• Babe Ruth: Religious Icon

      Alpert, Rebecca; 0000-0001-7536-9695 (2019-05-23)
      Babe Ruth is a mythic figure in American baseball history. His extraordinary skills and legendary exploits are central to the idea of baseball as America’s national pastime and are woven into the fabric of American history and iconography. Much has been written about Ruth’s life, his extraordinary physical powers, and the legends that grew up around him that made him a mythic figure. The story of Babe Ruth as it has been told, however, has not included its meaning from the perspective of the study of religion and sport. This paper explores the life and legends of Babe Ruth to illustrate the significance of Ruth’s identity as a Catholic in early twentieth-century America and the fundamental connections between Ruth’s story and the Christian myth and ritual that is foundational to American civil religion.
    • BAP1 status determines the sensitivity of malignant mesothelioma cells to gemcitabine treatment

      Guazzelli, A; Meysami, P; Bakker, E; Demonacos, C; Giordano, A; Krstic-Demonacos, M; Mutti, L; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2019-01-02)
      © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is a cancer with poor prognosis and resistance to standard treatments. Recent reports have highlighted the role of the BRCA1 associated protein 1 gene (BAP1) in the development of MMe. In this study, the chemosensitivity of human mesothelioma cell lines carrying BAP1 wild-type (WT), mutant and silenced was analysed. The BAP1 mutant cells were significantly less sensitive than BAP1 WT cell lines to the clinically relevant drug gemcitabine. Silencing of BAP1 significantly increased resistance of MMe cells to gemcitabine. Cell cycle analysis suggested that gemcitabine induced Sub-G1 phase accumulation of the BAP1 WT cells and increased in the S-phase in both BAP1 WT and mutant cells. Analysis of the role of BAP1 in apoptosis suggested that gemcitabine induced early apoptosis in both BAP1 WT and BAP1 mutant cells but with a much higher degree in the WT cells. Effects on the population of cells in late apoptosis, which can mark necrosis and necroptosis, could not be seen in the mutant cells, highlighting the possibility that BAP1 plays a role in several types of cell death. Significantly decreased DNA damage in the form of double-strand breaks was observed in gemcitabine-treated BAP1 mutant cells, compared to BAP1 WT cells under the same conditions. After BAP1 silencing, a significant decrease in DNA damage in the form of double-strand breaks was observed compared to cells transfected with scramble siRNA. Taken together, the results presented in this manuscript shed light on the role of BAP1 in the response of MMe cells to gemcitabine treatment and in particular in the control of the DNA damage response, therefore providing a potential route for more efficient MMe therapy.
    • Barcoding of arrow worms (Phylum Chaetognatha) from three oceans: Genetic diversity and evolution within an enigmatic phylum

      Jennings, RM; Bucklin, A; Pierrot-Bults, A (2010-09-10)
      Arrow worms (Phylum Chaetognatha) are abundant planktonic organisms and important predators in many food webs; yet, the classification and evolutionary relationships among chaetognath species remain poorly understood. A seemingly simple body plan is underlain by subtle variation in morphological details, obscuring the affinities of species within the phylum. Many species achieve near global distributions, spanning the same latitudinal bands in all ocean basins, while others present disjunct ranges, in some cases with the same species apparently found at both poles. To better understand how these complex evolutionary and geographic variables are reflected in the species makeup of chaetognaths, we analyze DNA barcodes of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) gene, from 52 specimens of 14 species of chaetognaths collected mainly from the Atlantic Ocean. Barcoding analysis was highly successful at discriminating described species of chaetognaths across the phylum, and revealed little geographical structure. This barcode analysis reveals hitherto unseen genetic variation among species of arrow worms, and provides insight into some species relationships of this enigmatic group © 2010 Jennings et al.
    • Baseline neutrophilia, derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and outcome in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with Nivolumab or Docetaxel

      Russo, A; Franchina, T; Ricciardi, GRR; Battaglia, A; Scimone, A; Berenato, R; Giordano, A; Adamo, V; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2018-10-01)
      © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by WileyPeriodicals, Inc. Nivolumab is a novel therapeutic option in NSCLC, associated with a significant survival gain compared with Docetaxel. However, predictive biomarkers are lacking. The presence of systemic inflammation has been correlated with poor outcome in many cancer types. We aimed to evaluate whether there is a correlation between some indicators of inflammation and response to Nivolumab or Docetaxel in pre-treated NSCLCs. Data of 62 patients receiving Nivolumab or Docetaxel were analyzed. Baseline neutrophilia and thrombocytosis were not associated with response. High dNLR was associated with no response to Nivolumab, but not with Docetaxel, whereas high PLR correlated with low treatment response in both groups. Among refractory patients, a higher incidence of thrombocytosis, neutrophilia, high PLR, and high dNLR levels were observed compared with the overall population. This is one of the first reports in this field and suggests that indicators of inflammation might be included together with other predictive biomarkers in the baseline evaluation of patients candidate for immunotherapy.
    • Bayesian analysis in educational psychology research: An example of gender differences in achievement goals

      Peterson, Steven K.; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2016-01-23)
      Much research in educational psychology concerns group differences. In this study, we argue that Bayesian estimation is more appropriate for testing group differences than is the traditional null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). We demonstrate the use of Bayesian estimation on gender differences in students' achievement goals. Research findings on gender differences in achievement goals have been mixed. We explain how Bayesian estimation of mean differences is more intuitive, informative, and coherent in comparison with NHST, how it overcomes structural and interpretive problems of NHST, and how it offers a way to achieve cumulative progress toward increasing precision in estimating gender differences in achievement goals. We provide an empirical demonstration by comparing a Bayesian and a traditional NHST analysis of gender differences in achievement goals among 442 7th-grade students (223 girls and 219 boys). Whereas findings from the two analyses indicate comparable results of higher endorsement of mastery goals among girls and higher endorsement of performance-approach and avoidance goals among boys, it is the Bayesian analysis rather than the NHST that is more intuitively interpreted. We conclude by discussing the perceived disadvantages of Bayesian estimation, and some ways in which a consideration of Bayesian probability can aid interpretations of traditional analytical methods.
    • Beam energy dependence of rapidity-even dipolar flow in Au+Au collisions

      Adam, J; Adamczyk, L; Adams, JR; Adkins, JK; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, MM; Ahammed, Z; Ajitanand, NN; Alekseev, I; Anderson, DM; Aoyama, R; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, EC; Ashraf, MU; Atetalla, F; Attri, A; Averichev, GS; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Barish, K; Bassill, AJ; Behera, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, AK; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, LC; Bordyuzhin, IG; Brandenburg, JD; Brandin, AV; Brown, D; Bryslawskyj, J; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón De La Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, JM; Cebra, D; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, FH; Chang, Z; Chankova-Bunzarova, N; Chatterjee, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, JH; Chen, X; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, HJ; Das, S; Dedovich, TG; Deppner, IM; Derevschikov, AA; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, JL; Dunlop, JC; Efimov, LG; Elsey, N; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Esumi, S; Evdokimov, O; Ewigleben, J; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Federicova, P; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, CE; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, CA; Galatyuk, T; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, DS; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, AI; Hamed, A; Harlenderova, A; Harris, JW; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Herrmann, N (2018-09-10)
      © 2018 New measurements of directed flow for charged hadrons, characterized by the Fourier coefficient v1, are presented for transverse momenta pT, and centrality intervals in Au+Au collisions recorded by the STAR experiment for the center-of-mass energy range sNN=7.7–200 GeV. The measurements underscore the importance of momentum conservation, and the characteristic dependencies on sNN, centrality and pT are consistent with the expectations of geometric fluctuations generated in the initial stages of the collision, acting in concert with a hydrodynamic-like expansion. The centrality and pT dependencies of v1even, as well as an observed similarity between its excitation function and that for v3, could serve as constraints for initial-state models. The v1even excitation function could also provide an important supplement to the flow measurements employed for precision extraction of the temperature dependence of the specific shear viscosity.
    • Beam-Energy Dependence of Directed Flow of Λ, Λ , K±, Ks0, and φ in Au+Au Collisions

      Adamczyk, L; Adams, JR; Adkins, JK; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, MM; Ahammed, Z; Ajitanand, NN; Alekseev, I; Anderson, DM; Aoyama, R; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, EC; Ashraf, MU; Attri, A; Averichev, GS; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Barish, K; Behera, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, AK; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, LC; Bordyuzhin, IG; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, JD; Brandin, AV; Brown, D; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón De La Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, JM; Cebra, D; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chankova-Bunzarova, N; Chatterjee, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, X; Chen, JH; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, HJ; Das, S; De Silva, LC; Dedovich, TG; Deng, J; Derevschikov, AA; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, JL; Draper, JE; Dunkelberger, LE; Dunlop, JC; Efimov, LG; Elsey, N; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Esumi, S; Evdokimov, O; Ewigleben, J; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Federicova, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, CE; Fujita, J; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, CA; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, DS; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Hamad, AI; Hamed, A; Harlenderova, A; Harris, JW (2018-02-06)
      © 2018 authors. Published by the American Physical Society. Rapidity-odd directed-flow measurements at midrapidity are presented for Λ, Λ, K±, Ks0, and φ at sNN=7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV in Au+Au collisions recorded by the Solenoidal Tracker detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These measurements greatly expand the scope of data available to constrain models with differing prescriptions for the equation of state of quantum chromodynamics. Results show good sensitivity for testing a picture where flow is assumed to be imposed before hadron formation and the observed particles are assumed to form via coalescence of constituent quarks. The pattern of departure from a coalescence-inspired sum rule can be a valuable new tool for probing the collision dynamics.
    • Beauty and the Mask

      Patel, Viren; Mazzaferro, Daniel M.; Sarwer, David; Bartlett, Scott P.; Sarwer, David B|0000-0003-1033-5528 (2020-01-01)
      Coronavirus disease 2019 has profoundly changed society, culture, commerce, and perhaps most importantly, human interaction. As the citizens of the world followed government-imposed stay-at-home orders, and as the phrase “social distancing” became part of the daily lexicon in a matter of weeks, the public largely adopted the use of face coverings in public places to reduce potential transmission of the virus. The practice of using face coverings for the nose and mouth, whether with homemade fabrics or with surgical masks, undoubtedly has effects on facial perception. Although emotions such as intense fear can be communicated with contraction of the muscles of the brow and those around the eyes, communication of genuine happiness requires contraction of the muscles around the mouth, which is unlikely to be seen behind a face covering. 1 Additionally, the lower half of the face, and specifically the perioral area, has been shown to be vital for determinations of attractiveness. In the 1980s, Dr. Leslie Farkas, widely recognized as the father of craniofacial anthropometry, sought to define the facial measurements and proportions associated with attractive faces.2 When comparing attractive and unattractive faces, Dr. Farkas found that the greatest differences in facial measurements and proportions were centered around the perioral area, including but not limited to a narrow philtrum, a wider oral commissure distance, and a greater protrusion of the upper vermilion.3 With this in mind, it is interesting to consider how masks concealing the lower half of the face would affect perceived attractiveness, which has been shown to influence judgments of a range of interpersonal characteristics, such as competence and trustworthiness.1,4,5 The present study was undertaken to assess whether judgments of attractiveness differ when the lower face is covered by a surgical mask. We anticipated that faces covered with surgical masks would be judged as more attractive than faces not covered by a mask.
    • Behavioural and Neural Responses to Facial Disfigurement

      Center for Obesity Research and Education (Temple University) (2019-05-29)
      Faces are among the most salient and relevant visual and social stimuli that humans encounter. Attractive faces are associated with positive character traits and social skills and automatically evoke larger neural responses than faces of average attractiveness in ventral occipito-temporal cortical areas. Little is known about the behavioral and neural responses to disfigured faces. In two experiments, we tested the hypotheses that people harbor a disfigured is bad bias and that ventral visual neural responses, known to be amplified to attractive faces, represent an attentional effect to facial salience rather than to their rewarding properties. In our behavioral study (N = 79), we confirmed the existence of an implicit ‘disfigured is bad’ bias. In our functional MRI experiment (N = 31), neural responses to photographs of disfigured faces before treatment evoked greater neural responses within ventral occipito-temporal cortex and diminished responses within anterior cingulate cortex. The occipito-temporal activity supports the hypothesis that these areas are sensitive to attentional, rather than reward properties of faces. The relative deactivation in anterior cingulate cortex, informed by our behavioral study, may reflect suppressed empathy and social cognition and indicate evidence of a possible neural mechanism underlying dehumanization.
    • Benchmarking multi-rate codon models

      Delport, W; Scheffler, K; Gravenor, MB; Muse, SV; Pond, SK; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky|0000-0003-4817-4029 (2010-08-13)
      The single rate codon model of non-synonymous substitution is ubiquitous in phylogenetic modeling. Indeed, the use of a non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratio parameter has facilitated the interpretation of selection pressure on genomes. Although the single rate model has achieved wide acceptance, we argue that the assumption of a single rate of non-synonymous substitution is biologically unreasonable, given observed differences in substitution rates evident from empirical amino acid models. Some have attempted to incorporate amino acid substitution biases into models of codon evolution and have shown improved model performance versus the single rate model. Here, we show that the single rate model of non-synonymous substitution is easily outperformed by a model with multiple non-synonymous rate classes, yet in which amino acid substitution pairs are assigned randomly to these classes. We argue that, since the single rate model is so easy to improve upon, new codon models should not be validated entirely on the basis of improved model fit over this model. Rather, we should strive to both improve on the single rate model and to approximate the general time-reversible model of codon substitution, with as few parameters as possible, so as to reduce model over-fitting. We hint at how this can be achieved with a Genetic Algorithm approach in which rate classes are assigned on the basis of sequence information content. © 2010 Delport et al.
    • Benefits and limitations of three-dimensional printing technology for ecological research

      Behm, JE; Waite, BR; Hsieh, ST; Helmus, MR; Helmus, Matthew|0000-0003-3977-0507 (2018-09-10)
      BACKGROUND: Ecological research often involves sampling and manipulating non-model organisms that reside in heterogeneous environments. As such, ecologists often adapt techniques and ideas from industry and other scientific fields to design and build equipment, tools, and experimental contraptions custom-made for the ecological systems under study. Three-dimensional (3D) printing provides a way to rapidly produce identical and novel objects that could be used in ecological studies, yet ecologists have been slow to adopt this new technology. Here, we provide ecologists with an introduction to 3D printing. RESULTS: First, we give an overview of the ecological research areas in which 3D printing is predicted to be the most impactful and review current studies that have already used 3D printed objects. We then outline a methodological workflow for integrating 3D printing into an ecological research program and give a detailed example of a successful implementation of our 3D printing workflow for 3D printed models of the brown anole, Anolis sagrei, for a field predation study. After testing two print media in the field, we show that the models printed from the less expensive and more sustainable material (blend of 70% plastic and 30% recycled wood fiber) were just as durable and had equal predator attack rates as the more expensive material (100% virgin plastic). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, 3D printing can provide time and cost savings to ecologists, and with recent advances in less toxic, biodegradable, and recyclable print materials, ecologists can choose to minimize social and environmental impacts associated with 3D printing. The main hurdles for implementing 3D printing-availability of resources like printers, scanners, and software, as well as reaching proficiency in using 3D image software-may be easier to overcome at institutions with digital imaging centers run by knowledgeable staff. As with any new technology, the benefits of 3D printing are specific to a particular project, and ecologists must consider the investments of developing usable 3D materials for research versus other methods of generating those materials.
    • Bespoke Transitional Justice at the International Criminal Court, in Contested Justice: The Politics and Practice of International Criminal Court Interventions

      Ramji-Nogales, Jaya (2015)
      This chapter grapples with the question of whether the International Criminal Court (ICC) should be conceptualised as a mechanism of transitional justice. Most theorists insist that transitional justice is either an inappropriate or an unrealistic goal for the Court. Some scholars have proposed that the Court might more accurately be theorised as seeking to achieve political goals through ‘juridified diplomacy’. Others suggest that the Court should speak to a global, rather than local, audience. A third school of thought criticises international criminal law as insufficiently focused on the preferences of societies affected by mass violence. Going one step further, some theorists suggest that the Court should be set aside in favour of mechanisms that are more responsive to local preferences. Although the incorporation of the ICC into a locally owned transitional justice paradigm faces substantial challenges, this chapter draws on a theory of ‘bespoke transitional justice’ to suggest ways in which this knotty relationship might be better designed.
    • Beyond dual systems: A genetically-informed, latent factor model of behavioral and self-report measures related to adolescent risk-taking

      Harden, KP; Kretsch, N; Mann, FD; Herzhoff, K; Tackett, JL; Steinberg, L; Tucker-Drob, EM (2017-06-01)
      © 2017 The Authors The dual systems model posits that adolescent risk-taking results from an imbalance between a cognitive control system and an incentive processing system. Researchers interested in understanding the development of adolescent risk-taking use a diverse array of behavioral and self-report measures to index cognitive control and incentive processing. It is currently unclear whether different measures commonly interpreted as indicators of the same psychological construct do, in fact, tap the same underlying dimension of individual differences. In a diverse sample of 810 adolescent twins and triplets (M age = 15.9 years, SD = 1.4 years) from the Texas Twin Project, we investigated the factor structure of fifteen self-report and task-based measures relevant to adolescent risk-taking. These measures can be organized into four factors, which we labeled premeditation, fearlessness, cognitive dyscontrol, and reward seeking. Most behavioral measures contained large amounts of task-specific variance; however, most genetic variance in each measure was shared with other measures of the corresponding factor. Behavior genetic analyses further indicated that genetic influences on cognitive dyscontrol overlapped nearly perfectly with genetic influences on IQ (rA = −0.91). These findings underscore the limitations of using single laboratory tasks in isolation, and indicate that the study of adolescent risk taking will benefit from applying multimethod approaches.
    • Beyond small-scale spatial skills: Navigation skills and geoscience education

      Nazareth, A; Newcombe, NS; Shipley, TF; Velazquez, M; Weisberg, SM (2019-12-01)
      © 2019, The Author(s). Background: Research examining the relation between spatial skills and the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has focused on small-scale spatial skills, even though some STEM disciplines—particularly the geography and geoscience (GEO) fields—involve large-scale spatial thinking at the core of their professional training. In Study 1, we compared large-scale navigation skills of experienced geologists with those of experienced psychologists, using a novel virtual navigation paradigm as an objective measure of navigation skills. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study with novice Geographic Information Systems (GIS) students to investigate baseline navigational competence and improvement over the course of an academic semester. Results: In Study 1, we found that geologists demonstrated higher navigational competence and were more likely to be categorized as integrating separate routes, compared to their non-STEM counterparts. In Study 2, novice GIS students showed superior baseline navigational competence compared to non-STEM students, as well as better spatial working memory and small-scale mental rotation skills, indicating self-selection. In addition, GIS students’ spatial skills improved more over the course of a semester than those of non-STEM students. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of large-scale spatial thinking for enrollment and success in the GEO fields but likely also across the broader range of thinking involving spatial distributions. We discuss the potential of GIS tools to develop spatial skills at an early age.
    • BGEM: An in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system

      Magdaleno, S; Jensen, P; Brumwell, CL; Seal, A; Lehman, K; Asbury, A; Cheung, T; Cornelius, T; Batten, DM; Eden, C; Norland, SM; Rice, DS; Dosooye, N; Shakya, S; Mehta, P; Curran, T (2006-01-01)
    • Binary control of enzymatic cleavage of DNA origami by structural antideterminants

      Stopar, A; Coral, L; Di Giacomo, S; Adedeji, AF; Castronovo, M (2018-01-25)
      © The Author(s) 2017. Controlling DNA nanostructure interaction with protein is essential in developing nanodevices with programmable function, reactivity, and stability for biological and medical applications. Here, we show that the sequence-specific action of restriction endonucleases towards sharp triangular or rectangular DNA origami exhibits a novel, binary 'on/off' behaviour, as canonical recognition sites are either essentially fully reactive, or strongly resistant to enzymatic cutting. Moreover, introduction of structural defects in the sharp triangle can activate an otherwise unreactive site, with a site-to-defect distance of ∼50 nm. We argue that site reactivity is dependent upon programmable, mechanical coupling in the two-dimensional DNA origami, with specific structural elements, including DNA nicks and branches proximal to the sites that can function as negative(anti) determinants of reactivity. Empirically modelling the constraints to DNA degrees of freedom associated with each recognition site in the sharp triangle can rationalize the pattern of suppressed reactivity towards nine restriction endonucleases, in substantial agreement with the experimental results. These results provide a basis for a predictive understanding of structure-reactivity correlates of specific DNA nanostructures, which will allow a better understanding of the behaviour of nucleic acids under nanoscale confinement, as well as in the rational design of functional nanodevices based on self-assembling nucleic acids.
    • Bioactive cell-like hybrids from dendrimersomes with a human cell membrane and its components

      Yadavalli, SS; Xiao, Q; Sherman, SE; Hasley, WD; Klein, ML; Goulian, M; Percec, V (2019-01-15)
      © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All Rights Reserved. Cell-like hybrids from natural and synthetic amphiphiles provide a platform to engineer functions of synthetic cells and protocells. Cell membranes and vesicles prepared from human cell membranes are relatively unstable in vitro and therefore are difficult to study. The thicknesses of biological membranes and vesicles self-assembled from amphiphilic Janus dendrimers, known as dendrimersomes, are comparable. This feature facilitated the coassembly of functional cell-like hybrid vesicles from giant dendrimersomes and bacterial membrane vesicles generated from the very stable bacterial Escherichia coli cell after enzymatic degradation of its outer membrane. Human cells are fragile and require only mild centrifugation to be dismantled and subsequently reconstituted into vesicles. Here we report the coassembly of human membrane vesicles with dendrimersomes. The resulting giant hybrid vesicles containing human cell membranes, their components, and Janus dendrimers are stable for at least 1 y. To demonstrate the utility of cell-like hybrid vesicles, hybrids from dendrimersomes and bacterial membrane vesicles containing YadA, a bacterial adhesin protein, were prepared. The latter cell-like hybrids were recognized by human cells, allowing for adhesion and entry of the hybrid bacterial vesicles into human cells in vitro.
    • Bioactive Peptides in Cancer: Therapeutic Use and Delivery Strategies

      Stiuso, Paola; Caraglia, Michele; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Giordano, Antonio; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2013-05-15)
    • Biocompatibility studies of fluorescent diamond particles-(Nv)~800nm (part v): In vitro kinetics and in vivo localization in rat liver following long-term exposure

      Gerstenhaber, JA; Marcinkiewicz, C; Barone, FC; Sternberg, M; D’Andrea, MR; Lelkes, PI; Feuerstein, GZ; Lelkes, Peter|0000-0003-4954-3498; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan Arye|0000-0002-8162-7977 (2019-01-01)
      © 2019 Gerstenhaber et al. Background: We recently reported on long-term comprehensive biocompatibility and biodistribution study of fluorescent nanodiamond particles (NV)-Z-average 800nm (FNDP- (NV)) in rats. FNDP-(NV) primary deposition was found in the liver, yet liver function tests remained normal. Purpose: The present study aimed to gain preliminary insights on discrete localization of FNDP-(NV) in liver cells of the hepatic lobule unit and venous micro-vasculature. Kinetics of FDNP-(NV) uptake into liver cells surrogates in culture was conducted along with cell cytokinesis as markers of cells' viability. Methods: Preserved liver specimens from a pilot consisting of two animals which were stained for cytoskeletal elements (fluorescein-isothiocyanate-phalloidin) were examined for distribution of FNDP-(NV) by fluorescent microscopy (FM) and Confocal-FM (CFM) using near infra-red fluorescence (NIR). Hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG-2) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured with FNDP-(NV) and assayed for particle uptake and location using spectrophotometric technology and microscopy. Results: HepG-2 and HUVEC displayed rapid (<30 mins) onset and concentration-dependent FNDP-(NV) internalization and formation of peri-nuclear corona. FM/CFM of liver sections revealed FNDP-(NV) presence throughout the hepatic lobules structures marked by spatial distribution, venous microvascular spaces and parenchyma and non-parenchyma cells. Conclusion: The robust presence of FNDP-(NV) throughout the hepatic lobules including those internalized within parenchyma cells and agglomerates in the liver venous microcirculation were not associated with macro or micro histopathological signs nor vascular lesions. Cells cultures indicated normal cytokinesis in cells containing FNDP-(NV) agglomerates. Liver parenchyma cells and the liver microcirculation remain agnostic to presence of FNDP-(NV) in the sinusoids or internalized in the hepatic cells.
    • Bioelectrochemical production of hydrogen in an innovative pressure-retarded osmosis/microbial electrolysis cell system: experiments and modeling

      Yuan, Heyang; Lu, Yaobin; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen (2015-12)
      BACKGROUND: While microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can simultaneously produce bioelectrochemical hydrogen and treat wastewater, they consume considerable energy to overcome the unfavorable thermodynamics, which is not sustainable and economically feasible in practical applications. This study presents a proof-of-concept system in which hydrogen can be produced in an MEC powered by theoretically predicated energy from pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO). The system consists of a PRO unit that extracts high-quality water and generates electricity from water osmosis, and an MEC for organic removal and hydrogen production. The feasibility of the system was demonstrated using simulated PRO performance (in terms of energy production and effluent quality) and experimental MEC results (e.g., hydrogen production and organic removal). RESULTS: The PRO and MEC models were proven to be valid. The model predicted that the PRO unit could produce 485 mL of clean water and 579 J of energy with 600 mL of draw solution (0.8 M of NaCl). The amount of the predicated energy was applied to the MEC by a power supply, which drove the MEC to remove 93.7 % of the organic compounds and produce 32.8 mL of H2 experimentally. Increasing the PRO influent volume and draw concentration could produce more energy for the MEC operation, and correspondingly increase the MEC hydraulic retention time (HRT) and total hydrogen production. The models predicted that at an external voltage of 0.9 V, the MEC energy consumption reached the maximum PRO energy production. With a higher external voltage, the MEC energy consumption would exceed the PRO energy production, leading to negative effects on both organic removal and hydrogen production. CONCLUSIONS: The PRO-MEC system holds great promise in addressing water-energy nexus through organic removal, hydrogen production, and water recovery: (1) the PRO unit can reduce the volume of wastewater and extract clean water; (2) the PRO effluents can be further treated by the MEC; and (3) the osmotic energy harvested from the PRO unit can be applied to the MEC for sustainable bioelectrochemical hydrogen production.