• A complex dynamic systems perspective on identity and its development: The dynamic systems model of role identity

      Kaplan, Avi; Garner, Joanna K.; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2017)
      Current prominent models of identity face challenges in bridging across divergent perspectives and apparent dichotomies such as personal or social-collective, conscious or unconscious, and epigenetic or discursive-relational, and affording pursuit of research questions that allows integrative answers. This article presents a coherent theoretical perspective on the integrative nature of identity and its developmental mechanisms. Adopting the contextual social role as a primary unit of analysis, the Dynamic Systems Model of Role Identity (DSMRI) conceptualizes role identity as a Complex Dynamic System (CDS) anchored in action that comprises the actor’s ontological and epistemological beliefs, purpose and goals, self-perceptions and self-definitions, and perceived action possibilities in the role. These system components are conceptualized as interdependent, and identity development is viewed as emergent, continuous, nonlinear, contextualized, and given to influences from within and without the system. The role identity itself constitutes an element within a multilevel hierarchy, which at the unit of analysis of the individual reflects a CDS of the multiple roles that constitute the person’s psychosocial identity. Identity development involves the formation and restructuring of relations within and among role identities through intra- and interpersonal processes that are mediated by sociocognitive and cultural means, and framed by the context as well as by implicit dispositions. The DSMRI provides a framework to conceptualize and investigate the nature of the identity system, its development, and the relationship between identity development and psychological functioning at different units of-analysis, across different developmental stages and contexts, and using quantitative and qualitative methodologies.
    • A Developmental Study of Community Participation of Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses: Implications for Policy and Practice

      Thomas, Elizabeth; Snethen, Gretchen; Salzer, Mark; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661; Salzer|0000-0002-2108-1618; Thomas|0000-0001-6543-9856 (2017-04-01)
      Understanding age-related expectations for community participation can aid mental health providers and policy makers in the design and tailoring of age-appropriate services to better meet consumers’ participation needs. This study seeks to describe and compare the amount, importance, and sufficiency of community participation in younger adult, middle-aged adult, and older adult consumers. Participants were 879 adults with serious mental illnesses who completed the Temple University Community Participation Measure as part of several studies (only baseline data were analyzed). One-way analysis of variance tests and chi-square analyses were used to evaluate the effect of age group on community participation outcomes. The amount and importance of participation in specific participation areas differed across age groups in developmentally appropriate ways. For older adults, a greater percentage of areas considered important were done enough, and fewer participation days were needed in certain areas for participation to be considered sufficient. Consumers reported participating in the community to meet basic needs (e.g., running errands), but participation appeared lower in areas typically identified as important to various age groups across the lifespan (e.g., working). Results support the use of developmental frameworks for delivering mental health services, and identify particular areas of community participation that policy and practice efforts might focus on to help individuals participate to a greater degree in areas that are important to them. Implications for policy-making, program evaluation, and individual interventions are discussed.
    • A human rights framework for the Anthropocene

      Sinden, Amy (2019-12-04)
      Calls for recognition of a human right to security from climate disruption have become more common, from both courts and scholars. But such a right has a far better chance of being effective – substantively and rhetorically – if grounded in the civil and political rights tradition, rather than the second or third-generation rights of the post-Second World War era. This chapter begins to sketch out some arguments that would situate a human right to climate security squarely in the civil and political rights tradition by connecting that new right to the fundamental values and concerns that have always animated that tradition. Whether one views those values as centrally concerned with the maintenance of individual autonomy and dignity or with protecting the integrity of the democratic process, civil and political rights are at bottom a response to power imbalance. While many twentieth century theorists have understandably focused on the power imbalance most emblematic of that century’s central moral challenge (that fuelled by prejudice), in constructing a human right for the twenty-first century, we should broaden that lens to encompass the other forms of power imbalance driving the climate crisis: between wealthy corporate interests and the poor and powerless; between us and future generations or other species; and between the functioning governments of the globe that possess the unique power to tackle this textbook collective action problem and individual citizens.
    • A Mixed Method Analysis of Burnout and Turnover Intentions Among Higher Education Professionals During COVID-19

      Winfield, Jake; Paris, Joseph; Paris|0000-0001-7636-903X; Winfield|0000-0001-6181-8664 (2021-10-11)
      The COVID-19 pandemic rapidly and dramatically altered higher education including changes to the workplace. Many staff and faculty positions were eliminated while other employees experienced furloughs or reduced work hours. Our study examines the experiences of 1,080 higher education professionals serving in various functional roles during the COVID-19 pandemic from 830 institutions of higher education in the United States. We utilized an explanatory sequential mixed methods research design to examine quantitative and qualitative survey data from October 2020 to understand how jobs in higher education changed during the pandemic and how these changes were associated with an individual's burnout and intention to leave higher education. Using multiple regression and thematic analysis and the job-demands and resources framework, we find that higher education professionals who experienced significant disruption in their work had increased odds of experiencing burnout. We also find that eliminating staff positions and significant levels of burnout were associated with increased intentions to leave their current profession in higher education. In open ended responses, higher education professionals described how increased job demands through decreased staff and increased workloads were not accompanied with increased resources, leading to burnout. These working conditions negatively affected participants' personal lives, including their physical and mental health. We conclude with recommendations for research on working conditions in higher education in the pandemic-era and emphasize that institutional leaders should seek systemic changes to support employees.
    • Bayesian analysis in educational psychology research: An example of gender differences in achievement goals

      Peterson, Steven K.; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2016-01-23)
      Much research in educational psychology concerns group differences. In this study, we argue that Bayesian estimation is more appropriate for testing group differences than is the traditional null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). We demonstrate the use of Bayesian estimation on gender differences in students' achievement goals. Research findings on gender differences in achievement goals have been mixed. We explain how Bayesian estimation of mean differences is more intuitive, informative, and coherent in comparison with NHST, how it overcomes structural and interpretive problems of NHST, and how it offers a way to achieve cumulative progress toward increasing precision in estimating gender differences in achievement goals. We provide an empirical demonstration by comparing a Bayesian and a traditional NHST analysis of gender differences in achievement goals among 442 7th-grade students (223 girls and 219 boys). Whereas findings from the two analyses indicate comparable results of higher endorsement of mastery goals among girls and higher endorsement of performance-approach and avoidance goals among boys, it is the Bayesian analysis rather than the NHST that is more intuitively interpreted. We conclude by discussing the perceived disadvantages of Bayesian estimation, and some ways in which a consideration of Bayesian probability can aid interpretations of traditional analytical methods.
    • Book Review: Gender and Violence in Haiti: Women’s Path from Victims to Agents by Benedetta Faedi Duramy

      Ramji-Nogales, Jaya (2016-02-11)
      Over the past two decades, international law has made great strides in recognizing and addressing gender-based violence. Sexual violence has become the dominant lens through which international law views gendered harms. In international criminal law, rape and sexual enslavement have been criminalized and prosecuted. Sex trafficking has become a global concern, and the topic of proliferating international and national legislation. Though these harms are real and powerful, the narrow focus on sexual and gender-based violence can obscure other harms experienced by women and similar harms experienced by men. The title of Prof. Benedetta Faedi Duramy’s book, Gender and Violence in Haiti: Women’s Path from Victims to Agents, demarcates a more nuanced approach that explores the roles women play not only as subjects but also as perpetrators of violence. The book contextualizes sexual violence, situating it within a cycle of inequality that begins by requiring young girls to be household servants and ends with the nearly complete exclusion of women from politics. Prof. Duramy’s in-depth case study contributes both substance and method to the burgeoning literature on gender violence and international law.
    • Connecting the learning of advanced mathematics with the teaching of secondary mathematics: Inverse functions, domain restrictions, and the arcsine function

      Weber, Keith; Mejía-Ramosa, Juan Pablo; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy; Wasserman, Nicholas (2019-12-26)
      Prospective secondary mathematics teachers are typically required to take advanced university mathematics courses. However, many prospective teachers see little value in completing these courses. In this paper, we present the instantiation of an innovative model that we have previously developed on how to teach advanced mathematics to prospective teachers in a way that informs their future pedagogy. We illustrate this model with a particular module in real analysis in which theorems about continuity, injectivity, and monotonicity are used to inform teachers’ instruction on inverse trigonometric functions and solving trigonometric equations. We report data from a design research study illustrating how our activities helped prospective teachers develop a more productive understanding of inverse functions. We then present pre-test/post-test data illustrating that the prospective teachers were better able to respond to pedagogical situations around these concepts that they might encounter.
    • Disability identity and use of services among college students with psychiatric disabilities

      O'Shea, Amber; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2018)
      With the increasing number of undergraduate students with psychiatric disabilities enrolling in college, and the disproportionately high attrition rates in this group, the current study aimed to understand these students’ experiences and identify barriers that they face in higher education contexts. Specifically, whereas past research suggests that students’ endorsement of a “disability identity” impacts the proactive utilization of valuable academic accommodations and promotes students’ academic success, little is known about the meanings that underlie students’ disability identity and how it is formed, shaped, and maintained within the college context. The current phenomenological study investigated the processes by which 5 undergraduate students with psychiatric disabilities in a large public research university made meaning of their disability, and how their disability identity motivated their use of disability support services. The analysis of a series of interviews with each student highlighted the dynamic nature of students’ disability identity and its formation through interactions with others and through participation in various activities and experiences in the college context.
    • Disengaged and Nearing Departure: Students at Risk for Dropping Out in the Age of COVID-19

      Antoni, Jennifer; 0000-0001-8238-560X (2020-09-18)
      In this article, the author examines the turbulence of the current educational context in light of COVID-19 and the associated school closures, for disengaged, older students nearing the end of their high school journeys. She provides concise overviews of the way high school dropout problem has been conceptualized, the theoretical framework of turbulence theory, and the relevant challenges and barriers that disengaged, older students at risk for dropout/pushout are currently experiencing. She asserts that even with established supports in place, more attention is needed to developing approaches that consider the turbulence that older students experience nearing high school departure during this period of school closure and remote instruction. The author offers vignettes, both from her own experience as a school counselor and one from another educators about what this turbulence looks like for vulnerable students and families. She concludes by offering recommendations for further supporting older, disengaged students at-risk for pushout or dropout.
    • dynaPhenoM: Dynamic Phenotype Modeling from Longitudinal Patient Records Using Machine Learning

      Zhang, Hao; Zang, Chengxi; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Hansi; Fouladvand, Sajjad; Havaldar, Shreyas; Su, Chang; Cheng, Feixiong; Glicksberg, Benjamin S.; Chen, Jin; Bian, Jiang; Wang, Fei; Su|0000-0003-4019-6389 (2021-11-02)
      Identification of clinically meaningful subphenotypes of disease progression can facilitate better understanding of disease heterogeneity and underlying pathophysiology. We propose a machine learning algorithm, termed dynaPhenoM, to achieve this goal based on longitudinal patient records such as electronic health records (EHR) or insurance claims. Specifically, dynaPhenoM first learns a set of coherent clinical topics from the events across different patient visits within the records along with the topic transition probability matrix, and then employs the time-aware latent class analysis (T-LCA) procedure to characterize each subphenotype as the evolution of these learned topics over time. The patients in the same subphenotype have similar such topic evolution patterns. We demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of dynaPhenoM on the case of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression on three patient cohorts, and five informative subphenotypes were identified which suggest the different clinical trajectories for disease progression from MCI to AD.
    • Enhancing the Psychometric Properties of the Iowa Gambling Task Using Full Generative Modeling

      Sullivan-Toole, Holly; Haines, Nathaniel; Dale, Kristina; Olino, Thomas; Olino|0000-0001-5139-8571 (2022-01-21)
      Poor psychometrics, particularly low test-retest reliability, pose a major challenge for using behavioral tasks in individual differences research. Here, we show that full generative modeling of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) substantially improved test-retest reliability and enhanced the IGT’s validity for use in characterizing internalizing pathology, compared to the traditional analytic approach. IGT data (n =50) was collected across two sessions, one month apart. Our full generative model incorporated (1) the Outcome Representation Learning (ORL) computational model at the person-level and (2) a group-level model that explicitly modeled test-retest reliability, along with other group-level effects. Compared to the traditional ‘summary score’ (proportion good decks selected), the ORL model provides a theoretically rich set of performance metrics (Reward Learning Rate (A+), Punishment Learning Rate (A-), Win Frequency Sensitivity (βf), Perseveration Tendency (βp), Memory Decay (K)), capturing distinct psychological processes. While test-retest reliability for the traditional summary score was only moderate (r = .37, BCa 95% CI [.04, .63]), test-retest reliabilities for ORL performance metrics produced by the full generative were substantially improved with posterior means for test-retest correlations ranging between r = .64–.82 for the five ORL parameters. While summary scores showed no substantial associations with internalizing symptoms, some ORL parameters were significantly associated with internalizing symptoms. Specifically, Punishment Learning Rate was associated with higher self-reported depression and Perseveration Tendency was associated with lower self-reported anhedonia. Generative modeling offers promise for advancing individual differences research using behavioral tasks, including the IGT, through enhancing task psychometrics.
    • High-Throughput Discovery and Evaluation of a General Catalytic Method for N-Arylation of Weakly Nucleophilic Sulfonamides

      Becica, Joseph; Hruszkewycz, Damian; Steves, Janelle; Elward, Jennifer; Leitch, David; Dobereiner, Graham; 0000-0001-6885-2021 (2019-06-09)
      Sulfonamides are poor nucleophiles in Pd C-N coupling catalysis, hindering synthesis of densely-functionalized N,N-diaryl sulfonamide motifs relevant to medicinal chemistry. Through targeted high-throughput experimentation (HTE), we have identified the Pd/AdBippyPhos catalyst system as an effective and general method to construct this difficult to access moiety. In particular, AdBippyPhos is critical for the installation of heteroaromatic groups. Computational steric parameterization of the investigated ligands reveals the potential importance of remote steric demand, where a large cone angle combined with an accessible Pd center is correlated to successful catalysts for C-N coupling reactions.
    • Imidazolyl-phenyl (IMP) anions: a modular structure for tuning solubility and coordinating ability

      Wozniak, Derek; Hicks, Andrew J.; Sabbers, William A.; Dobereiner, Graham; 0000-0002-7737-4583; 0000-0001-6885-2021 (2019-09-03)
      The effect of counteranion upon a cation’s solution-phase reactivity depends on a subtle interplay of weak interactions. Although these effects are widely appreciated in synthesis and catalysis, probing and controlling anion-cation interactions remains a significant challenge. Here we report the synthesis, characterization and reactivity of the IMP anions, a family of anions with a coordinating ability that can be tuned for a given application. The anions are robust, compatible with both strongly basic and acidic media, suitable for isolation of unstable organometallic species, and effective as counteranions for homogeneous catalysis. IMP anions are prepared in two steps: deprotonation of substituted 2-phenylimidazoles with NaH, followed by addition of 2 equiv. B(C6F5)3. The anions prepared feature a range of functionality, including nitro, ester, amide, amine and alcohol groups. Based on the spectroscopic properties of [Pd(IPr)(C(O)C9H6N)] [IMP-R], the coordinating ability of [IMP-R]− ranges between BF4− and BArF4−, depending on the polarity of the R group. Gold complexes of type [L-Au-L’][IMP-R] have been isolated and characterized, resulting in the first X-ray structure of a (eta-2-diphenylacetylene)Au complex. [(tBuXPhos)Au(MeCN)][IMP-R] catalyzes [2+2] cyclization of alkenes and alkynes, as well as the hydroalkoxylation of alkynes. Unlike SbF6− and BArF4−, the [IMP-H]− and [IMP-CF3]− salts are sufficiently soluble to efficiently promote cyclizations in toluene with [(tBuXPhos)Au(MeCN)]+.
    • Impact of Abstract Versus Concrete Conceptualization of Genetic Modification (GM) Technology on Public Perceptions

      Tallapragada, Meghnaa; Hardy, Bruce; Lybrand, Evan; Hallman, William K.; Tallapragada|0000-0003-1472-9129; Hardy|0000-0003-4852-7373 (2020-09-27)
      Based on the scholarship of abstract/concrete cognition, mental schema, and the integrated model of behavior change, this study found that using concrete over abstract language increased support for specific genetically modified (GM) applications and GM in general, and improved intentions to purchase products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs). An online survey with an embedded 3 × 2 experiment was conducted using a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 1,470). Participants were randomly assigned to conditions that varied in abstract/concrete conceptualization of GMOs and were prompted to assess GM risk and benefit perceptions with respect to human health and the environment. Regardless of whether they assessed risks or benefits, participants who assessed GMOs through concrete terms compared to abstract terms showed an increase in positive emotions, which in turn increased their support for specific GM applications and GM in general, and their intentions to buy products with GMOs.
    • Internal alkyne regio- and chemoselectivity using a zwitterionic [(NHC)Au(I)] catalyst in a silver-free alkyne hydration reaction

      Weerasiri, Kushan C.; Chen, Danmin; Wozniak, Derek; Dobereiner, Graham; 0000-0003-3133-8277; 0000-0002-7737-4583; 0000-0001-6885-2021 (2016-11-29)
      An alkyne hydration of terminal and internal alkynes is reported using a zwitterionic NHC Au catalyst, (BNHC)Au(SMe2) (1), in the absence of silver and Brønsted acid additives. The hydration demonstrates good regioselectivity in alkyne hydration and chemoselectivity for internal alkynes vs. terminal. In addition, (1) performs a propargyl alcohol hydration to predominantly form α-hydroxy methyl ketone over the more common Meyer-Schuster rearrangement product. While complex (1) is active without silver additives, addition of AgSbF6 increases reaction rate and decreases selectivity for internal alkyne hydration over terminal substrates. To our knowledge, the rate enhancement of (1) by AgSbF6 is the first such demonstration of a silver effect for a “halide-free” Au catalyst.

      Hussein, Amml (2021-11-23)
      This article presents a review of the state of diversity admission practices in higher education and exposes problems with admissions practices that do not extend beyond the admissions landscape. Efforts to increase minority enrollment numbers should be followed up with programs that cultivate meaningful interaction across racial backgrounds of the student body. This paper calls for enhancing institutional practices to align and mitigate potential legal suites that extend beyond admission. Several perspectives and approaches are synthesized and landmark cases are referenced. This discussion is timely as the Supreme Court precedence for race admission programs is up for re-evaluation and the issue is ripe.
    • Momentary Student Engagement as a Dynamic Developmental System

      Symonds, Jennifer E.; Kaplan, Avi; Upadyaya, Katja; Salmela Aro, Katariina; Torsney, Benjamin M.; Skinner, Ellen; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2020-01-02)
      In this theoretical statement we answer the call for increased scientific precision in research on student engagement, by providing a conceptualization of student engagement as a dynamic developmental system occurring across momentary time in classrooms. Momentary student engagement can be summarized as the situated, embodied, affective-motivational experience of integrated mental-physical activity in a task. In the statement we describe how momentary student engagement comprises parts (emotion, motivation, mental action, and physical action), structure (coactions between parts) and process (how parts and the whole develop through a sequence of engagement triggers and non-linear action). We discuss how researchers can conceptualize and study momentary student engagement at the microlevel grain sizes of agent (individual student), task (individual academic tasks) and time (momentary), providing a contrast to research on other forms of engagement occurring at higher level grain sizes (e.g., engagement with schooling as a macrolevel process). We overview methods of studying momentary student engagement complexity, emergence and dynamics, and end the statement by discussing how researchers can use the momentary student engagement perspective to enhance student engagement interventions.
    • News Events and Their Relationship With US Vape Sales: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis

      Janmohamed, Kamila; Sakai, Shinpei Nakamura; Soale, Abdul-Nasah; Forastiere, Laura; Kumar, Navin; Soale|0000-0003-2093-7645 (2022-03-10)
      Objective: News coverage around vaping-related events may have furthered misconceptions regarding the relative harms of vapes. Such information may influence the decisions of individuals who smoke, around switching to vaping, potentially affecting the overall tobacco mortality burden. Thus, it is prudent to study how news events (e.g., 2019 vaping illness epidemic) are associated with vape sales in the United States, to possibly reduce the tobacco mortality burden. Methods: We used weekly retail sales data for e-cigarettes (30 December 2018 - 28 December 2019) from the US retail scanner data compiled by the Nielsen Company. We used an interrupted time series design with segmented regression analysis to determine immediate and longer-term impacts of individual news events (e.g. Trump administration's planned ban on flavored vaping products) on vape sales, controlling for pre-existing trends. Results: Unexpectedly, we noted a statistically significant positive relationship between vape sales and the CDC announcing an investigation into vaping-related illnesses (Change: 6.59%, Estimate: 0.064; 95% CI: 0.036, 0.092; P<0.001). We also observed a similar positive association between vape sales and the CDC's announcement on the link between Vitamin E acetate and EVALI (Change: 2.93%, Estimate: 0.029; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.055; P<0.05). There was a steep decline in sales after these events. Conclusions: News events are associated with US vape sales. Findings have implications for the management of risk perceptions around vaping to improve health outcomes of tobacco users. Information-based policy instruments can be applied to balance the effects of news events that may influence vape sales.
    • Predictors of Response to Endobronchial Coil Therapy in Patients With Advanced Emphysema

      RENEW Study Group (2019-02-21)
      Background: The Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Patients With Emphysema (RENEW) trial reported improvements in quality of life, pulmonary function, and exercise performance following endobronchial coil treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this post hoc analysis was to identify baseline predictors, including quantitative CT measures, that identify patients most likely to significantly benefit from endobronchial coil therapy. Methods: Quantitative CT analysis by an independent radiology laboratory and a qualitative evaluation by five blinded experts of the baseline thoracic CT imaging were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to elucidate characteristics associated with clinical response. Results: In total, 125 patients underwent coil treatment and had evaluable 12-month follow-up results. Of these, 78 patients received treatment of lobes with the highest emphysematous destruction determined by quantitative CT analysis (quantitative visual match [QVM]+), and 47 received treatment in at least one lobe that was not the most destroyed (QVM–). From the 78 patients with QVM+ treatment, a subgroup of 50 patients (64%) was identified with baseline residual volume > 200% predicted, emphysema score > 20% low attenuation area, and absence of airway disease. In this subgroup, greater lobar residual volume reduction in the treated lobes was achieved, which was associated with significant mean ± SE improvement in FEV1 (15.2 ± 3.1%), St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (–12 ± 2 points), and residual volume (–0.57 ± 0.13 L). Discussion: This post hoc analysis found that both significant hyperinflation (residual volume ≥ 200% predicted) and CT analysis are critical for patient selection and treatment planning for endobronchial coil therapy. Quantitative CT analysis is important to identify optimal lobar treatment and to exclude patients with insufficient emphysema (< 20% low attenuation area), whereas visual assessment identifies patients with signs of airway disease associated with worse outcomes. Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01608490; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
    • Questioning Hierarchies of Harm: Women, Forced Migration and International Criminal Law

      Ramji-Nogales, Jaya (2011-01-01)
      Though international criminal law has made great strides in addressing harm perpetrated against women in wartime, its gendered structure diverts attention away from other significant harms that women endure as a result of armed conflict. In particular, international criminal law’s hierarchy of harm elevates crimes committed as part of a plan or pattern across political groups over equally serious forms of harm perpetrated randomly, often within political groups. Thus the private and opportunistic harms enabled by situations of displacement and perpetrated against female forced migrants do not fall clearly within the framework of international criminal law. This vacuum of accountability extends beyond international criminal law, as female forced migrants cannot rely on their own governments, their host governments, and often even international humanitarian organizations to protect them against opportunistic violence. International criminal law could fill the void only after quite serious reconstruction, namely expansion of its scope and restructuring of its focus. It may be that a structure designed specifically to prevent and account for opportunistic violence against female forced migrants would be better equipped to perform that task. Criminal accountability might be better performed in national legal systems or informal justice systems created within camp environments. There are also solutions other than criminal accountability, such as human rights law, that might be more appropriate in addressing such harms. In the meantime, until a solution is found that places these ‘private’ crimes on equal footing with ‘public’ attacks currently prohibited by international criminal law, the serious and frequent harms suffered by forcibly displaced women will continue to be overlooked, relegated to the bottom of the hierarchy of harm.