pre-results.
    • Rapamycin re-directs lysosome network, stimulates er-remodeling, involving membrane CD317 and affecting exocytosis, in Campylobacter Jejuni-lysate-infected U937 cells

      Canonico, B; Cesarini, E; Montanari, M; Di Sario, G; Campana, R; Galluzzi, L; Sola, F; Gundogdu, O; Luchetti, F; Diotallevi, A; Baffone, W; Giordano, A; Papa, S; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2020-03-02)
      © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. The Gram-negative Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. The cytotoxic effects of Campylobacter have been mainly ascribed to the actions of the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT): it is mandatory to put in evidence risk factors for sequela development, such as reactive arthritis (ReA) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Several researches are directed to managing symptom severity and the possible onset of sequelae. We found for the first time that rapamycin (RM) is able to largely inhibit the action of C. jejuni lysate CDT in U937 cells, and to partially avoid the activation of specific sub-lethal effects. In fact, we observed that the ability of this drug to redirect lysosomal compartment, stimulate ER-remodeling (highlighted by ER–lysosome and ER–mitochondria contacts), protect mitochondria network, and downregulate CD317/tetherin, is an important component of membrane microdomains. In particular, lysosomes are involved in the process of the reduction of intoxication, until the final step of lysosome exocytosis. Our results indicate that rapamycin confers protection against C. jejuni bacterial lysate insults to myeloid cells.
    • RBL2/p130: a direct AKT substrate and mediator of AKT inhibition-induced apoptosis

      Ventura, Elisa; Pentimalli, Francesca; Giordano, Antonio; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2018-08-28)
    • Real World Food Justice and the Enigma of the Scholar-Activist Label: A Reflection on Research Values

      Croog, Rebecca; Hayes-Conroy, Allison; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Víctor Hugo; Saenz-Montoya, Alexis (2018-10-04)
      Engaging Kate Derickson and Paul Routledge’s set of papers on scholar-activism, this paper reflects on what sorts of research values inspire and accompany scholar-activist research. We draw on multiple examples from research in Colombia and the United States, each of which speaks to the theme of food justice, broadly conceived. We pay attention to research “wants and needs,” finding that specific outcomes (such as usable or compelling data) are only part of a wider array of desires and obligations that make scholar-activist partnerships valuable. Our examples demonstrate four distinct research values— supportive networks, active science, productive discomfort, and affective moments, —that form a vision of scholar-activism that blurs the boundaries between research, political realities, and everyday lives, and seeks to confront real world challenges. The emphasis on active science is as intentional as it is surprising; scholar-activism has been pigeonholed by mainstream academia as a kind of research that doesn’t square well with scientific outcomes. Meanwhile, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are being espoused as essential to solving contemporary problems. Thus, we emphasize that the knowledge, skills and values gained through broad engagement between scholar-activists and others in and out of academia can make scientific inquiry more socially relevant.
    • Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RealAmp) for the Species-Specific Identification of Plasmodium vivax

      Patel, JC; Oberstaller, J; Xayavong, M; Narayanan, J; DeBarry, JD; Srinivasamoorthy, G; Villegas, L; Escalante, AA; DaSilva, A; Peterson, DS; Barnwell, JW; Kissinger, JC; Udhayakumar, V; Lucchi, NW (2013-01-29)
      Plasmodium vivax infections remain a major source of malaria-related morbidity and mortality. Early and accurate diagnosis is an integral component of effective malaria control programs. Conventional molecular diagnostic methods provide accurate results but are often resource-intensive, expensive, have a long turnaround time and are beyond the capacity of most malaria-endemic countries. Our laboratory has recently developed a new platform called RealAmp, which combines loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with a portable tube scanner real-time isothermal instrument for the rapid detection of malaria parasites. Here we describe new primers for the detection of P. vivax using the RealAmp method. Three pairs of amplification primers required for this method were derived from a conserved DNA sequence unique to the P. vivax genome. The amplification was carried out at 64°C using SYBR Green or SYTO-9 intercalating dyes for 90 minutes with the tube scanner set to collect fluorescence signals at 1-minute intervals. Clinical samples of P. vivax and other human-infecting malaria parasite species were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the primers by comparing with an 18S ribosomal RNA-based nested PCR as the gold standard. The new set of primers consistently detected laboratory-maintained isolates of P. vivax from different parts of the world. The primers detected P. vivax in the clinical samples with 94.59% sensitivity (95% CI: 87.48-98.26%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 90.40-100%) compared to the gold standard nested-PCR method. The new primers also proved to be more sensitive than the published species-specific primers specifically developed for the LAMP method in detecting P. vivax.
    • Reasons low-income parents offer snacks to children: How feeding rationale influences snack frequency and adherence to dietary recommendations

      Blaine, RE; Fisher, JO; Taveras, EM; Geller, AC; Rimm, EB; Land, T; Perkins, M; Davison, KK (2015-07-21)
      © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD)) for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (¯x = 2.5; SD 2.2) or satisfying hunger (¯x = 2.4; SD 2.1) almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (¯x = 0.7; SD 1.5) or celebrating events/holidays (¯x = 0.8; SD 1.1). Parents reported giving young children (2–5 years) more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p < 0.001), keep quiet (1.0 vs. 0.5, p < 0.001), and celebrate achievements (1.7 vs. 1.0, p < 0.001) than parents of older children (6–12 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios, which indicated reduced child adherence to dietary recommendations when parents offered snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70–0.99), celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52–0.99), or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–0.98). Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts.
    • Recovering an Ars Moriendi

      Catholic Medical Association (2013-11-01)
    • Recovery of an oxidized majorite inclusion from Earth's deep asthenosphere

      Xu, Cheng; Kynicky, Jindrich; Tao, Renbiao; Liu, Xi; Zhang, Lifei; Pohanka, Miroslav; Song, Wenlei; Fei, Yingwei; Tao, Rongjia|0000-0001-5058-4401 (2017-04)
      Minerals recovered from the deep mantle provide a rare glimpse into deep Earth processes. We report the first discovery of ferric iron-rich majoritic garnet found as inclusions in a host garnet within an eclogite xenolith originating in the deep mantle. The composition of the host garnet indicates an ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic origin, probably at a depth of ~200 km. More importantly, the ferric iron-rich majoritic garnet inclusions show a much deeper origin, at least at a depth of 380 km. The majoritic nature of the inclusions is confirmed by mineral chemistry, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy, and their depth of origin is constrained by a new experimental calibration. The unique relationship between the majoritic inclusions and their host garnet has important implications for mantle dynamics within the deep asthenosphere. The high ferric iron content of the inclusions provides insights into the oxidation state of the deep upper mantle.
    • Recruiting Community partners for Veggie Van: Strategies and lessons learned from a mobile market intervention in North Carolina, 2012-2015

      Tripicchio, GL; Smith, JG; Armstrong-Brown, J; McGuirt, J; Haynes-Maslow, L; Mardovich, S; Ammerman, AS; Leone, L (2017-04-01)
      Background Food access interventions are promising strategies for improving dietary intake, which is associated with better health. However, studies examining the relationship between food access and intake are limited to observational designs, indicating a need for more rigorous approaches. The Veggie Van (VV) program was a cluster-randomized intervention designed to address the gap between food access and intake. In this article, we aim to describe the approaches involved in recruiting community partners to participate in VV. Community Context The VV mobile market aimed to improve access to fresh fruits and vegetables by providing subsidized, high-quality, local produce in low-resource communities in North Carolina. This study describes the strategies and considerations involved in recruiting community partners and individual participants for participation in the VV program and evaluation. Methods To recruit partners, we used various strategies, including a site screener to identify potential partners, interest forms to gauge future VV use and prioritize enrollment of a high-need population, marketing materials to promote VV, site liaisons to coordinate community outreach, and a memorandum of understanding between all invested parties. Outcome A total of 53 community organizations and 725 participants were approached for recruitment. Ultimately, 12 sites and 201 participants were enrolled. Enrollment took 38 months, but our approaches helped successfully recruit a low-income, low-access population. The process took longer than anticipated, and funding constraints prevented certain strategies from being implemented. Interpretation Recruiting community partners and members for participation in a multi-level, community-based intervention was challenging. Strategies and lessons learned can inform future studies.
    • Redressing Jewish Difference in Tania Modleski's "Cinema and the Dark Continent"

      Levitt, Laura S. (1997-10)
      This essay addresses what Jewish Studies and Religion scholars have to contribute to cultural discourse about film. Through a careful reading of feminist critic Tania Modleski's essay, this article demonstrates some of the blindspots in film studies when it comes to depictions of Jews, Jewishness, and Judaism. By addressing the ambivalent status of Jewishness in Modleski's work, the essay offers another way of reading Jewishness in not only the Jazz Singer and Crossing Delancy, but in critical discourse more generally.