• When user-centered design meets implementation science: Integrating provider perspectives in the development of an intimate partner violence intervention for women treated in the United States' largest integrated healthcare system

      Danitz, SB; Stirman, SW; Grillo, AR; Dichter, ME; Driscoll, M; Gerber, MR; Gregor, K; Hamilton, AB; Iverson, KM (2019-11-27)
      © 2019 The Author(s). Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global health problem that is a substantial source of human suffering. Within the United States (US), women veterans are at high risk for experiencing IPV. There is an urgent need for feasible, acceptable, and patient-centered IPV counseling interventions for the growing number of women treated in the US's largest integrated healthcare system, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Implementation science and user-centered-design (UCD) can play an important role in accelerating the research-To-practice pipeline. Recovering from IPV through Strengths and Empowerment (RISE) is a flexible, patient-centered, modular-based program that holds promise as a brief counseling intervention for women veterans treated in VHA. We utilized a UCD approach to develop and refine RISE (prior to formal effectiveness evaluations) by soliciting early feedback from the providers where the intervention will ultimately be implemented. The current study reports on the feedback from VHA providers that was used to tailor and refine RISE. Method: We conducted and analyzed semi-structured, key-informant interviews with VHA providers working in clinics relevant to the delivery of IPV interventions (n = 23) at two large medical centers in the US. Participants' mean age was 42.6 years (SD = 11.6), they were predominately female (91.3%) and from a variety of relevant disciplines (39.1% psychologists, 21.7% social workers, 17.4% physicians, 8.7% registered nurses, 4.3% psychiatrists, 4.3% licensed marriage and family therapists, 4.3% peer specialists). We conducted rapid content analysis using a hybrid inductive-deductive approach. Results: Providers perceived RISE as highly acceptable and feasible, noting strengths including RISE's structure, patient-centered agenda, and facilitation of provider comfort in addressing IPV. Researchers identified themes related to content and context modifications, including requests for additional safety check-ins, structure for goal-setting, and suggestions for how to develop and implement RISE-specific trainings. Conclusions: These findings have guided refinements to RISE prior to formal effectiveness testing in VHA. We discuss implications for the use of UCD in intervention development and refinement for interventions addressing IPV and other trauma in health care settings globally. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03261700; Date of registration: 8/25/2017, date of enrollment of first participant in trial: 10/22/2018. Unique Protocol ID: IIR 16-062.