• A Clearer Picture: Journalistic identity practices in words and images on Twitter

      Lough, Kyser; Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2017-10-27)
      As journalists continue integrating social media into their professional work, they wrestle with ways to best represent themselves, their organizations, and their profession. Several recent studies have examined this trend in terms of branding, raising important questions about the changing ways in which journalists present themselves and how these changes may indicate shifts in their personal and professional identities. This study combines a visual content analysis of the images journalists use in their Twitter profiles with analyses of their profile text and tweets to examine how journalists present themselves online with an eye toward individual and organizational branding. Findings indicate journalists choose a branding approach and apply it consistently across their profiles, with most profiles consisting of a professional headshot while notably lacking organizational identifiers such as logos. Journalists also tend to lean toward professional rather than personal images in their profile and header photographs, indicating a possible predilection for professional identity over personal on social media.
    • A complex dynamic systems perspective on identity and its development: The dynamic systems model of role identity

      Kaplan, Avi; Garner, Joanna K.; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2017)
      Current prominent models of identity face challenges in bridging across divergent perspectives and apparent dichotomies such as personal or social-collective, conscious or unconscious, and epigenetic or discursive-relational, and affording pursuit of research questions that allows integrative answers. This article presents a coherent theoretical perspective on the integrative nature of identity and its developmental mechanisms. Adopting the contextual social role as a primary unit of analysis, the Dynamic Systems Model of Role Identity (DSMRI) conceptualizes role identity as a Complex Dynamic System (CDS) anchored in action that comprises the actor’s ontological and epistemological beliefs, purpose and goals, self-perceptions and self-definitions, and perceived action possibilities in the role. These system components are conceptualized as interdependent, and identity development is viewed as emergent, continuous, nonlinear, contextualized, and given to influences from within and without the system. The role identity itself constitutes an element within a multilevel hierarchy, which at the unit of analysis of the individual reflects a CDS of the multiple roles that constitute the person’s psychosocial identity. Identity development involves the formation and restructuring of relations within and among role identities through intra- and interpersonal processes that are mediated by sociocognitive and cultural means, and framed by the context as well as by implicit dispositions. The DSMRI provides a framework to conceptualize and investigate the nature of the identity system, its development, and the relationship between identity development and psychological functioning at different units of-analysis, across different developmental stages and contexts, and using quantitative and qualitative methodologies.
    • A complex systems perspective on policy standards for teacher learning and development

      Garner, Joanna K.; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2020-09)
      In the United States, the Interstate Teacher Assessment Consortium (InTASC) Standards and Learning Progressions inform pre-service teacher curricula and in-service teacher professional development and evaluation policies (Council of Chief State School Officers, CCSSO, 2013). We apply a complex dynamic systems (CDS) lens to analyze the Standards document’s ontological assumptions about the nature of teaching and teachers’ professional learning. Our inductive and model-guided content analysis revealed that the Standards’ representation of effective teaching highlights the contextual and iterative, feedback-driven nature of teacher learning and change. Teachers’ learning is described as non-linear and as requiring qualitative reconfigurations of expertise. The development of critical teaching dispositions reflects processes typically associated with identity system exploration. These ideas are congruent with complex dynamic systems theories of teachers’ learning and identity formation such as the Dynamic Systems Model of Role Identity (DSMRI). We derive two conceptual behavioral landscapes for teachers’ practices and for their means of learning. We close by proposing that the findings underscore the importance of partnerships among researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in the use, application, and revision of policy.
    • A Decade of Research on Social Media and Journalism: Assumptions, Blind Spots, and a Way Forward

      Lewis, Seth C.; Molyneux, Logan; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2018-11-08)
      Amid a broader reckoning about the role of social media in public life, this article argues that the same scrutiny can be applied to the journalism studies field and its approaches to examining social media. A decade later, what hath such research wrought? In the broad study of news and its digital transformation, few topics have captivated researchers quite like social media, with hundreds of studies on everything from how journalists use Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, and Snapchat to how such platforms facilitate various forms of engagement between journalists and audiences. Now, some 10 years into journalism studies on social media, we need a more particular accounting of the assumptions, biases, and blind spots that have crept into this line of research. Our purpose is to provoke reflection and chart a path for future research by critiquing themes of what has come before. In particular, our goal is to untangle three faulty assumptions—often implicit but no less influential—that have been overlooked in the rapid take-up of social media as a key phenomenon for journalism studies: (1) that social media would be a net positive; (2) that social media reflects reality; and (3) that social media matters over and above other factors.
    • A Personalized Self-image: Gender and Branding Practices Among Journalists

      Molyneux, Logan; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2019-09-11)
      As the field of journalism becomes increasingly unrecognizable, the messages that identify the journalist, their work, and their affiliations are of increasing importance. This study envisions journalism and social media both as gendered spaces and examines their intersection as the setting of much of journalists’ branding work. In this setting, gender’s influence on the extent, style, and target of journalists’ branding efforts is examined using data from two different datasets (content analysis and survey). The findings suggest that female journalists take a more personalized approach by speaking about themselves in their profiles and their tweets and focusing more resources and attention on their individual brands. This suggests that female journalists are not well served by male-dominated news organizations and therefore turn to a more personalized self-image in their branding efforts. This understanding is particularly important as societies and newsrooms both work toward a more inclusive, egalitarian future.
    • Aggregation, Clickbait and Their Effect on Perceptions of Journalistic Credibility and Quality

      Molyneux, Logan; Coddington, Mark; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2019-06-16)
      Many journalists and industry observers lament that aggregating news underneath sensational headlines will erode credibility and turn off readers. While some scholarly work has studied journalists’ perspectives of this practice, little has been done to understand what audiences think of aggregation and clickbait. This study uses published original and aggregated news articles as stimuli in two online experiments to test readers’ perceptions of news aggregation and clickbait. Aggregation itself has little effect on perceptions of credibility and quality; instead, writing proficiency is more closely linked to these perceptions. Results also suggest clickbait headlines may lower perceptions of credibility and quality.
    • Bayesian analysis in educational psychology research: An example of gender differences in achievement goals

      Peterson, Steven K.; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2016-01-23)
      Much research in educational psychology concerns group differences. In this study, we argue that Bayesian estimation is more appropriate for testing group differences than is the traditional null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). We demonstrate the use of Bayesian estimation on gender differences in students' achievement goals. Research findings on gender differences in achievement goals have been mixed. We explain how Bayesian estimation of mean differences is more intuitive, informative, and coherent in comparison with NHST, how it overcomes structural and interpretive problems of NHST, and how it offers a way to achieve cumulative progress toward increasing precision in estimating gender differences in achievement goals. We provide an empirical demonstration by comparing a Bayesian and a traditional NHST analysis of gender differences in achievement goals among 442 7th-grade students (223 girls and 219 boys). Whereas findings from the two analyses indicate comparable results of higher endorsement of mastery goals among girls and higher endorsement of performance-approach and avoidance goals among boys, it is the Bayesian analysis rather than the NHST that is more intuitively interpreted. We conclude by discussing the perceived disadvantages of Bayesian estimation, and some ways in which a consideration of Bayesian probability can aid interpretations of traditional analytical methods.
    • Behavioural and Neural Responses to Facial Disfigurement

      Center for Obesity Research and Education (Temple University) (2019-05-29)
      Faces are among the most salient and relevant visual and social stimuli that humans encounter. Attractive faces are associated with positive character traits and social skills and automatically evoke larger neural responses than faces of average attractiveness in ventral occipito-temporal cortical areas. Little is known about the behavioral and neural responses to disfigured faces. In two experiments, we tested the hypotheses that people harbor a disfigured is bad bias and that ventral visual neural responses, known to be amplified to attractive faces, represent an attentional effect to facial salience rather than to their rewarding properties. In our behavioral study (N = 79), we confirmed the existence of an implicit ‘disfigured is bad’ bias. In our functional MRI experiment (N = 31), neural responses to photographs of disfigured faces before treatment evoked greater neural responses within ventral occipito-temporal cortex and diminished responses within anterior cingulate cortex. The occipito-temporal activity supports the hypothesis that these areas are sensitive to attentional, rather than reward properties of faces. The relative deactivation in anterior cingulate cortex, informed by our behavioral study, may reflect suppressed empathy and social cognition and indicate evidence of a possible neural mechanism underlying dehumanization.
    • Body Image and Quality of Life in Adolescents With Craniofacial Conditions

      Crerand, Canice E.; Sarwer, David; Kazak, Anne E.; Clarke, Alexandra; Rumsey, Nichola; 0000-0003-1033-5528 (2016-01-11)
      Objective: To evaluate body image in adolescents with and without craniofacial conditions and to examine relationships between body image and quality of life. Design: Case-control design. Setting: A pediatric hospital's craniofacial center and primary care practices. Participants: Seventy adolescents with visible craniofacial conditions and a demographically matched sample of 42 adolescents without craniofacial conditions. Main Outcome Measure: Adolescents completed measures of quality of life and body image including satisfaction with weight, facial and overall appearance, investment in appearance (importance of appearance to self-worth), and body image disturbance (appearance-related distress and impairment in functioning). Results: Adolescents with craniofacial conditions reported lower appearance investment (P < .001) and were more likely to report concerns about facial features (P < .02) compared with nonaffected youth. Females in both groups reported greater investment in appearance, greater body image disturbance, and lower weight satisfaction compared with males (P < .01). Within both groups, greater body image disturbance was associated with lower quality of life (P < .01). The two groups did not differ significantly on measures of quality of life, body image disturbance, or satisfaction with appearance. Conclusions: Body image and quality of life in adolescents with craniofacial conditions are similar to nonaffected youth. Relationships between body image and quality of life emphasize that appearance perceptions are important to adolescents’ well-being regardless of whether they have a facial disfigurement. Investment in one's appearance may explain variations in body image satisfaction and serve as an intervention target, particularly for females.
    • Branding (Health) Journalism: Perceptions, practices, and emerging norms

      Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-04-30)
      Observational studies of journalists on social media platforms suggest that journalists are beginning to develop personal brands using social media. Similar studies suggest that journalists covering specialty areas such as health are more likely to experiment with and adopt new forms of practice that break with the traditional tenets of journalism. Through interviews with such journalists, this study explores the perceptions, practices, and drivers of personal branding among journalists. Findings indicate journalists are squarely focused on branding at the individual level (rather than branding the organizations they work for). Journalists cite technological and cultural changes in the profession as giving rise to personal branding. They also describe the tension they feel between their obligation to uphold the traditional tenets of journalism and their perceived need to incorporate more branding into their practice, especially on social media platforms. The findings indicate that journalists may be changing the fundamental elements of branding in at least one way, exchanging the differentiation between themselves and their content for the mutual sharing and co-creation of content with their colleagues and audience.
    • Brimonidine gel 0.33% rapidly improves patient-reported outcomes by controlling facial erythema of rosacea: A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study

      Layton, A. M.; Schaller, M.; Homey, B.; Hofmann, M. A.; Bewley, A. P.; Lehmann, P.; Nohlgård, C.; Sarwer, David; Kerrouche, N.; Ma, Y. M.; 0000-0003-1033-5528 (2015-09)
      Background: Facial redness contributes to impaired psychosocial functioning in rosacea patients and the only approved treatment for erythema is topical brimonidine gel 0.33%. Objectives: To evaluate patient‐reported outcomes, as well as efficacy and safety, in subjects with self‐perceived severe erythema treated with brimonidine gel 0.33% compared to vehicle. Methods: An 8‐day multicenter, randomized study comparing once‐daily brimonidine gel 0.33% with vehicle gel using a facial redness questionnaire, subject satisfaction questionnaire and a patient diary of facial redness control to assess patient‐reported outcomes. Results: Of the 92 included subjects with self‐perceived severe erythema, very few were satisfied with their appearance at baseline (4.2% brimonidine group, 0 vehicle group). On Day 8, significantly more brimonidine group subjects were satisfied with their facial appearance compared to vehicle group (36.9% vs. 21.5%; P < 0.05), with the overall treatment effect (69.6% vs. 40.4%; P < 0.01), and with the improvement in their facial redness (67.4% vs. 33.3%; P < 0.001). More brimonidine group subjects were able to control their facial redness daily (e.g. 83.0% vs. 38.9% on Day 1). On Day 8, significantly more brimonidine group subjects than vehicle group had at least a one‐grade improvement from baseline in the Clinician Erythema Assessment score (71.7% vs. 35.7%; P = 0.0011) and Patient Self‐Assessment score (76.1% vs. 47.6%; P = 0.004). More subjects in the brimonidine group (29.2%) reported treatment‐related adverse events than in the vehicle group (15.9%) but most were mild and transient. Conclusions: Once‐daily brimonidine gel 0.33% allowed patients to rapidly control their facial redness and significantly improved patient‐reported outcomes in the treatment of persistent facial erythema of rosacea.
    • Child Maltreatment and the Adolescent Patient With Severe Obesity: Implications for Clinical Care

      Center for Weight and Eating Disorders (University of Pennsylvania) (2015-01-29)
      Objective: To characterize prevalence and correlates of child maltreatment (CM) in a clinical sample of adolescents with severe obesity. Method Multicenter baseline data from 139 adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery (Mage = 16.9; 79.9% female, 66.2% White; Mbody mass index [BMI] = 51.5 kg/m2) and 83 nonsurgical comparisons (Mage = 16.1; 81.9% female, 54.2% White; MBMI = 46.9 kg/m2) documented self-reported CM (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and associations with psychopathology, quality of life, self-esteem and body image, high-risk behaviors, and family dysfunction. Results CM prevalence (females: 29%; males: 12%) was similar to national adolescent base rates. Emotional abuse was most prevalent. One in 10 females reported sexual abuse. For females, CM rates were higher in comparisons, yet correlates were similar for both cohorts: greater psychopathology, substance use, and family dysfunction, and lower quality of life. Conclusion While a minority of adolescents with severe obesity reported a CM history, they carry greater psychosocial burden into the clinical setting.
    • Clinical Study: Sustained Weight Loss with Vagal Nerve Blockade but Not with Sham: 18-Month Results of the ReCharge Trial

      Papadia, Francesco Saverio (2015-06-28)
      Background/Objectives. Vagal block therapy (vBloc) is effective for moderate to severe obesity at one year. Subjects/Methods. The ReCharge trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of 239 participants with body mass index (BMI) of 40 to 45 kg/m or 35 to 40 kg/m with one or more obesity-related conditions. Interventions were implantation of either vBloc or Sham devices and weight management counseling. Mixed models assessed percent excess weight loss (%EWL) and total weight loss (%TWL) in intent-to-treat analyses. At 18 months, 142 (88%) vBloc and 64 (83%) Sham patients remained enrolled in the study. Results. 18-month weight loss was 23% EWL (8.8% TWL) for vBloc and 10% EWL (3.8% TWL) for Sham (P < 0.0001). vBloc patients largely maintained 12-month weight loss of 26% EWL (9.7% TWL). Sham regained over 40% of the 17% EWL (6.4% TWL) by 18 months. Most weight regain preceded unblinding. Common adverse events of vBloc through 18 months were heartburn/dyspepsia and abdominal pain; 98% of events were reported as mild or moderate and 79% had resolved. Conclusions. Weight loss with vBloc was sustained through 18 months, while Sham regained weight between 12 and 18 months. vBloc is effective with a low rate of serious complications.
    • Clustering, hierarchical organization, and the topography of abstract and concrete nouns

      Dove, Guy; Eleanor Saffran Center for Cognitive Neuroscience (Temple University) (2014-04-28)
      The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are “disembodied” in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N = 365) rated target words (n = 400 English nouns) across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence). Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.
    • Commentary on: Motivations, Expectations, and Experiences of Labiaplasty: A Qualitative Study

      Center for Obesity Research and Education (Temple University) (2016-04-12)