• Naming and Knowing Revisited: Eyetracking Correlates of Anomia in Progressive Aphasia

      Piai, Vitória; Eleanor Saffran Center for Cognitive Neuroscience (Temple University) (2019-10-11)
      Progressive naming impairment (i.e., anomia) is a core diagnostic symptom of numerous pathologies that impact anterior and inferior portions of the temporal lobe. For patients who experience such regional temporal lobe degeneration, patterns of language loss often parallel the degradation of semantic memory, an etiology of naming impairment known as semantic anomia. Previous studies of semantic anomia have focused extensively on the output of naming attempts by contrasting errors, omissions, and distortions as a function of item-level characteristics (e.g., prototypicality, semantic category). An alternative approach involves evaluating visual confrontation naming as the naming process unfolds. Techniques with high temporal resolution (e.g., eyetracking) offer a potentially sensitive mode of delineating the locus of impairment during naming. For example, a lexical retrieval disorder would hypothetically elicit normal gaze patterns associated with successful visual object recognition regardless of naming accuracy. In contrast, we hypothesize that semantic anomia would be distinguished by aberrant gaze patterns as a function of reduced top-down conceptually guided search. Here we examined visual object recognition during picture confrontation naming by contrasting gaze patterns time locked to stimulus onset. Patients included a cohort of patients with anomia associated with either primary progressive aphasia (N = 9) or Alzheimer’s disease (N = 1) who attempted to name 200 pictures over the course of 18–24 months. We retrospectively isolated correct and incorrect naming attempts and contrasted gaze patterns for accurate vs. inaccurate attempts to discern whether gaze patterns are predictive of language forgetting. Patients tended to show a lower fixation count, higher saccade count, and slower saccade velocity for items that were named incorrectly. These results hold promise for the utility of eyetracking as a diagnostic and therapeutic index of language functioning.
    • Nano-enhanced Dialytic Fluid Purification: CFD Modeling of Pb(II) Removal by Manganese Oxide

      Atmatzidis, K; Alimohammadi, F; Aich, N; Tehrani, R; Afsarmanesh Tehrani, Rouzbeh|0000-0002-5989-7049 (2020-12-22)
      © Nano-enhanced dialytic fluid purification is an evolution of biomedical dialysis that has been proposed as a novel method for applying nanomaterials in water treatment. Using nanosized hexagonal birnessite (Î-MnO2) in a simplified dialytic system, we demonstrate herein an almost complete removal (98%) of Pb(II) within 3 h of treatment while monitoring environmental variables pH and Eh (redox potential). A mathematical model of the purification process is constructed in COMSOL Multiphysics to demonstrate how nanoadsorption using free-flowing nanoparticles in a dialytic system can be studied theoretically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD model closely agrees with experimental results, estimating a 95% removal over 3 h of treatment and suggesting an 18% consumption of available adsorbent capacity. Additional insights into the progress and mechanisms of the adsorption process are also revealed. Finally, the nanoenhanced model is compared against standard dialysis absent of nanomaterials using COMSOL, and key differences in removal efficiency are highlighted. Results indicate that nanoenhanced dialysis can attain almost complete removal in 3 h of treatment or reach the same removal goal as standard dialysis in less than two-third of the treatment time.
    • Nanoparticle-Infused UHMWPE Layer as Multifunctional Coating for High-Performance PPTA Single Fibers

      Zhang, Z; Zhao, Y; Li, H; Percec, S; Yin, J; Ren, F; Ren, Fei|0000-0002-8868-4536 (2019-12-01)
      © 2019, The Author(s). High-performance fibers made of poly-(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) with high stiffness and high strength are widely used in body armor for protection due to their high degree of molecular chain alignment along the fiber direction. However, their poor mechanical properties in the transverse direction and low surface friction are undesirable for applications requiring resistance to ballistic impact. Here we provide a simple yet effective surface engineering strategy to improve both the transverse mechanical properties and the tribological property by coating PPTA fibers with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) embedded with silica nanoparticles. The coated-PPTA fiber shows remarkable enhancement in transverse mechanical properties including ~127% increase of Young’s modulus, which is attributed to both the alignment of UHMWPE chains in the transverse direction and the embeded ceramic nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the surface friction of the coated fiber increases twofold as a result of the ceramic nanoparticles. In addition, the coated fibers exhibit an enhanced chemical resistance to external harsh environment. The improved transverse mechanical properties, surface frictional characteristics, and chemical resistance demonstrate that coating with UHMWPE and ceramic nanoparticles can be used as an effective approach to enhance the performance of PPTA and other high-performance polymer fibers for body armor applications.
    • Nanotechnology Governance

      Mandel, Gregory N. (2008)
      Experts expect nanotechnology to transform society, revolutionizing fields as diverse as health care, energy, and the environment. Though a number of nanotechnology products are already on the market, the major developments are yet to come, and the nascent stage of this technology combined with current scientific uncertainty raises questions about new health, safety, and environmental concerns. Most discussion of nanotechnology presents a polarized debate between "proponents" who argue for rapid development unfettered by excessive regulation and "opponents" who advocate an overhauled, stringent regulatory regime to protect against nanotechnology risks. This article recommends a different approach, one that turns the greatest challenge of nanotechnology - scientific uncertainty - on its head to create incentives for all stakeholders to work together in a new governance system. The nanotechnology governance proposal includes methods to close existing regulatory gaps, improve agency coordination, advance nanotechnology science, incentivize strong industry stewardship, and provide for substantial and diverse stakeholder involvement. Developing nanotechnology governance along these lines will create an adaptive and transparent system that is both more protective of human health and the environment and more efficient for industry and taxpayers. For the first time in history, there is the opportunity to develop a governance system simultaneously with an emerging technology. The growth and governance of nanotechnology are inevitably and dynamically intertwined. Though the opportunities of nanotechnology may be literally limitless, these opportunities cannot be achieved if nanotechnology is not developed in a secure manner that maintains public confidence. The current state of uncertainty in both nanotechnology development and risk, combined with the need for adaptability, creates unique challenges for nanotechnology governance. Managing uncertainty and promoting adaptability, however, are not issues limited to nanotechnology. The model proposed therefore provides useful insight for developing governance systems in broad variety of contexts.
    • Nationality Bans

      Kritzman-Amir, Tally; Ramji-Nogales, Jaya (2019-06-03)
      This Article conducts a comparative analysis between the nationality bans that exist in both Israel and the United States. In exploring the similarities and differences between these two countries’ nationality bans, this Article critically evaluate’s the publicly projected rationales for the bans and argues that these bans promote blanket discrimination rather than effectuating their stated justifications. Furthermore, the comparison between these two nations’ approaches to nationality bans allows this Article to expose the damaging effects these types of bans can have beyond those directly involved in the immigration system while examining the potential threat of these temporary measures being prolonged.
    • Negative Poisson's ratio in 1T-type crystalline two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

      Yu, L; Yan, Q; Ruzsinszky, A (2017-05-25)
      © The Author(s) 2017. Materials with a negative Poisson's ratio, also known as auxetic materials, exhibit unusual and counterintuitive mechanical behaviour - becoming fatter in cross-section when stretched. Such behaviour is mostly attributed to some special re-entrant or hinged geometric structures regardless of the chemical composition and electronic structure of a material. Here, using first-principles calculations, we report a class of auxetic single-layer two-dimensional materials, namely, the 1T-type monolayer crystals of groups 6-7 transition-metal dichalcogenides, MX 2 (M=Mo, W, Tc, Re; X=S, Se, Te). These materials have a crystal structure distinct from all other known auxetic materials. They exhibit an intrinsic in-plane negative Poisson's ratio, which is dominated by electronic effects. We attribute the occurrence of such auxetic behaviour to the strong coupling between the chalcogen p orbitals and the intermetal t 2g -bonding orbitals within the basic triangular pyramid structure unit. The unusual auxetic behaviour in combination with other remarkable properties of monolayer two-dimensional materials could lead to novel multi-functionalities.
    • Negotiating cancer preventative health behaviours and adapting to motherhood: the role of technology in supporting positive health behaviours

      Notley, C; Ward, E; Kassianos, AP; Kurti, A; Muirhead, F; Nostikasari, D; Payton, J; Spears, CA (2020-01-01)
      © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Purpose: Across the UK and USA, postpartum smoking relapse rates are high, and rates of breastfeeding and physical activity are low. This project aimed to explore these interrelated health behaviours and technology use, for intervention development to support postpartum cancer prevention. Methods: Focus groups and interviews with 26 purposively selected women (15 in Vermont, USA and 11 in Norfolk, UK). Recruitment was from deprived areas experiencing multiple disadvantage. Qualitative data were thematically analysed from dual cultural perspectives, underpinned by the social ecological model. Results: Women negotiate interrelated lifestyle behaviours as part of managing an identity in transition, moving through stages of disturbance, adaptation, acceptance and integration towards “becoming” a new Mother. Technology was integral to women’s process of engagement with mothering identities. Intersectionality underpins complex patterns of interrelated behaviour. Conclusions: There is scope to improve electronic/digital support for postpartum women cross-nationally to promote interrelated cancer-preventative lifestyle behaviours. Abbreviations CDC: Center for Disease Control, US; PA: Physical activity; SES: Socioeconomic status; SVI: Social Vulnerability Index; UK: UK; US: USA; WIC: Women infants and children office.
    • Neoadjuvant Sequential Docetaxel Followed by High-Dose Epirubicin in Combination With Cyclophosphamide Administered Concurrently With Trastuzumab. The DECT Trial

      Pizzuti, L; Barba, M; Giannarelli, D; Sergi, D; Botti, C; Marchetti, P; Anzà, M; Maugeri-Saccà, M; Natoli, C; Di Filippo, S; Catenaro, T; Tomao, F; Amodio, A; Carpano, S; Perracchio, L; Mottolese, M; Di Lauro, L; Sanguineti, G; Di Benedetto, A; Giordano, A; Vici, P; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2016-11-01)
      © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. To report the results of the DECT trial, a phase II study of locally advanced or operable HER2-positive breast cancer (BC) treated with taxanes and concurrent anthracyclines and trastuzumab. Eligible patients (stage IIA-IIIB HER2-positive BC, 18–75 years, normal organ functions, ECOG ≤1, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥55%) received four cycles of neoadjuvant docetaxel, 100 mg/m2 intravenously, plus trastuzumab 6 mg/kg (loading dose 8 mg/kg) every 3 weeks, followed by four 3-weekly cycles of epirubicin 120 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide, 600 mg/m2, plus trastuzumab. Primary objective was pathologic complete response (pCR) rate, defined as ypT0/is ypN0 at definitive surgery. We enrolled 45 consecutive patients. All but six patients (13.3%) completed chemotherapy and all underwent surgery. pCR was observed in 28 patients (62.2%) overall and in 6 (66.7%) from the inflammatory subgroup. The classification and regression tree analysis showed a 100% pCR rate in patients with BMI ≥25 and with hormone negative disease. The median follow up was 46 months (8–78). Four-year recurrence-free survival was 74.7% (95%CI, 58.2–91.2). Seven patients (15.6%) recurred and one died. Treatment was well tolerated, with limiting toxicity being neutropenia. No clinical cardiotoxicity was observed. Six patients (13.4%) showed a transient LVEF decrease (<10%). In one patient we observed a ≥10% asymptomatic LVEF decrease persisting after surgery. Notwithstanding their limited applicability due to the current guidelines, our findings support the efficacy of the regimen of interest in the neoadjuvant setting along with a fairly acceptable toxicity profile, including cardiotoxicity. Results on BMI may invite further assessment in future studies. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2541–2547, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Neurogenomics and the role of a large mutational target on rapid behavioral change

      Stanley, CE; Kulathinal, RJ; Kulathinal, Rob|0000-0003-1907-2744 (2016-11-08)
      © 2016 The Author(s). Background: Behavior, while complex and dynamic, is among the most diverse, derived, and rapidly evolving traits in animals. The highly labile nature of heritable behavioral change is observed in such evolutionary phenomena as the emergence of converged behaviors in domesticated animals, the rapid evolution of preferences, and the routine development of ethological isolation between diverging populations and species. In fact, it is believed that nervous system development and its potential to evolve a seemingly infinite array of behavioral innovations played a major role in the successful diversification of metazoans, including our own human lineage. However, unlike other rapidly evolving functional systems such as sperm-egg interactions and immune defense, the genetic basis of rapid behavioral change remains elusive. Presentation of the hypothesis: Here we propose that the rapid divergence and widespread novelty of innate and adaptive behavior is primarily a function of its genomic architecture. Specifically, we hypothesize that the broad diversity of behavioral phenotypes present at micro- and macroevolutionary scales is promoted by a disproportionately large mutational target of neurogenic genes. We present evidence that these large neuro-behavioral targets are significant and ubiquitous in animal genomes and suggest that behavior's novelty and rapid emergence are driven by a number of factors including more selection on a larger pool of variants, a greater role of phenotypic plasticity, and/or unique molecular features present in large genes. We briefly discuss the origins of these large neurogenic genes, as they relate to the remarkable diversity of metazoan behaviors, and highlight key consequences on both behavioral traits and neurogenic disease across, respectively, evolutionary and ontogenetic time scales. Testing the hypothesis: Current approaches to studying the genetic mechanisms underlying rapid phenotypic change primarily focus on identifying signatures of Darwinian selection in protein-coding regions. In contrast, the large mutational target hypothesis places genomic architecture and a larger allelic pool at the forefront of rapid evolutionary change, particularly in genetic systems that are polygenic and regulatory in nature. Genomic data from brain and neural tissues in mammals as well as a preliminary survey of neurogenic genes from comparative genomic data support this hypothesis while rejecting both positive and relaxed selection on proteins or higher mutation rates. In mammals and invertebrates, neurogenic genes harbor larger protein-coding regions and possess a richer regulatory repertoire of miRNA targets and transcription factor binding sites. Overall, neurogenic genes cover a disproportionately large genomic fraction, providing a sizeable substrate for evolutionary, genetic, and molecular mechanisms to act upon. Readily available comparative and functional genomic data provide unexplored opportunities to test whether a distinct neurogenomic architecture can promote rapid behavioral change via several mechanisms unique to large genes, and which components of this large footprint are uniquely metazoan. Implications of the hypothesis: The large mutational target hypothesis highlights the eminent roles of mutation and functional genomic architecture in generating rapid developmental and evolutionary change. It has broad implications on our understanding of the genetics of complex adaptive traits such as behavior by focusing on the importance of mutational input, from SNPs to alternative transcripts to transposable elements, on driving evolutionary rates of functional systems. Such functional divergence has important implications in promoting behavioral isolation across short- and long-term timescales. Due to genome-scaled polygenic adaptation, the large target effect also contributes to our inability to identify adapted behavioral candidate genes. The presence of large neurogenic genes, particularly in the mammalian brain and other neural tissues, further offers emerging insight into the etiology of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. The well-known correlation between neurological spectrum disorders in children and paternal age may simply be a direct result of aging fathers accumulating mutations across these large neurodevelopmental genes. The large mutational target hypothesis can also explain the rapid evolution of other functional systems covering a large genomic fraction such as male fertility and its preferential association with hybrid male sterility among closely related taxa. Overall, a focus on mutational potential may increase our power in understanding the genetic basis of complex phenotypes such as behavior while filling a general gap in understanding their evolution.
    • Neurophysiological and behavioral responses to music therapy in vegetative and minimally conscious states

      O'Kelly, Julian Winn; James, L.; Palaniappan, R.; Taborin, J.; Fachner, Jörg; Magee, Wendy L.; Magee|0000-0003-4350-1289 (2013-12-25)
      Assessment of awareness for those with disorders of consciousness is a challenging undertaking, due to the complex presentation of the population. Debate surrounds whether behavioral assessments provide greatest accuracy in diagnosis compared to neuro-imaging methods, and despite developments in both, misdiagnosis rates remain high. Music therapy may be effective in the assessment and rehabilitation with this population due to effects of musical stimuli on arousal, attention, and emotion, irrespective of verbal or motor deficits. However, an evidence base is lacking as to which procedures are most effective. To address this, a neurophysiological and behavioral study was undertaken comparing electroencephalogram (EEG), heart rate variability, respiration, and behavioral responses of 20 healthy subjects with 21 individuals in vegetative or minimally conscious states (VS or MCS). Subjects were presented with live preferred music and improvised music entrained to respiration (procedures typically used in music therapy), recordings of disliked music, white noise, and silence. ANOVA tests indicated a range of significant responses (p ≤ 0.05) across healthy subjects corresponding to arousal and attention in response to preferred music including concurrent increases in respiration rate with globally enhanced EEG power spectra responses (p = 0.05–0.0001) across frequency bandwidths. Whilst physiological responses were heterogeneous across patient cohorts, significant post hoc EEG amplitude increases for stimuli associated with preferred music were found for frontal midline theta in six VS and four MCS subjects, and frontal alpha in three VS and four MCS subjects (p = 0.05–0.0001). Furthermore, behavioral data showed a significantly increased blink rate for preferred music (p = 0.029) within the VS cohort. Two VS cases are presented with concurrent changes (p ≤ 0.05) across measures indicative of discriminatory responses to both music therapy procedures. A third MCS case study is presented highlighting how more sensitive selective attention may distinguish MCS from VS. The findings suggest that further investigation is warranted to explore the use of music therapy for prognostic indicators, and its potential to support neuroplasticity in rehabilitation programs.
    • Neutral theory and rapidly evolving viral pathogens

      Frost, SDW; Magalis, BR; Kosakovsky Pond, SL; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky|0000-0003-4817-4029 (2018-06-01)
      © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. The evolution of viral pathogens is shaped by strong selective forces that are exerted during jumps to new hosts, confrontations with host immune responses and antiviral drugs, and numerous other processes. However, while undeniably strong and frequent, adaptive evolution is largely confined to small parts of information-packed viral genomes, and the majority of observed variation is effectively neutral. The predictions and implications of the neutral theory have proven immensely useful in this context, with applications spanning understanding within-host population structure, tracing the origins and spread of viral pathogens, predicting evolutionary dynamics, andmodeling the emergence of drug resistance.We highlight the multiple ways in which the neutral theory has had an impact, which has been accelerated in the age of high-throughput, high-resolution genomics.
    • New DEEL Community Podcast: Episode 1

      New Democratic Ethical Educational Leadership (DEEL) Community (Temple University) (2020-07-20)
    • New Physics Searches from Nucleon Matrix Elements in Lattice QCD

      Constantinou, M (2017-03-22)
      © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017. In this paper we review recent progress in hadron structure using lattice QCD simulations, with main focus in the evaluation of nucleon matrix elements. We highlight developments that may guide new Physics searches, such as the scalar and tensor charges, as well as, the neutron electric dipole moment.
    • Nexus of Stochastic and Deterministic Processes on Microbial Community Assembly in Biological Systems

      Yuan, Heyang; Mei, Ran; Liao, Junhui; Liu, Wen-Tso (2019)
      Microbial community assembly in engineered biological systems is often simultaneously influenced by stochastic and deterministic processes, and the nexus of these two mechanisms remains to be further investigated. Here, three lab-scale activated sludge reactors were seeded with identical inoculum and operated in parallel under eight different sludge retention time (SRT) by sequentially reducing the SRT from 15 days to 1 day. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data, the microbial populations at the start-up (15-day SRT) and SRT-driven (≤10-day SRT) phases were observed to be noticeably different. Clustering results demonstrated ecological succession at the start-up phase with no consistent successional steps among the three reactors, suggesting that stochastic processes played an important role in the community assembly during primary succession. At the SRT-driven phase, the three reactors shared 31 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Putative primary acetate utilizers and secondary metabolizers were proposed based on K-means clustering, network and synchrony analysis. The shared core populations accounted for 65% of the total abundance, indicating that the microbial communities at the SRT-driven phase were shaped predominantly by deterministic processes. Sloan's Neutral model and a null model analysis were performed to disentangle and quantify the relative influence of stochastic and deterministic processes on community assembly. The increased estimated migration rate in the neutral community model and the higher percentage of stochasticity in the null model implied that stochastic community assembly was intensified by strong deterministic factors. This was confirmed by the significantly different α- and β-diversity indices at SRTs shorter than 2 days and the observation that over half of the core OTUs were unshared or unsynchronized. Overall, this study provided quantitative insights into the nexus of stochastic and deterministic processes on microbial community assembly in a biological process.
    • Niche partitioning of a pathogenic microbiome driven by chemical gradients

      Quinn, RA; Comstock, W; Zhang, T; Morton, JT; Da Silva, R; Tran, A; Aksenov, A; Nothias, LF; Wangpraseurt, D; Melnik, AV; Ackermann, G; Conrad, D; Klapper, I; Knight, R; Dorrestein, PC (2018-09-26)
      © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved. Environmental microbial communities are stratified by chemical gradients that shape the structure and function of these systems. Similar chemical gradients exist in the human body, but how they influence these microbial systems is more poorly understood. Understanding these effects can be particularly important for dysbiotic shifts in microbiome structure that are often associated with disease. We show that pH and oxygen strongly partition the microbial community from a diseased human lung into two mutually exclusive communities of pathogens and anaerobes. Antimicrobial treatment disrupted this chemical partitioning, causing complex death, survival, and resistance outcomes that were highly dependent on the individual microorganism and on community stratification. These effects were mathematically modeled, enabling a predictive understanding of this complex polymicrobial system. Harnessing the power of these chemical gradients could be a drug-free method of shaping microbial communities in the human body from undesirable dysbiotic states.
    • No difference in perceived intensity of linoleic acid in the oral cavity between obese and nonobese individuals

      Tucker, RM; Nuessle, TM; Garneau, NL; Smutzer, G; Mattes, RD; Smutzer, Gregory S.|0000-0002-4036-5667 (2015-10-01)
      © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. Findings from studies examining interactions between fat taste and dietary fat intake or body weight are mixed. A convenience sample of 735 visitors to the Denver Museum of Nature & Science ≥8 years old rated the taste intensity of edible taste strips impregnated with varying concentrations (%v/v) of linoleic acid (LA) (blank = 0.0, low = 0.06, medium = 0.15, high = 0.38). Percent body fat (BF%) was measured using bioelectrical impedance. Fat taste intensity was rated as significantly different across all concentrations (P < 0.001) except between the blank and low concentrations (P = 0.1). Ratings increased monotonically across concentrations. Children (<18 years; N = 180) rated all concentrations as more intense than adults (P < 0.001 for all). Women and girls rated the highest concentration as more intense than men and boys (P < 0.02 for all). BF% was not correlated with fat taste intensity ratings. Self-reported dietary intake indicated that obese individuals' intensity ratings for medium and high concentrations of LA were inversely related to recent mono- and poly-unsaturated fat exposure (r = -0.19 to -0.27; P < 0.03 for all). No such associations were observed in the nonobese group. Findings suggest that factors other than simple adiposity status influence fat taste intensity ratings, and that participants in fat taste studies should receive standardized meals prior to testing.
    • Non-Faith-Based Arguments against Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia

      Catholic Medical Association (2016-08-01)
      This article is a complement to “A Template for Non-Religious-Based Discussions Against Euthanasia” by Melissa Harintho, Nathaniel Bloodworth, and E. Wesley Ely which appeared in the February 2015 Linacre Quarterly. Herein we build upon Daniel Sulmasy's opening and closing arguments from the 2014 Intelligence Squared debate on legalizing assisted suicide, supplemented by other non-faith-based arguments and thoughts, providing four nontheistic arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: (1) “it offends me”; (2) slippery slope; (3) “pain can be alleviated”; (4) physician integrity and patient trust. Lay Summary: Presented here are four non-religious, reasonable arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: (1) “it offends me,” suicide devalues human life; (2) slippery slope, the limits on euthanasia gradually erode; (3) “pain can be alleviated,” palliative care and modern therapeutics more and more adequately manage pain; (4) physician integrity and patient trust, participating in suicide violates the integrity of the physician and undermines the trust patients place in physicians to heal and not to harm.
    • Non-Representational Language in Mipam’s Re-Presentation of Other-Emptiness

      Duckworth, Douglas S. (2014)
      This essay probes the discourses of other-emptiness in the Jonang (jo nang) and Nyingma (rnying ma) traditions. After briefly introducing other-emptiness in Jonang, the locus classicus for other-emptiness in Tibet, I contrast the way Mipam (‘ju mi pham rgya mtsho, 1846–1912) positions the discourse of other-emptiness in his interpretative system. I then demonstrate how Mipam’s portrayal of other-emptiness highlights the way he uses a perspectival means to incorporate a diversity of seemingly contradictory claims that he uses to support his view of ultimate reality as indeterminate. It is argued that an implication of his view is a non-representational account of language about the ultimate.
    • Noninvasive Metabolic Imaging of Engineered 3D Human Adipose Tissue in a Perfusion Bioreactor

      Ward, A; Quinn, KP; Bellas, E; Georgakoudi, I; Kaplan, DL; Bellas, Evangelia|0000-0002-1667-7118 (2013-02-06)
      The efficacy and economy of most in vitro human models used in research is limited by the lack of a physiologically-relevant three-dimensional perfused environment and the inability to noninvasively quantify the structural and biochemical characteristics of the tissue. The goal of this project was to develop a perfusion bioreactor system compatible with two-photon imaging to noninvasively assess tissue engineered human adipose tissue structure and function in vitro. Three-dimensional (3D) vascularized human adipose tissues were engineered in vitro, before being introduced to a perfusion environment and tracked over time by automated quantification of endogenous markers of metabolism using two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF). Depth-resolved image stacks were analyzed for redox ratio metabolic profiling and compared to prior analyses performed on 3D engineered adipose tissue in static culture. Traditional assessments with H&E staining were used to qualitatively measure extracellular matrix generation and cell density with respect to location within the tissue. The distribution of cells within the tissue and average cellular redox ratios were different between static and perfusion cultures, while the trends of decreased redox ratio and increased cellular proliferation with time in both static and perfusion cultures were similar. These results establish a basis for noninvasive optical tracking of tissue structure and function in vitro, which can be applied to future studies to assess tissue development or drug toxicity screening and disease progression. © 2013 Ward et al.
    • Nonstandard conditionally specified models for nonignorable missing data

      Franks, AM; Airoldi, EM; Rubin, DB; Rubin, Donald B.|0000-0001-7127-9262 (2020-08-11)
      © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Data analyses typically rely upon assumptions about the missingness mechanisms that lead to observed versus missing data, assumptions that are typically unassessable. We explore an approach where the joint distribution of observed data and missing data are specified in a nonstandard way. In this formulation, which traces back to a representation of the joint distribution of the data and missingness mechanism, apparently first proposed by J. W. Tukey, the modeling assumptions about the distributions are either assessable or are designed to allow relatively easy incorporation of substantive knowledge about the problem at hand, thereby offering a possibly realistic portrayal of the data, both observed and missing. We develop Tukey's representation for exponential-family models, propose a computationally tractable approach to inference in this class of models, and offer some general theoretical comments. We then illustrate the utility of this approach with an example in systems biology.