• A Clearer Picture: Journalistic identity practices in words and images on Twitter

      Lough, Kyser; Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2017-10-27)
      As journalists continue integrating social media into their professional work, they wrestle with ways to best represent themselves, their organizations, and their profession. Several recent studies have examined this trend in terms of branding, raising important questions about the changing ways in which journalists present themselves and how these changes may indicate shifts in their personal and professional identities. This study combines a visual content analysis of the images journalists use in their Twitter profiles with analyses of their profile text and tweets to examine how journalists present themselves online with an eye toward individual and organizational branding. Findings indicate journalists choose a branding approach and apply it consistently across their profiles, with most profiles consisting of a professional headshot while notably lacking organizational identifiers such as logos. Journalists also tend to lean toward professional rather than personal images in their profile and header photographs, indicating a possible predilection for professional identity over personal on social media.
    • Aggregation, Clickbait and Their Effect on Perceptions of Journalistic Credibility and Quality

      Molyneux, Logan; Coddington, Mark; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2019-06-16)
      Many journalists and industry observers lament that aggregating news underneath sensational headlines will erode credibility and turn off readers. While some scholarly work has studied journalists’ perspectives of this practice, little has been done to understand what audiences think of aggregation and clickbait. This study uses published original and aggregated news articles as stimuli in two online experiments to test readers’ perceptions of news aggregation and clickbait. Aggregation itself has little effect on perceptions of credibility and quality; instead, writing proficiency is more closely linked to these perceptions. Results also suggest clickbait headlines may lower perceptions of credibility and quality.
    • Body Image and Quality of Life in Adolescents With Craniofacial Conditions

      Crerand, Canice E.; Sarwer, David; Kazak, Anne E.; Clarke, Alexandra; Rumsey, Nichola; 0000-0003-1033-5528 (2016-01-11)
      Objective: To evaluate body image in adolescents with and without craniofacial conditions and to examine relationships between body image and quality of life. Design: Case-control design. Setting: A pediatric hospital's craniofacial center and primary care practices. Participants: Seventy adolescents with visible craniofacial conditions and a demographically matched sample of 42 adolescents without craniofacial conditions. Main Outcome Measure: Adolescents completed measures of quality of life and body image including satisfaction with weight, facial and overall appearance, investment in appearance (importance of appearance to self-worth), and body image disturbance (appearance-related distress and impairment in functioning). Results: Adolescents with craniofacial conditions reported lower appearance investment (P < .001) and were more likely to report concerns about facial features (P < .02) compared with nonaffected youth. Females in both groups reported greater investment in appearance, greater body image disturbance, and lower weight satisfaction compared with males (P < .01). Within both groups, greater body image disturbance was associated with lower quality of life (P < .01). The two groups did not differ significantly on measures of quality of life, body image disturbance, or satisfaction with appearance. Conclusions: Body image and quality of life in adolescents with craniofacial conditions are similar to nonaffected youth. Relationships between body image and quality of life emphasize that appearance perceptions are important to adolescents’ well-being regardless of whether they have a facial disfigurement. Investment in one's appearance may explain variations in body image satisfaction and serve as an intervention target, particularly for females.
    • Branding (Health) Journalism: Perceptions, practices, and emerging norms

      Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-04-30)
      Observational studies of journalists on social media platforms suggest that journalists are beginning to develop personal brands using social media. Similar studies suggest that journalists covering specialty areas such as health are more likely to experiment with and adopt new forms of practice that break with the traditional tenets of journalism. Through interviews with such journalists, this study explores the perceptions, practices, and drivers of personal branding among journalists. Findings indicate journalists are squarely focused on branding at the individual level (rather than branding the organizations they work for). Journalists cite technological and cultural changes in the profession as giving rise to personal branding. They also describe the tension they feel between their obligation to uphold the traditional tenets of journalism and their perceived need to incorporate more branding into their practice, especially on social media platforms. The findings indicate that journalists may be changing the fundamental elements of branding in at least one way, exchanging the differentiation between themselves and their content for the mutual sharing and co-creation of content with their colleagues and audience.
    • Commentary on: Motivations, Expectations, and Experiences of Labiaplasty: A Qualitative Study

      Center for Obesity Research and Education (Temple University) (2016-04-12)
    • Concise Syntheses of bis‐Strychnos Alkaloids (−)‐Sungucine, (−)‐Isosungucine, and (−)‐Strychnogucine B from (−)‐Strychnine

      Zhao, Senzhi; Chen, Heng; Sirasani, Gopal; Dobereiner, Graham; Andrade, Rodrigo B.; Teijaro, Christiana; Vaddypally, Shivaiah; Zdilla, Michael; 0000-0001-5375-0241; 0000-0001-6203-9689; 0000-0003-0212-2557; 0000-0001-6885-2021 (2016-06-15)
      The first chemical syntheses of complex, bis‐Strychnos alkaloids (−)‐sungucine (1), (−)‐isosungucine (2), and (−)‐strychnogucine B (3) from (−)‐strychnine (4) is reported. Key steps included (1) the Polonovski–Potier activation of strychnine N‐oxide; (2) a biomimetic Mannich coupling to forge the signature C23−C5′ bond that joins two monoterpene indole monomers; and (3) a sequential HBr/NaBH3CN‐mediated reduction to fashion the ethylidene moieties in 1–3. DFT calculations were employed to rationalize the regiochemical course of reactions involving strychnine congeners.
    • How journalists engage in branding on Twitter: individual, organizational, and institutional levels

      Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; Lewis, Seth C.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2017-04-18)
      In a social media age, branding is an increasingly visible aspect of identity construction online. For media professionals generally and journalists especially, branding on spaces such as Twitter reveals the complicated set of forces confronting such public-facing actors as they navigate tensions between personal disclosure for authenticity and professional decorum for credibility, and between establishing one’s own distinctiveness and promoting one’s employer or other stakeholders. While studies have begun to reveal what journalists say about branding, they have yet to provide a broad profile of what they do. This study takes up that challenge through a content analysis of the Twitter profiles and tweets of a representative sample of 384 U.S. journalists. We focus on the extent of branding practices; the levels at which such branding occurs, whether to promote one’s self (individual), one’s news organization (organizational), or the journalism profession at large (institutional); and how other social media practices may be related to forms of journalistic branding. Results suggest that branding is now widely common among journalists on Twitter; that branding occurs at all three levels but primarily at the individual and organizational levels, with organizational branding taking priority; and that time on Twitter is connected with more personal information being shared.
    • International connectedness and local disconnectedness: MNE strategy, city-regions and disruption

      Lorenzen, M; Mudambi, R; Schotter, A; Mudambi, Shreeram R.|0000-0002-5396-5602 (2020-10-01)
      © 2020, Academy of International Business. Much of the rising international connectedness of city-regions has developed from MNEs replacing local connections with (superior) international ones. This often creates local disconnectedness that energizes the current populist backlash against MNE activities. We develop approaches to new IB theory, addressing the interdependencies of MNEs and city-regions that we propose as a crucial avenue for future research. We contrast two generic MNE strategies. The first is the traditional one: the ‘global orchestration’ of resources and markets. We argue that it exacerbates local disconnectedness. The second, that we call ‘local spawning,’ involves engaging with the local entrepreneurial eco-system to create and renew local connectedness, diffusing populist responses. Some MNEs are better able to implement a local spawning strategy, due to industry factors like innovation clock-speed, and firm characteristics like organizational path dependency. Finally, we distinguish between disconnection, which is an outcome of MNE strategy, and global disruptions, like the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, which are primarily stochastic events. Addressing disconnections requires MNEs to re-orient their strategies while dealing with disruptions requires undertaking risk mitigation. We present empirical evidence from city-regions around the world to illustrate our theory.
    • Mobile News Consumption: A Habit of Snacking

      Molyneux, Logan; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2017-06-16)
      This study investigates news consumption on mobile devices with the goal of identifying where mobile devices fit into people’s media repertoires and how consumption patterns on them are different from those on other platforms. Results suggest that mobile devices are almost always used along with other platforms for getting news, that news sessions on smartphones are shorter than on other platforms, and mobile news consumption happens more times per day and is spread throughout the day. Implications for the study of news consumption, news producers, and consumers are discussed.
    • Obesity and Sexual Functioning

      Center for Obesity Research and Education (Temple University) (2018-09-15)
    • Political Journalists’ Normalization of Twitter

      Molyneux, Logan; Mourão, Rachel R.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2017-10-05)
      Journalists are frequently doing some of their daily work on social media, spaces they did not create but have appropriated for journalistic purposes. Building on previous studies of how political journalists use social media, this study examines how news professionals and organizations are employing new affordances of the platform as they engage their audiences on Twitter. We expand on previously established narratives of normalization and negotiation of journalism’s boundaries by providing a snapshot of these processes in mid-stream, during the 2016 US presidential campaign. Our goal is to analyze how interaction-based affordances are being used by journalists and how audiences react to them. Results suggest retweets are used to promote their organization, quote tweets to comment on the work of peers at other news organizations, and replies mostly to bypass the 140-character limitation. When it comes to audiences, tweets containing multimedia and policy issues are more likely to generate engagement. Findings reveal that older forms of interaction (tweets and retweets) are more normalized than newer forms (replies and quote tweets) and journalists largely ignore members of the public, preferring to talk amongst themselves in social media echo chambers.
    • Preoperative Medical Weight Management in Bariatric Surgery: a Review and Reconsideration

      Center for Obesity Research and Education (Temple University) (2017-01)
      Bariatric surgery is the most robust treatment for extreme obesity. The impact of preoperative medical weight management sessions designed, in theory, with the primary goal of promoting preoperative weight loss, is unclear. This paper reviews studies that have investigated the relationship between preoperative weight loss and bariatric surgical outcomes, both with respect to postoperative weight loss and complications. We conclude that the most robust of preoperative interventions has not been implemented or evaluated in a manner which would conclusively assess the value of this element of care. We offer a reconsideration of the role of preoperative medical weight management and provide recommendations for future research in this area.
    • Sexual functioning of men and women with severe obesity prior to bariatric surgery

      Steffen, Kristine J.; King, Wendy C.; White, Gretchen E.; Subak, Leslee L.; Mitchell, James E.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Flum, David R.; Strain, Gladys; Sarwer, David; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Pories, Walter; Huang, Alison J.; 0000-0003-1033-5528 (2016-09-28)
      Background: Obesity may impair sexual function through multiple mechanisms, but little is known about sexual dysfunction among adults with severe obesity seeking bariatric procedures. Objectives: To describe sexual function and associated factors before bariatric surgery. Setting: Ten U.S. clinical facilities. Methods: Before bariatric surgery, 2225 of 2458 Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 study participants (79% female, median age 45 years and median body mass index 46 kg/m2) completed a survey about sexual function over the past month. Mixed effects ordinal logistic regression models were used to identify factors independently related to 4 domains of sexual function. Results: One third of women (34%) and one quarter of men (25%) were not sexually active, alone or with a partner, in the past month. Twenty-six percent of women and 12% of men reported no sexual desire. Physical health limited sexual activity at least moderately in 38% of women and 44% of men. About one half of the women (49%) and the men (54%) were moderately or very dissatisfied with their sexual life. Among women, older age, being Caucasian, urinary incontinence, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant medication use were associated with poorer sexual function in multiple domains. In men, older age, not being married, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant medication use were associated with poorer sexual function in multiple domains. Conclusion: Before bariatric surgery, approximately one half of women and men with severe obesity are dissatisfied with their sexual life. Older age, severity of depressive symptoms, and antidepressant medication use are associated with poorer sexual function in both sexes.
    • Surveying journalists in the “New Normal”: Considerations and recommendations

      Molyneux, Logan; Zamith, Rodrigo; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2020-06-17)
      As journalism undergoes widespread changes, it finds itself in a ‘new normal’. Research seeking to understand these changes by surveying journalists faces new methodological hurdles that span different stages of the survey process. This article identifies the key contemporary challenges when it comes to sampling, instrument design, and distribution. Best research practices in identifying a target population, sampling, selecting or developing measures, and maximizing the likelihood of participation are presented and discussed. Advice is also offered to help peer reviewers identify common shortcomings in surveys of journalists and encourage authors to engage with the limitations of their work.
    • The conceptualization of costs and barriers of a teaching career among Latino preservice teachers

      Bergey, Bradley W.; Ranellucci, John; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2019-07-16)
      We investigated the perceived costs and barriers of a teaching career among Latino preservice teachers and how these men conceptualized costs relative to their race-ethnic identity, gender identity, and planned persistence in the profession from an expectancy-value perspective. We used a mixed-method approach that included a content analysis of open-ended survey responses to identify salient costs and barriers and non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) of participants’ responses to quantitative scales to capture phenomenological meaning of perceived costs, collective identity constructs, and planned persistence in the profession. Participants identified a range of drawbacks and barriers of a teaching career including concerns about job demands, work conditions, teacher preparation demands, emotional costs, social status, and salary, among other concerns. The MDS map for the whole sample suggested race-ethnic and gender identity were closely associated with status, salary, and morale; maps also provided insight into phenomenological meanings of different types of costs and cost measures. MDS maps for individual students demonstrated substantial diversity in individual meanings that are lost in group-level analyses. Results are discussed with attention to theoretical and practical implications for understanding and supporting men of color entering the teaching profession.
    • The Psychosocial Burden of Obesity

      Center for Obesity Research and Education (Temple University) (2016-08-10)
      This article provides an overview of the psychological aspects of obesity. The disease of obesity is associated with a significant psychosocial burden. Many individuals who have obesity also struggle with issues related to their mood, self-esteem, quality of life, and body image. This emotional distress likely plays a role in treatment seeking but also can impact successful treatment. For these reasons, most multidisciplinary obesity treatment teams include mental health professionals who can assess and treat these issues in patients as needed. Encouragingly, weight loss is typically associated with improvements in psychosocial status and functioning. These positive changes are often most profound among those who have lost large percentages of their weight, as is often seen with bariatric surgery. Unfortunately, some individuals who lose weight experience a return of pre-existing psychopathology or the development of new psychosocial issues. Those who experience weight regain, regardless of the approach to weight loss, also remain at risk for the return of unwanted psychological symptoms. The unfortunate, ubiquitous nature of weight regain reminds all treatment providers of the need to assess psychosocial functioning at the onset of treatment, monitor changes during weight loss, and remain alert for worsening of symptoms with weight regain.
    • The role of context in educational RCT findings: A call to redefine “evidence-based practice”

      Kaplan, Avi; Cromley, Jennifer; Perez, Tony; Dai, Ting; Mara, Kyle; Balsai, Michael; 0000-0002-2898-0085; 0000-0003-0778-7478 (2020-05-20)
      In this commentary, we complement other constructive critiques of educational randomized control trials (RCTs) by calling attention to the commonly ignored role of context in causal mechanisms undergirding educational phenomena. We argue that evidence for the central role of context in causal mechanisms challenges the assumption that RCT findings can be uncritically generalized across settings. Anchoring our argument with an example from our own multistudy RCT project, we argue that the scientific pursuit of causal explanation should involve the rich description of contextualized causal effects. We further call for incorporating the evidence of the integral role of context in causal mechanisms into the meaning of “evidence-based practice,” with the implication that effective implementation of practice in a new setting must involve context-oriented, evidence-focused, design-based research that attends to the emergent, complex, and dynamic nature of educational contexts.