• A Clearer Picture: Journalistic identity practices in words and images on Twitter

      Lough, Kyser; Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2017-10-27)
      As journalists continue integrating social media into their professional work, they wrestle with ways to best represent themselves, their organizations, and their profession. Several recent studies have examined this trend in terms of branding, raising important questions about the changing ways in which journalists present themselves and how these changes may indicate shifts in their personal and professional identities. This study combines a visual content analysis of the images journalists use in their Twitter profiles with analyses of their profile text and tweets to examine how journalists present themselves online with an eye toward individual and organizational branding. Findings indicate journalists choose a branding approach and apply it consistently across their profiles, with most profiles consisting of a professional headshot while notably lacking organizational identifiers such as logos. Journalists also tend to lean toward professional rather than personal images in their profile and header photographs, indicating a possible predilection for professional identity over personal on social media.
    • A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of Zephyr Endobronchial Valve Treatment in Heterogeneous Emphysema (LIBERATE)

      LIBERATE Study Group (2018-05-22)
      Rationale: This is the first multicenter randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Zephyr Endobronchial Valve (EBV) in patients with little to no collateral ventilation out to 12 months. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Zephyr EBV in heterogeneous emphysema with little to no collateral ventilation in the treated lobe. Methods: Subjects were enrolled with a 2:1 randomization (EBV/standard of care [SoC]) at 24 sites. Primary outcome at 12 months was the ΔEBV–SoC of subjects with a post-bronchodilator FEV1 improvement from baseline of greater than or equal to 15%. Secondary endpoints included absolute changes in post-bronchodilator FEV1, 6-minute-walk distance, and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire scores. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 190 subjects (128 EBV and 62 SoC) were randomized. At 12 months, 47.7% EBV and 16.8% SoC subjects had a ΔFEV1 greater than or equal to 15% (P < 0.001). ΔEBV–SoC at 12 months was statistically and clinically significant: for FEV1, 0.106 L (P < 0.001); 6-minute-walk distance, +39.31 m (P = 0.002); and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, −7.05 points (P = 0.004). Significant ΔEBV–SoC were also observed in hyperinflation (residual volume, −522 ml; P < 0.001), modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (−0.8 points; P < 0.001), and the BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index (−1.2 points). Pneumothorax was the most common serious adverse event in the treatment period (procedure to 45 d), in 34/128 (26.6%) of EBV subjects. Four deaths occurred in the EBV group during this phase, and one each in the EBV and SoC groups between 46 days and 12 months. Conclusions: Zephyr EBV provides clinically meaningful benefits in lung function, exercise tolerance, dyspnea, and quality of life out to at least 12 months, with an acceptable safety profile in patients with little or no collateral ventilation in the target lobe. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01796392).
    • Aggregation, Clickbait and Their Effect on Perceptions of Journalistic Credibility and Quality

      Molyneux, Logan; Coddington, Mark; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2019-06-16)
      Many journalists and industry observers lament that aggregating news underneath sensational headlines will erode credibility and turn off readers. While some scholarly work has studied journalists’ perspectives of this practice, little has been done to understand what audiences think of aggregation and clickbait. This study uses published original and aggregated news articles as stimuli in two online experiments to test readers’ perceptions of news aggregation and clickbait. Aggregation itself has little effect on perceptions of credibility and quality; instead, writing proficiency is more closely linked to these perceptions. Results also suggest clickbait headlines may lower perceptions of credibility and quality.
    • Air Current Applied to the Face Improves Exercise Performance in Patients with COPD

      Marchetti, Nathaniel; Lammi, Matthew R.; Travaline, John M.; Ciccolella, David; Civic, Brian; Criner, Gerard J. (2015-08-09)
      Purpose: Improving dyspnea and exercise performance are goals of COPD therapy. We tested the hypothesis that air current applied to the face would lessen dyspnea and improve exercise performance in moderate-severe COPD patients. Methods: We recruited 10 COPD patients (5 men, age 62 ± 6 years, FEV1 0.93 ± 0.11 L (34 ± 3 % predicted), TLC 107 ± 6 %, RV 172 ± 18 %) naïve to the study hypothesis. Each patient was randomized in a crossover fashion to lower extremity ergometry at constant submaximal workload with a 12-diameter fan directed at the patients face or exposed leg. Each patients’ studies were separated by at least 1 week. Inspiratory capacity and Borg dyspnea score were measured every 2 min and at maximal exercise. Results: Total exercise time was longer when the fan was directed to the face (14.3 ± 12 vs. 9.4 ± 7.6 min, face vs. leg, respectively, p = 0.03). Inspiratory capacity tended to be greater with the fan directed to the face (1.4 (0.6–3.25) vs. 1.26 (0.56–2.89) L, p = 0.06). There was a reduction in dynamic hyperinflation, as reflected by higher IRV area in the fan on face group (553 ± 562 a.u. vs. 328 ± 319 a.u., p = 0.047). There was a significant improvement in the Borg dyspnea score at maximal exercise (5.0 (0–10) vs. 6.5 (0–10), p = 0.03), despite exercising for 34 % longer with the fan directed to the face. Conclusions: Air current applied to the face improves exercise performance in COPD. Possible mechanisms include an alteration in breathing pattern that diminishes development of dynamic hyperinflation or to a change in perception of breathlessness.
    • An Examination of the Community Participation Interests of Young Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses

      Thomas, Elizabeth; Snethen, Gretchen; O'Shea, Amber; Suarez, John; Hurford, Irene; Salzer, Mark; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661; Salzer|0000-0002-2108-1618; Thomas|0000-0001-6543-9856 (2019-12-24)
      Participation in various aspects of community life (e.g., education, employment) plays a critical role in fostering young adult development and health. To support behavioral health services in addressing a broader array of meaningful community participation areas, the current study examined the participation interests of young adults with serious mental illnesses via a literature review and focus groups interviews. Literature review results revealed a range of community participation areas of interest to these individuals, including employment, education, religion and spirituality, social networking (e.g., using social media), volunteering activities, socializing, and civic and artistic participation (e.g., attending a political event, playing music). Focus group participants named many of these same areas, but also mentioned unique areas of participation that have not been the focus of previous research (i.e., playing games, sports, exploration of other communities (e.g., traveling), hanging out, and nature-based participation). Implications for future research and behavioral health practice are discussed.
    • An exploration of linear and curvilinear relationships between community participation and neurocognition among those with serious mental illnesses

      Thomas, Elizabeth; Snethen, Gretchen; McCormick, Bryan; Salzer, Mark; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661; McCormick|0000-0003-1017-8868; Salzer|0000-0002-2108-1618; Thomas|0000-0001-6543-9856 (2019-04-04)
      Objective: Longitudinal research supports an effect of participation in aspects of community life (e.g., leisure activity, employment) on neurocognition in the general population. This study examined the extent and nature of the relationship between community participation and neurocognition among people with serious mental illnesses. Methods: Participants included 168 adults with schizophrenia spectrum or affective disorder diagnoses who completed the Temple University Community Participation Measure and Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses explored linear and curvilinear effects of the amount and breadth of community participation on neurocognition. Results: Significant linear relationships existed between amount of community participation and overall neurocognitive functioning, motor speed, verbal fluency, and attention/processing speed, and between breadth of participation and verbal fluency. Significant curvilinear effects were noted between amount of community participation and verbal memory, and between breadth of community participation and overall neurocognitive functioning and motor speed. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Findings suggest that enhanced community participation may contribute to improved neurocognitive functioning, further supporting the importance of this rehabilitation target.
    • ‘Better safe than sorry’: examining trauma as an obstacle to empowerment and social change in a U.S. intimate partner violence intervention

      Kogen, Lauren (2021-09-24)
      Communication for social change (CSC) research often addresses ‘empowerment.’ This paper argues that CSC must better incorporate trauma healing into the concept of empowerment, and thus into a revised model of social change. Data from a U.S. intimate partner violence intervention are used to provide evidence for the validity of, and usefulness of, such a revised model. Three broad theoretical arguments are offered regarding trauma within CSC: (1) trauma is rarely addressed outside peacebuilding interventions, but is relevant to other marginalized populations; (2) storytelling work has mostly focused on its politically empowering effects, and insufficiently on its healing effects related to trauma as a precursor to political empowerment; and (3) storytelling work almost always assumes an audience, but there is also value in internal communication – e.g. telling a story to oneself or journaling – when trauma has limited one’s opportunities for communication.
    • Better than text? Critical reflections on the practices of visceral methodologies in human geography

      Sexton, Alexandra E.; Hayes-Conroy, Allison; Sweet, Elizabeth L.; Miele, Mara; Ash, James (2017-03-19)
      This co-authored intervention discusses themes on the thinking and doing of visceral research. 'Visceral' is taken here as that relating to, and emerging from, bodily, emotional and affective interactions with the material and discursive environment. There has recently been a distinct and necessary turn within the social sciences, particularly in human geography, towards the need for more viscerally-aware research practices. Building on such work, this collective intervention by leading visceral scholars offers two key contributions: first, it critically examines visceral geography approaches by considering their methodological contributions, and suggests improvements and future research pathways; and second, the authors extend recent visceral geography debates by examining how to conduct this type of research, providing reflections from their own experiences on the practicalities and challenges of implementing visceral methods. These observations are taken from a diverse range of research contexts - for example, from gender violence and community spaces, to the politics of 'good eating' in schools and social movements (e.g. Slow Food) - and involve a similarly diverse set of methods, including body-map storytelling, cooking and sharing meals, and using music to 'attune' researchers' bodies to nonhuman objects. In short, this collective intervention makes important and original contributions to the recent visceral turn in human geography, and offers critical insights for researchers across disciplines who are interested in conceptually and/or practically engaging with visceral methods.
    • Body Image and Quality of Life in Adolescents With Craniofacial Conditions

      Crerand, Canice E.; Sarwer, David; Kazak, Anne E.; Clarke, Alexandra; Rumsey, Nichola; 0000-0003-1033-5528 (2016-01-11)
      Objective: To evaluate body image in adolescents with and without craniofacial conditions and to examine relationships between body image and quality of life. Design: Case-control design. Setting: A pediatric hospital's craniofacial center and primary care practices. Participants: Seventy adolescents with visible craniofacial conditions and a demographically matched sample of 42 adolescents without craniofacial conditions. Main Outcome Measure: Adolescents completed measures of quality of life and body image including satisfaction with weight, facial and overall appearance, investment in appearance (importance of appearance to self-worth), and body image disturbance (appearance-related distress and impairment in functioning). Results: Adolescents with craniofacial conditions reported lower appearance investment (P < .001) and were more likely to report concerns about facial features (P < .02) compared with nonaffected youth. Females in both groups reported greater investment in appearance, greater body image disturbance, and lower weight satisfaction compared with males (P < .01). Within both groups, greater body image disturbance was associated with lower quality of life (P < .01). The two groups did not differ significantly on measures of quality of life, body image disturbance, or satisfaction with appearance. Conclusions: Body image and quality of life in adolescents with craniofacial conditions are similar to nonaffected youth. Relationships between body image and quality of life emphasize that appearance perceptions are important to adolescents’ well-being regardless of whether they have a facial disfigurement. Investment in one's appearance may explain variations in body image satisfaction and serve as an intervention target, particularly for females.
    • Book Review: Larry May and Shannon Fyfe, International Criminal Tribunals: A Normative Defense

      deGuzman, Margaret M. (2018-06-08)
      In "International Criminal Tribunals: A Normative Defense," Larry May and Shannon Fyfe set out to demonstrate that international tribunals provide “the fairest way to deal with mass atrocity crimes in a global arena.” To do so, the authors take up a wide range of critiques that scholars and others have leveled at international criminal tribunals and argue that although most have some validity, none are fatal to the enterprise of international criminal justice. The authors’ analysis of the various critiques yields both normative arguments about the value of international criminal tribunals and suggestions about how the institutions can be improved. In advancing their normative claims and supporting their prescriptive suggestions, the authors draw on a deep well of philosophical and theoretical concepts, including legitimacy, fairness, effectiveness, and efficiency. The result is a book that not only canvases and addresses the broad array of critiques leveled at international criminal tribunals but adds significantly to the rather scant literature on the philosophical justifications for international criminal justice.
    • Branding (Health) Journalism: Perceptions, practices, and emerging norms

      Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-04-30)
      Observational studies of journalists on social media platforms suggest that journalists are beginning to develop personal brands using social media. Similar studies suggest that journalists covering specialty areas such as health are more likely to experiment with and adopt new forms of practice that break with the traditional tenets of journalism. Through interviews with such journalists, this study explores the perceptions, practices, and drivers of personal branding among journalists. Findings indicate journalists are squarely focused on branding at the individual level (rather than branding the organizations they work for). Journalists cite technological and cultural changes in the profession as giving rise to personal branding. They also describe the tension they feel between their obligation to uphold the traditional tenets of journalism and their perceived need to incorporate more branding into their practice, especially on social media platforms. The findings indicate that journalists may be changing the fundamental elements of branding in at least one way, exchanging the differentiation between themselves and their content for the mutual sharing and co-creation of content with their colleagues and audience.
    • Commentary on: Motivations, Expectations, and Experiences of Labiaplasty: A Qualitative Study

      Center for Obesity Research and Education (Temple University) (2016-04-12)
    • Community Participation Factors and Poor Neurocognitive Functioning among Persons with Schizophrenia

      Thomas, Elizabeth; Snethen, Gretchen; Salzer, Mark; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661; Salzer|0000-0002-2108-1618; Thomas|0000-0001-6543-9856 (2020)
      Poor neurocognitive functioning among individuals with schizophrenia is typically conceptualized as resulting from a disease process. The objective of this article is to further expand understanding of poor neurocognition beyond pathogenesis toward a perspective that also incorporates community participation factors. This article focuses on three such factors—sedentary behavior, loneliness, and poverty—that have been demonstrated to be related to neurocognition and are highly prevalent among individuals with schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of the research on each factor and discusses its possible connection to neurocognitive challenges for individuals with schizophrenia. Implications for research, policy, and practice efforts are then proposed to broaden approaches to understanding and addressing neurocognitive challenges in this population.
    • Comparative Genetic Mapping Points to Different Sex Chromosomes in Sibling Species of Wild Strawberry (Fragaria)

      Goldberg, Margot T.; Spigler, Rachel; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Spigler|0000-0002-5997-9781 (2010-12-01)
      Separate sexes have evolved repeatedly from hermaphroditic ancestors in flowering plants, and thus select taxa can provide unparalleled insight into the evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes that are thought to be shared by plants and animals alike. Here we ask whether two octoploid sibling species of wild strawberry—one almost exclusively dioecious (males and females), Fragaria chiloensis, and one subdioecious (males, females, and hermaphrodites), F. virginiana—share the same sex-determining chromosome. We created a genetic map of the sex chromosome and its homeologs in F. chiloensis and assessed macrosynteny between it and published maps of the proto-sex chromosome of F. virginiana and the homeologous autosome of hermaphroditic diploid species. Segregation of male and female function in our F. chiloensis mapping population confirmed that linkage and dominance relations are similar to those in F. virginiana. However, identification of the molecular markers most tightly linked to the sex-determining locus in the two octoploid species shows that, in both, this region maps to homeologues of chromosome 6 in diploid congeners, but is located at opposite ends of their respective chromosomes.
    • Concise Syntheses of bis‐Strychnos Alkaloids (−)‐Sungucine, (−)‐Isosungucine, and (−)‐Strychnogucine B from (−)‐Strychnine

      Zhao, Senzhi; Chen, Heng; Sirasani, Gopal; Dobereiner, Graham; Andrade, Rodrigo B.; Teijaro, Christiana; Vaddypally, Shivaiah; Zdilla, Michael; 0000-0001-5375-0241; 0000-0001-6203-9689; 0000-0003-0212-2557; 0000-0001-6885-2021 (2016-06-15)
      The first chemical syntheses of complex, bis‐Strychnos alkaloids (−)‐sungucine (1), (−)‐isosungucine (2), and (−)‐strychnogucine B (3) from (−)‐strychnine (4) is reported. Key steps included (1) the Polonovski–Potier activation of strychnine N‐oxide; (2) a biomimetic Mannich coupling to forge the signature C23−C5′ bond that joins two monoterpene indole monomers; and (3) a sequential HBr/NaBH3CN‐mediated reduction to fashion the ethylidene moieties in 1–3. DFT calculations were employed to rationalize the regiochemical course of reactions involving strychnine congeners.
    • Convergent vegetation fog and dew water use in the Namib Desert

      Wang, Lixin; Farai Kaseke, Kudzai; Ravi, Sujith; Jiao, Wenzhe; Mushi, Roland; Shuuya, Titus; Maggs-Kolling, Gillian; Ravi|0000-0002-0425-9373 (2019-06-18)
      Nonrainfall water inputs (e.g., fog and dew) are the least studied hydrological components in ecohydrology. The importance of nonrainfall waters on vegetation water status in arid ecosystems is receiving increasing attention. However, a clear understanding on how common plant water status benefits from nonrainfall waters, the impacts of different types of fog and dew events on vegetation water status, and the vegetation uptake mechanisms of nonrainfall waters is still lacking. In this study, we used concurrent leaf and soil water potential measurements from 3 years to investigate the species-specific capacity to utilize moisture from fog and dew within the Namib Desert. Eight common plant species in the Namib Desert were selected. Our results showed that both fog and dew significantly increased soil water potential. Seven of the eight plant species studied responded to fog and dew events, although the magnitude of the response differed. Plants generally showed stronger responses to fog than to dew. Fog timing seemed to be an important factor determining vegetation response; for example, night fog did not affect plant water potential. We also found that Euclea pseudebenus and Faidherbia albida likely exploit fog moisture through foliar uptake. This study provides a first comprehensive assessment of the effects of nonrainfall waters on plant water status within the Namib Desert. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of concurrent leaf and soil water potential measurements to identify the pathways of nonrainfall water use by desert vegetation. Our results fill a knowledge gap in dryland ecohydrology and have important implications for other drylands.
    • Courage and Knowledge at Protagoras 349E1-351B2

      Wolfsdorf, David (2006-01-07)
      At Protagoras 349E1-350C5 Socrates argues for the identity of courage and knowledge, and at 350C6- 351B2 Protagoras objects to Socrates’ argument. Between 1961 and 1985, a few valuable contributions in English were made to the interpretation of these passages. None, however, is entirely satisfactory. And in the last twenty years, among some cursory treatments in studies not particularly focused on these passages, no notable progress has been made. The objective of this paper is to present a more satisfactory interpretation of Socrates’ argument and Protagoras’ objection, in particular by engaging with a set of problems with which previous commentators have wrestled. Above all, I will be concerned with Taylor’s examination of these problems since his contribution remains the most thorough and well known in English. The upshot of my discussion is that both Socrates’ argument and Protagoras’ response are more cogent than has been recognized. Indeed, Protagoras suggests a good reason to believe that Socrates’ argument fails to identify courage and knowledge. This also explains Socrates’ development of a second argument for the identity of courage and knowledge (351B-360E). In clarifying the hermeneutic problems in Socrates’ first argument and Protagoras’ objection, it will be convenient to begin with a basic outline of Socrates’ argument. The actual complexities of the argument will be clarified in the course of the ensuing discussion. (1) Courageous men are confident. (2) Courage, qua part of excellence, is fine. (3) Knowledgeable men are confident. (4) Some without knowledge are confident. (5) Ignorant confidence is base. (6) Therefore, courage is knowledge. According to this description, Socrates attempts to identify courage and knowledge on the grounds that both are fine confidence. Collectively, commentators have drawn attention to three serious problems with the argument. I will introduce and resolve each in turn.