• Fact Checking the Campaign: How Political Reporters Use Twitter to Set the Record Straight (or Not)

      Coddington, Mark; Molyneux, Logan; Lawrence, Regina G.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-07-01)
      In a multichannel era of fragmented and contested political communication, both misinformation and fact checking have taken on new significance. The rise of Twitter as a key venue for political journalists would seem to support their fact-checking activities. Through a content analysis of political journalists’ Twitter discourse surrounding the 2012 presidential debates, this study examines the degree to which fact-checking techniques were used on Twitter and the ways in which journalists on Twitter adhered to the practices of either “professional” or “scientific” objectivity—the mode that underlies the fact-checking enterprise—or disregarded objectivity altogether. A typology of tweets indicates that fact checking played a notable but secondary role in journalists’ Twitter discourse. Professional objectivity, especially simple stenography, dominated reporting practices on Twitter, and opinion and commentary were also prevalent. We determine that Twitter is indeed conducive to some elements of fact checking. But taken as a whole, our data suggest that journalists and commentators posted opinionated tweets about the candidates’ claims more often than they fact checked those claims.
    • Factors associated with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy in older people with intellectual disability differ from the general population: A cross-sectional observational nationwide study

      O'Dwyer, M; Peklar, J; McCallion, P; McCarron, M; Henman, MC; Mccallion, Philip|0000-0001-5129-6399 (2016-01-01)
      Objectives: (1) To evaluate the prevalence of polypharmacy (5-9 medicines) and excessive polypharmacy (10+ medicines) and (2) to determine associated demographic and clinical characteristics in an ageing population with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Wave One (2009/2010) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA). Participants: A nationally representative sample of 753 persons with ID, aged between 41 and 90 years. Participants/proxy reported medicines ( prescription and over the counter) taken on a regular basis; medication data was available for 736 participants (98%). Main outcome measures/interventions: Participants were divided into those with no polypharmacy (0-4 medicines), polypharmacy (5-9 medicines) and excessive polypharmacy (10+ medicines). Medication use patterns were analysed according to demographic variables and reported chronic conditions. A multinomial logistic regression model identified factors associated with polypharmacy (5-9 medicines) and excessive polypharmacy (≥10 medicines). Results: Overall, 90% of participants reported use of medicines. Polypharmacy was observed in 31.5% of participants and excessive polypharmacy in 20.1%. Living in a residential institution, and reporting a mental health or neurological condition were strongly associated with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy after adjusting for confounders, but age or gender had no significant effect. Conclusions: Polypharmacy was commonplace for older adults with ID and may be partly explained by the high prevalence of multimorbidity reported. Review of appropriateness of medication use is essential, as polypharmacy places ageing people with ID at risk of adverse effects.,.
    • Fasting glucose and body mass index as predictors of activity in breast cancer patients treated with everolimus-exemestane: The EverExt study

      Pizzuti, L; Marchetti, P; Natoli, C; Gamucci, T; Santini, D; Scinto, AF; Iezzi, L; Mentuccia, L; D'Onofrio, L; Botticelli, A; Moscetti, L; Sperati, F; Botti, C; Ferranti, F; Buglioni, S; Sanguineti, G; Filippo, SD; Lauro, LD; Sergi, D; Catenaro, T; Tomao, S; Giordano, A; Maugeri-Saccà, M; Barba, M; Vici, P; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2017-12-01)
      © 2017 The Author(s). Evidence on everolimus in breast cancer has placed hyperglycemia among the most common high grade adverse events. Anthropometrics and biomarkers of glucose metabolism were investigated in a observational study of 102 postmenopausal, HR + HER2- metastatic breast cancer patients treated with everolimus-exemestane in first and subsequent lines. Best overall response (BR) and clinical benefit rate (CBR) were assessed across subgroups defined upon fasting glucose (FG) and body mass index (BMI). Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Survival predictors were tested in Cox models. Median follow up was 12.4 months (1.0-41.0). The overall cohort showed increasing levels of FG and decreasing BMI (p < 0.001). Lower FG fasting glucose at BR was more commonly associated with C/PR or SD compared with PD (p < 0.001). We also observed a somewhat higher BMI associated with better response (p = 0.052). More patients in the lowest FG category achieved clinical benefit compared to the highest (p < 0.001), while no relevant differences emerged for BMI. Fasting glucose at re-assessment was also predictive of PFS (p = 0.037), as confirmed in models including BMI and line of therapy (p = 0.049). Treatment discontinuation was significantly associated with changes in FG (p = 0.014). Further research is warranted to corroborate these findings and clarify the underlying mechanisms.
    • Feasibility and acceptability of testing a menstrual-cycle timed smoking cessation intervention for women of reproductive age (Project Phase): Protocol of a pilot randomized controlled trial

      Nair, US; Miller, ES; Bell, ML; Allen, S; Collins, BN; Allen, AM (2020-06-01)
      © 2020 Background: Compared to men, women have unique barriers to smoking cessation and are less likely to utilize quitline services. While current clinical recommendations have called for sex/gender-specific smoking cessation protocols, quitlines have not been expanded protocols to address the unique needs of women. Menstrual cycles (and/or ovarian hormones) influence quit outcomes in women. This paper presents the study design and protocol for a randomized control trial (Project Phase) designed to test the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing menstrual cycle timing to improve quit outcomes in women of reproductive age. Methods/design: Participants include treatment-seeking women (n = 116), between the ages of 18–40 with regular and naturally-occurring menstrual cycles. Eligible participants are randomized to either the mid-Follicular Phase (FP) or Standard Care (SC-control) group. Counseling includes six weekly telephone sessions with four weeks of nicotine replacement therapy. The timing and frequency of sessions is identical to both conditions, with the exception of the quit day (week 3 of counseling). In addition to providing education on menstrual cycle and quitting, quit day for FP participants is set within 6–8 days post onset of menses; the SC group quit day is set for Week 3 of counseling regardless of their menstrual cycle phase. Dried blood spots will be used to bioverify menstrual cycle phase and smoking status. Discussion: If feasible and acceptable, our behavioral counseling intervention that times the quit day to the mid-follicular phase of the menstrual may increase quit outcomes among women of reproductive age and has potential for dissemination across quitlines nationally.
    • Feasibility of muscle synergy outcomes in clinics, robotics, and sports: A systematic review

      Taborri, J; Agostini, V; Artemiadis, PK; Ghislieri, M; Jacobs, DA; Roh, J; Rossi, S (2018-01-01)
      Copyright © 2018 Juri Taborri et al. In the last years, several studies have been focused on understanding how the central nervous system controls muscles to perform a specific motor task. Although it still remains an open question, muscle synergies have come to be an appealing theory to explain the modular organization of the central nervous system. Even though the neural encoding of muscle synergies remains controversial, a large number of papers demonstrated that muscle synergies are robust across different tested conditions, which are within a day, between days, within a single subject, and between subjects that have similar demographic characteristics. Thus, muscle synergy theory has been largely used in several research fields, such as clinics, robotics, and sports. The present systematical review aims at providing an overview on the applications of muscle synergy theory in clinics, robotics, and sports; in particular, the review is focused on the papers that provide tangible information for (i) diagnosis or pathology assessment in clinics, (ii) robot-control design in robotics, and (iii) athletes' performance assessment or training guidelines in sports.
    • Feasibility of the music therapy assessment tool for awareness in disorders of consciousness (MATADOC) for use with pediatric populations

      Magee, Wendy L.; Ghetti, Claire M.; Moyer, Alvin; Magee|0000-0003-4350-1289 (2015-05-27)
      Measuring responsiveness to gain accurate diagnosis in populations with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is of central concern because these patients have such complex clinical presentations. Due to the uncertainty of accuracy for both behavioral and neurophysiological measures in DOC, combined assessment approaches are recommended. A number of standardized behavioral measures can be used with adults with DOC with minor to moderate reservations relating to the measures’ psychometric properties and clinical applicability. However, no measures have been standardized for use with pediatric DOC populations. When adapting adult measures for children, confounding factors include developmental considerations for language-based items included in all DOC measures. Given the lack of pediatric DOC measures, there is a pressing need for measures that are sensitive to the complex clinical presentations typical of DOC and that can accommodate the developmental levels of pediatric populations. The music therapy assessment tool for awareness in disorders of consciousness (MATADOC) is a music-based measure that has been standardized for adults with DOC. Given its emphasis on non-language based sensory stimuli, it is well-suited to pediatric populations spanning developmental stages. In a pre-pilot exploratory study, we examined the clinical utility of this measure and explored trends for test-retest and inter-rater agreement as well as its performance against external reference standards. In several cases, MATADOC items in the visual and auditory domains produced outcomes suggestive of higher level functioning when compared to outcomes provided by other DOC measures. Preliminary findings suggest that the MATADOC provides a useful protocol and measure for behavioral assessment and clinical treatment planning with pediatric DOC. Further research with a larger sample is warranted to test a version of the MATADOC that is refined to meet developmental needs of pediatric DOC populations.
    • Feeling touch through glass: A modified rubber hand paradigm

      White, RC; Li, J; Shacklette, D (2017-01-01)
      © The Author(s) 2017. A variation on the rubber hand paradigm creates a striking illusion in which it seems to the participant that she or he is feeling touch through glass. This illusion provides insight about how individuals make use of predictive signals for integrating vision and touch.
    • Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement

      Beilock, SL; Gunderson, EA; Ramirez, G; Levine, SC (2010-02-02)
      People's fear and anxiety about doing math - over and above actual math ability - can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math.
    • Fibronectin Mechanobiology Regulates Tumorigenesis

      Wang, K; Seo, BR; Fischbach, C; Gourdon, D; Wang, Karin|0000-0001-7812-2583 (2016-03-01)
      © 2015, The Author(s). Fibronectin (Fn) is an essential extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein involved in both physiological and pathological processes. The structure–function relationship of Fn has been and is still being studied, as changes in its molecular structure are integral in regulating (or dysregulating) its biological activities via its cell, matrix component, and growth factor binding sites. Fn comprises three types of repeating modules; among them, FnIII modules are mechanically unstable domains that may be extended/unfolded upon cell traction and either uncover cryptic binding sites or disrupt otherwise exposed binding sites. Cells assemble Fn into a fibrillar network; its conformational flexibility implicates Fn as a critical mechanoregulator of the ECM. Fn has been shown to contribute to altered stroma remodeling during tumorigenesis. This review will discuss (i) the significance of the structure–function relationship of Fn at both the molecular and the matrix scales, (ii) the role of Fn mechanobiology in the regulation of tumorigenesis, and (iii) Fn-related advances in cancer therapy development.
    • Figure: Priority areas for implementing the CDM to forest restoration projects in conservation corridors of the Andes

      Lara, W.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Víctor Hugo; Zapata-Arbeláez, B.; Santacruz, A.M.; Laguado, W.G.; Sierra, A.; Bustamante, C.M.; Yepes, A.; Black, T.; Arjona, F. (2011)
    • Finding Communities by Their Centers

      Chen, Y; Zhao, P; Li, P; Zhang, K; Zhang, J (2016-04-07)
      Detecting communities or clusters in a real-world, networked system is of considerable interest in various fields such as sociology, biology, physics, engineering science, and interdisciplinary subjects, with significant efforts devoted in recent years. Many existing algorithms are only designed to identify the composition of communities, but not the structures. Whereas we believe that the local structures of communities can also shed important light on their detection. In this work, we develop a simple yet effective approach that simultaneously uncovers communities and their centers. The idea is based on the premise that organization of a community generally can be viewed as a high-density node surrounded by neighbors with lower densities, and community centers reside far apart from each other. We propose so-called "community centrality" to quantify likelihood of a node being the community centers in such a landscape, and then propagate multiple, significant center likelihood throughout the network via a diffusion process. Our approach is an efficient linear algorithm, and has demonstrated superior performance on a wide spectrum of synthetic and real world networks especially those with sparse connections amongst the community centers.
    • First measurement of the helicity asymmetry E in η photoproduction on the proton

      Senderovich, I; Morrison, BT; Dugger, M; Ritchie, BG; Pasyuk, E; Tucker, R; Brock, J; Carlin, C; Keith, CD; Meekins, DG; Seely, ML; Rönchen, D; Döring, M; Collins, P; Adhikari, KP; Adikaram, D; Akbar, Z; Anderson, MD; Anefalos Pereira, S; Badui, RA; Ball, J; Baltzell, NA; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, AS; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, WJ; Brooks, WK; Burkert, VD; Carman, DS; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Colaneri, L; Cole, PL; Contalbrigo, M; Cortes, O; Credé, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Filippi, A; Fleming, JA; Fradi, A; Garillon, B; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, GP; Giovanetti, KL; Girod, FX; Glazier, DI; Goetz, JT; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, RW; Griffioen, KA; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Ho, D; Holtrop, M; Hughes, SM; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, DG; Ishkhanov, BS; Jenkins, D; Jiang, H; Jo, HS; Joo, K; Joosten, S; Keller, D; Khachatryan, G; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Klein, FJ; Kubarovsky, V; Kunkel, MC; Lenisa, P; Livingston, K; Lu, HY; MacGregor, IJD; Mattione, P; McKinnon, B; Meyer, CA; Mineeva, T (2016-04-10)
      © 2016 Results are presented for the first measurement of the double-polarization helicity asymmetry E for the η photoproduction reaction γp→ηp. Data were obtained using the FROzen Spin Target (FROST) with the CLAS spectrometer in Hall B at Jefferson Lab, covering a range of center-of-mass energy W from threshold to 2.15 GeV and a large range in center-of-mass polar angle. As an initial application of these data, the results have been incorporated into the Jülich–Bonn model to examine the case for the existence of a narrow N⁎ resonance between 1.66 and 1.70 GeV. The addition of these data to the world database results in marked changes in the predictions for the E observable from that model. Further comparison with several theoretical approaches indicates these data will significantly enhance our understanding of nucleon resonances.
    • First moment of the flavour octet nucleon parton distribution function using lattice QCD

      Alexandrou, Constantia; Constantinou, Martha; Dinter, Simon; Drach, Vincent; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Jansen, Karl; Koutsou, Giannis; Vaquero, Alejandro (2015-06-11)
      We perform a lattice computation of the flavour octet contribution to the average quark momentum in a nucleon, $\la x\ra^{(8)}_{\mu^2 = 4 \gev^2}$. In particular, we fully take the disconnected contributions into account in our analysis for which we use a generalization of the technique developed in \cite{Dinter:2012tt}. We investigate systematic effects with a particular emphasis on the excited states contamination. We find that in the renormalization free ratio $\frac{\la x \ra^{(3)}}{\la x \ra^{(8)}}$ (with $\la x \ra^{(3)}$ the non-singlet moment) the excited state contributions cancel to a large extend making this ratio a promising candidate for a comparison to phenomenological analyses. Our final result for this ratio is in agreement with the phenomenological value and we find, including systematic errors, $\frac{\la x \ra^{(3)}}{\la x \ra^{(8)}} = 0.39(1)(4)$.
    • First results from the DarkSide-50 dark matter experiment at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

      Agnes, P; Alexander, T; Alton, A; Arisaka, K; Back, HO; Baldin, B; Biery, K; Bonfini, G; Bossa, M; Brigatti, A; Brodsky, J; Budano, F; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Canci, N; Candela, A; Cao, H; Cariello, M; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; Chepurnov, A; Cocco, AG; Crippa, L; D'Angelo, D; D'Incecco, M; Davini, S; De Deo, M; Derbin, A; Devoto, A; Di Eusanio, F; Di Pietro, G; Edkins, E; Empl, A; Fan, A; Fiorillo, G; Fomenko, K; Forster, G; Franco, D; Gabriele, F; Galbiati, C; Goretti, A; Grandi, L; Gromov, M; Guan, MY; Guardincerri, Y; Hackett, B; Herner, K; Hungerford, EV; Ianni, A; Ianni, A; Jollet, C; Keeter, K; Kendziora, C; Kidner, S; Kobychev, V; Koh, G; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kurlej, A; Li, PX; Loer, B; Lombardi, P; Love, C; Ludhova, L; Luitz, S; Ma, YQ; Machulin, I; Mandarano, A; Mari, S; Maricic, J; Marini, L; Martoff, CJ; Meregaglia, A; Meroni, E; Meyers, PD; Milincic, R; Montanari, D; Monte, A; Montuschi, M; Monzani, ME; Mosteiro, P; Mount, B; Muratova, V; Musico, P; Nelson, A; Odrowski, S; Okounkova, M; Orsini, M; Ortica, F; Pagani, L; Pallavicini, M; Pantic, E; Papp, L; Parmeggiano, S; Parsells, R; Pelczar, K; Pelliccia, N; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Pordes, S (2015-04-09)
      © 2015 The Authors. We report the first results of DarkSide-50, a direct search for dark matter operating in the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and searching for the rare nuclear recoils possibly induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The dark matter detector is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber with a (46.4±0.7)kg active mass, operated inside a 30 t organic liquid scintillator neutron veto, which is in turn installed at the center of a 1 kt water Cherenkov veto for the residual flux of cosmic rays. We report here the null results of a dark matter search for a (1422±67)kgd exposure with an atmospheric argon fill. This is the most sensitive dark matter search performed with an argon target, corresponding to a 90% CL upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 6.1×10-44cm2 for a WIMP mass of 100Gev/c2.
    • First results on nucleon resonance photocouplings from the γp → π+π−p reaction

      Golovatch, E; Burkert, VD; Carman, DS; Gothe, RW; Hicks, K; Ishkhanov, BS; Mokeev, VI; Pasyuk, E; Adhikari, S; Akbar, Z; Amaryan, MJ; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Barion, L; Bashkanov, M; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, AS; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, WJ; Cao, F; Celentano, A; Chatagnon, P; Chetry, T; Ciullo, G; Clark, L; Clary, BA; Cole, PL; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Defurne, M; Deur, A; Diehl, S; Djalali, C; Dugger, M; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; Ehrhart, M; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fersch, R; Filippi, A; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, GP; Giovanetti, KL; Girod, FX; Glazier, DI; Griffioen, KA; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Harrison, N; Hattawy, M; Heddle, D; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, DG; Isupov, EL; Jenkins, D; Jo, HS; Johnston, S; Joo, K; Kabir, ML; Keller, D; Khachatryan, G; Khachatryan, M; Khandaker, M; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, FJ; Kubarovsky, V; Lanza, L; Lenisa, P; Livingston, K; MacGregor, IJD; Marchand, D; Markov, N; McKinnon, B; Meyer, CA; Montgomery, RA; Movsisyan, A; Munoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, AI; Paolone, M; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Pogorelko, O; Price, JW (2019-01-10)
      © 2018 The Author We report the first experimental measurements of the nine 1-fold differential cross sections for the γp→π+π−p reaction, obtained with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The measurements cover the invariant mass range of the final state hadrons from 1.6 GeV <W< 2.0 GeV. For the first time the photocouplings of all prominent nucleon resonances in this mass range have been extracted from this exclusive channel. Photoproduction of two charged pions is of particular importance for the evaluation of the photocouplings for the Δ(1620)1/2−, Δ(1700)3/2−, N(1720)3/2+, and Δ(1905)5/2+ resonances, which have dominant decays into the ππN final states rather than the more extensively studied single meson decay channels.
    • First Search for Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillations at HFIR with PROSPECT

      Ashenfelter, J; Balantekin, AB; Baldenegro, C; Band, HR; Bass, CD; Bergeron, DE; Berish, D; Bignell, LJ; Bowden, NS; Bricco, J; Brodsky, JP; Bryan, CD; Bykadorova Telles, A; Cherwinka, JJ; Classen, T; Commeford, K; Conant, AJ; Cox, AA; Davee, D; Dean, D; Deichert, G; Diwan, MV; Dolinski, MJ; Erickson, A; Febbraro, M; Foust, BT; Gaison, JK; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilbert, CE; Gilje, KE; Glenn, A; Goddard, BW; Hackett, BT; Han, K; Hans, S; Hansell, AB; Heeger, KM; Heffron, B; Insler, J; Jaffe, DE; Ji, X; Jones, DC; Koehler, K; Kyzylova, O; Lane, CE; Langford, TJ; Larosa, J; Littlejohn, BR; Lopez, F; Lu, X; Martinez Caicedo, DA; Matta, JT; McKeown, RD; Mendenhall, MP; Miller, HJ; Minock, JM; Mueller, PE; Mumm, HP; Napolitano, J; Neilson, R; Nikkel, JA; Norcini, D; Nour, S; Pushin, DA; Qian, X; Romero-Romero, E; Rosero, R; Sarenac, D; Seilhan, BS; Sharma, R; Surukuchi, PT; Trinh, C; Tyra, MA; Varner, RL; Viren, B; Wagner, JM; Wang, W; White, B; White, C; Wilhelmi, J; Wise, T; Yao, H; Yeh, M; Yen, YR; Zhang, A; Zhang, C; Zhang, X; Zhao, M (2018-12-19)
      © 2018 authors. Published by the American Physical Society. This Letter reports the first scientific results from the observation of antineutrinos emitted by fission products of U235 at the High Flux Isotope Reactor. PROSPECT, the Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment, consists of a segmented 4 ton Li6-doped liquid scintillator detector covering a baseline range of 7-9 m from the reactor and operating under less than 1 m water equivalent overburden. Data collected during 33 live days of reactor operation at a nominal power of 85 MW yield a detection of 25 461±283 (stat) inverse beta decays. Observation of reactor antineutrinos can be achieved in PROSPECT at 5σ statistical significance within 2 h of on-surface reactor-on data taking. A reactor model independent analysis of the inverse beta decay prompt energy spectrum as a function of baseline constrains significant portions of the previously allowed sterile neutrino oscillation parameter space at 95% confidence level and disfavors the best fit of the reactor antineutrino anomaly at 2.2σ confidence level.
    • Fish mutant, where is thy phenotype?

      Balciunas, D; Balciunas, Darius|0000-0003-1938-3243 (2018-02-01)
    • Fitness components and natural selection: Why are there different patterns on the emergence of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax?

      Schneider, KA; Escalante, AA (2013-01-16)
      Background: Considering the distinct biological characteristics of Plasmodium species is crucial for control and elimination efforts, in particular when facing the spread of drug resistance. Whereas the evolutionary fitness of all malarial species could be approximated by the probability of being taken by a mosquito and then infecting a new host, the actual steps in the malaria life cycle leading to a successful transmission event show differences among Plasmodium species. These "steps" are called fitness components. Differences in terms of fitness components may affect how selection imposed by interventions, e.g. drug treatments, differentially acts on each Plasmodium species. Thus, a successful malaria control or elimination programme should understand how differences in fitness components among different malaria species could affect adaptive evolution (e.g. the emergence of drug resistance). In this investigation, the interactions between some fitness components and natural selection are explored. Methods. A population-genetic model is formulated that qualitatively explains how different fitness components (in particular gametocytogenesis and longevity of gametocytes) affect selection acting on merozoites during the erythrocytic cycle. By comparing Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, the interplay of parasitaemia and gametocytaemia dynamics in determining fitness is modelled under circumstances that allow contrasting solely the differences between these two parasites in terms of their fitness components. Results: By simulating fitness components, it is shown that selection acting on merozoites (e.g., on drug resistant mutations or malaria antigens) is more efficient in P. falciparum than in P. vivax. These results could explain, at least in part, why resistance against drugs, such as chloroquine (CQ) is highly prevalent in P. falciparum worldwide, while CQ is still a successful treatment for P. vivax despite its massive use. Furthermore, these analyses are used to explore the importance of understanding the dynamic of gametocytaemia to ascertain the spreading of drug resistance. Conclusions: The strength of natural selection on mutations that express their advantage at the merozoite stage is different in P. vivax and P. falciparum. Species-specific differences in gametocytogenesis and longevity of gametocytes need to be accounted for when designing effective malaria control and elimination programmes. There is a need for reliable data on gametocytogenesis from field studies. © 2013 Schneider and Escalante; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • Fluorescence Spectrometric Determination of Drugs Containing alpha-Methylene Sulfone/Sulfonamide Functional Groups Using N-1-Methylnicotinamide Chloride as a Fluorogenic Agent

      Elokely, Khaled M; Eldawy, Mohamed A; Elkersh, Mohamed A; El-Moselhy, Tarek F; Elokely, Khaled M.|0000-0002-2394-021X (2011)
      <jats:p>A simple spectrofluorometric method has been developed, adapted, and validated for the quantitative estimation of drugs containing -methylene sulfone/sulfonamide functional groups using<jats:italic>N</jats:italic><jats:sup>1</jats:sup>-methylnicotinamide chloride (NMNCl) as fluorogenic agent. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM)<jats:bold>(1)</jats:bold>, tinidazole<jats:bold>(2)</jats:bold>, rofecoxib<jats:bold>(3)</jats:bold>, and nimesulide<jats:bold>(4)</jats:bold>in pure forms, laboratory-prepared mixtures, pharmaceutical dosage forms, spiked human plasma samples, and in volunteer's blood. The method showed linearity over concentration ranging from 1 to 150 g/mL, 10 to 1000 ng/mL, 1 to 1800 ng/mL, and 30 to 2100 ng/mL for standard solutions of<jats:bold>1</jats:bold>,<jats:bold>2</jats:bold>,<jats:bold>3</jats:bold>, and<jats:bold>4</jats:bold>, respectively, and over concentration ranging from 5 to 150 g/mL, 10 to 1000 ng/mL, 10 to 1700 ng/mL, and 30 to 2350 ng/mL in spiked human plasma samples of<jats:bold>1</jats:bold>,<jats:bold>2</jats:bold>,<jats:bold>3</jats:bold>, and<jats:bold>4</jats:bold>, respectively. The method showed good accuracy, specificity, and precision in both laboratory-prepared mixtures and in spiked human plasma samples. The proposed method is simple, does not need sophisticated instruments, and is suitable for quality control application, bioavailability, and bioequivalency studies. Besides, its detection limits are comparable to other sophisticated chromatographic methods.</jats:p>