• A longitudinal study of post-traumatic growth and psychological distress in colorectal cancer survivors

      Occhipinti, S; Chambers, SK; Lepore, S; Aitken, J; Dunn, J; Lepore, Stephen J.|0000-0001-7370-6280 (2015-09-29)
      © 2015 Occhipinti et al. The stability of post-traumatic growth overtime and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer-related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self.
    • Association between sense of coherence and health-related quality of life among primary care patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

      Chumbler, NR; Kroenke, K; Outcalt, S; Bair, MJ; Krebs, E; Wu, J; Yu, Z (2013-12-26)
      Background: Sense of Coherence (SOC) is a measure of an individual's capacity to use various coping mechanisms and resources when faced with a stressor. Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent and disabling conditions in clinical practice. This study examines the extent to which a strong SOC is associated with less pain and better health related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with chronic pain.Methods: We analyzed data from the Stepped Care to Optimize Pain care Effectiveness (SCOPE) trial which enrolled 250 patients with persistent (3 months or longer) musculoskeletal pain who were receiving care in an United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care clinic. The abbreviated three-item SOC scale was used to measure personal coping capability. Participants were categorized into Strong SOC (score 0-1) and Weak SOC (score 2-6). The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was used to assess the severity and disability associated with pain. Additionally, pain self-efficacy (ASES) and catastrophizing (CSQ) were assessed. HRQoL was assessed with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) social functioning, vitality, and general health subscales. Multiple linear regression models were performed to examine whether SOC was independently associated with pain-specific and HRQoL outcomes, after adjusting for sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical comorbidities and major depression.Results: Of the 250 study patients, 61% had a strong SOC whereas 39% had a weak SOC. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that a strong SOC was significantly associated with better general health, vitality, social functioning and pain self-efficacy as well as less pain catastrophizing. These significant findings were partially attenuated, but remained statistically significant, after controlling for major depression. SOC was not significantly associated with pain severity or pain disability.Conclusions: A strong SOC is associated with better HRQoL and self-efficacy as well as less catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. SOC may be an important coping mechanism (strategy) for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00926588. © 2013 Chumbler et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • Effect of deinstitutionalisation on quality of life for adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review

      McCarron, M; Lombard-Vance, R; Murphy, E; May, P; Webb, N; Sheaf, G; McCallion, P; Stancliffe, R; Normand, C; Smith, V; O'Donovan, MA; Mccallion, Philip|0000-0001-5129-6399 (2019-04-01)
      © 2019 Author(s). Objective To review systematically the evidence on how deinstitutionalisation affects quality of life (QoL) for adults with intellectual disabilities. Design Systematic review. Population Adults (aged 18 years and over) with intellectual disabilities. Interventions A move from residential to community setting. Primary and secondary outcome measures Studies were eligible if evaluating effect on QoL or life quality, as defined by study authors. Search We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EconLit, Embase and Scopus to September 2017 and supplemented this with grey literature searches. We assessed study quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme suite of tools, excluding those judged to be of poor methodological quality. Results Thirteen studies were included; eight quantitative studies, two qualitative, two mixed methods studies and one case study. There was substantial agreement across quantitative and qualitative studies that a move to community living was associated with improved QoL. QoL for people with any level of intellectual disabilities who move from any type of institutional setting to any type of community setting was increased at up to 1 year postmove (standardised mean difference [SMD] 2.03; 95% CI [1.21 to 2.85], five studies, 246 participants) and beyond 1 year postmove (SMD 2.34. 95% CI [0.49 to 4.20], three studies, 160 participants), with total QoL change scores higher at 24 months comparative to 12 months, regardless of QoL measure used. Conclusion Our systematic review demonstrated a consistent pattern that moving to the community was associated with improved QoL compared with the institution. It is recommended that gaps in the evidence base, for example, with regard to growing populations of older people with intellectual disability and complex needs are addressed.
    • Living with prostate cancer: Randomised controlled trial of a multimodal supportive care intervention for men with prostate cancer

      Chambers, SK; Newton, RU; Girgis, A; Nielsen, L; Lepore, S; Mihalopoulos, C; Gardiner, RA; Galvão, DA; Occhipinti, S; Lepore, Stephen J.|0000-0001-7370-6280 (2011-07-27)
      Background: Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in developed countries and diagnosis and treatment carries with it substantial morbidity and related unmet supportive care needs. These difficulties may be amplified by physical inactivity and obesity. We propose to apply a multimodal intervention approach that targets both unmet supportive care needs and physical activity.Methods/design: A two arm randomised controlled trial will compare usual care to a multimodal supportive care intervention "Living with Prostate Cancer" that will combine self-management with tele-based group peer support. A series of previously validated and reliable self-report measures will be administered to men at four time points: baseline/recruitment (when men are approximately 3-6 months post-diagnosis) and at 3, 6, and 12 months after recruitment and intervention commencement. Social constraints, social support, self-efficacy, group cohesion and therapeutic alliance will be included as potential moderators/mediators of intervention effect. Primary outcomes are unmet supportive care needs and physical activity levels. Secondary outcomes are domain-specific and health-related quality of life (QoL); psychological distress; benefit finding; body mass index and waist circumference. Disease variables (e.g. cancer grade, stage) will be assessed through medical and cancer registry records. An economic evaluation will be conducted alongside the randomised trial.Discussion: This study will address a critical but as yet unanswered research question: to identify a population-based way to reduce unmet supportive care needs; promote regular physical activity; and improve disease-specific and health-related QoL for prostate cancer survivors. The study will also determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention.Trial Registration: ACTRN12611000392965. © 2011 Chambers et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.