• A Clearer Picture: Journalistic identity practices in words and images on Twitter

      Lough, Kyser; Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2017-10-27)
      As journalists continue integrating social media into their professional work, they wrestle with ways to best represent themselves, their organizations, and their profession. Several recent studies have examined this trend in terms of branding, raising important questions about the changing ways in which journalists present themselves and how these changes may indicate shifts in their personal and professional identities. This study combines a visual content analysis of the images journalists use in their Twitter profiles with analyses of their profile text and tweets to examine how journalists present themselves online with an eye toward individual and organizational branding. Findings indicate journalists choose a branding approach and apply it consistently across their profiles, with most profiles consisting of a professional headshot while notably lacking organizational identifiers such as logos. Journalists also tend to lean toward professional rather than personal images in their profile and header photographs, indicating a possible predilection for professional identity over personal on social media.
    • A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of Zephyr Endobronchial Valve Treatment in Heterogeneous Emphysema (LIBERATE)

      LIBERATE Study Group (2018-05-22)
      Rationale: This is the first multicenter randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Zephyr Endobronchial Valve (EBV) in patients with little to no collateral ventilation out to 12 months. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Zephyr EBV in heterogeneous emphysema with little to no collateral ventilation in the treated lobe. Methods: Subjects were enrolled with a 2:1 randomization (EBV/standard of care [SoC]) at 24 sites. Primary outcome at 12 months was the ΔEBV–SoC of subjects with a post-bronchodilator FEV1 improvement from baseline of greater than or equal to 15%. Secondary endpoints included absolute changes in post-bronchodilator FEV1, 6-minute-walk distance, and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire scores. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 190 subjects (128 EBV and 62 SoC) were randomized. At 12 months, 47.7% EBV and 16.8% SoC subjects had a ΔFEV1 greater than or equal to 15% (P < 0.001). ΔEBV–SoC at 12 months was statistically and clinically significant: for FEV1, 0.106 L (P < 0.001); 6-minute-walk distance, +39.31 m (P = 0.002); and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, −7.05 points (P = 0.004). Significant ΔEBV–SoC were also observed in hyperinflation (residual volume, −522 ml; P < 0.001), modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (−0.8 points; P < 0.001), and the BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index (−1.2 points). Pneumothorax was the most common serious adverse event in the treatment period (procedure to 45 d), in 34/128 (26.6%) of EBV subjects. Four deaths occurred in the EBV group during this phase, and one each in the EBV and SoC groups between 46 days and 12 months. Conclusions: Zephyr EBV provides clinically meaningful benefits in lung function, exercise tolerance, dyspnea, and quality of life out to at least 12 months, with an acceptable safety profile in patients with little or no collateral ventilation in the target lobe. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01796392).
    • Aggregation, Clickbait and Their Effect on Perceptions of Journalistic Credibility and Quality

      Molyneux, Logan; Coddington, Mark; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2019-06-16)
      Many journalists and industry observers lament that aggregating news underneath sensational headlines will erode credibility and turn off readers. While some scholarly work has studied journalists’ perspectives of this practice, little has been done to understand what audiences think of aggregation and clickbait. This study uses published original and aggregated news articles as stimuli in two online experiments to test readers’ perceptions of news aggregation and clickbait. Aggregation itself has little effect on perceptions of credibility and quality; instead, writing proficiency is more closely linked to these perceptions. Results also suggest clickbait headlines may lower perceptions of credibility and quality.
    • Air Current Applied to the Face Improves Exercise Performance in Patients with COPD

      Marchetti, Nathaniel; Lammi, Matthew R.; Travaline, John M.; Ciccolella, David; Civic, Brian; Criner, Gerard J. (2015-08-09)
      Purpose: Improving dyspnea and exercise performance are goals of COPD therapy. We tested the hypothesis that air current applied to the face would lessen dyspnea and improve exercise performance in moderate-severe COPD patients. Methods: We recruited 10 COPD patients (5 men, age 62 ± 6 years, FEV1 0.93 ± 0.11 L (34 ± 3 % predicted), TLC 107 ± 6 %, RV 172 ± 18 %) naïve to the study hypothesis. Each patient was randomized in a crossover fashion to lower extremity ergometry at constant submaximal workload with a 12-diameter fan directed at the patients face or exposed leg. Each patients’ studies were separated by at least 1 week. Inspiratory capacity and Borg dyspnea score were measured every 2 min and at maximal exercise. Results: Total exercise time was longer when the fan was directed to the face (14.3 ± 12 vs. 9.4 ± 7.6 min, face vs. leg, respectively, p = 0.03). Inspiratory capacity tended to be greater with the fan directed to the face (1.4 (0.6–3.25) vs. 1.26 (0.56–2.89) L, p = 0.06). There was a reduction in dynamic hyperinflation, as reflected by higher IRV area in the fan on face group (553 ± 562 a.u. vs. 328 ± 319 a.u., p = 0.047). There was a significant improvement in the Borg dyspnea score at maximal exercise (5.0 (0–10) vs. 6.5 (0–10), p = 0.03), despite exercising for 34 % longer with the fan directed to the face. Conclusions: Air current applied to the face improves exercise performance in COPD. Possible mechanisms include an alteration in breathing pattern that diminishes development of dynamic hyperinflation or to a change in perception of breathlessness.
    • Body Image and Quality of Life in Adolescents With Craniofacial Conditions

      Crerand, Canice E.; Sarwer, David; Kazak, Anne E.; Clarke, Alexandra; Rumsey, Nichola; 0000-0003-1033-5528 (2016-01-11)
      Objective: To evaluate body image in adolescents with and without craniofacial conditions and to examine relationships between body image and quality of life. Design: Case-control design. Setting: A pediatric hospital's craniofacial center and primary care practices. Participants: Seventy adolescents with visible craniofacial conditions and a demographically matched sample of 42 adolescents without craniofacial conditions. Main Outcome Measure: Adolescents completed measures of quality of life and body image including satisfaction with weight, facial and overall appearance, investment in appearance (importance of appearance to self-worth), and body image disturbance (appearance-related distress and impairment in functioning). Results: Adolescents with craniofacial conditions reported lower appearance investment (P < .001) and were more likely to report concerns about facial features (P < .02) compared with nonaffected youth. Females in both groups reported greater investment in appearance, greater body image disturbance, and lower weight satisfaction compared with males (P < .01). Within both groups, greater body image disturbance was associated with lower quality of life (P < .01). The two groups did not differ significantly on measures of quality of life, body image disturbance, or satisfaction with appearance. Conclusions: Body image and quality of life in adolescents with craniofacial conditions are similar to nonaffected youth. Relationships between body image and quality of life emphasize that appearance perceptions are important to adolescents’ well-being regardless of whether they have a facial disfigurement. Investment in one's appearance may explain variations in body image satisfaction and serve as an intervention target, particularly for females.
    • Book Review: Larry May and Shannon Fyfe, International Criminal Tribunals: A Normative Defense

      deGuzman, Margaret M. (2018-06-08)
      In "International Criminal Tribunals: A Normative Defense," Larry May and Shannon Fyfe set out to demonstrate that international tribunals provide “the fairest way to deal with mass atrocity crimes in a global arena.” To do so, the authors take up a wide range of critiques that scholars and others have leveled at international criminal tribunals and argue that although most have some validity, none are fatal to the enterprise of international criminal justice. The authors’ analysis of the various critiques yields both normative arguments about the value of international criminal tribunals and suggestions about how the institutions can be improved. In advancing their normative claims and supporting their prescriptive suggestions, the authors draw on a deep well of philosophical and theoretical concepts, including legitimacy, fairness, effectiveness, and efficiency. The result is a book that not only canvases and addresses the broad array of critiques leveled at international criminal tribunals but adds significantly to the rather scant literature on the philosophical justifications for international criminal justice.
    • Branding (Health) Journalism: Perceptions, practices, and emerging norms

      Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-04-30)
      Observational studies of journalists on social media platforms suggest that journalists are beginning to develop personal brands using social media. Similar studies suggest that journalists covering specialty areas such as health are more likely to experiment with and adopt new forms of practice that break with the traditional tenets of journalism. Through interviews with such journalists, this study explores the perceptions, practices, and drivers of personal branding among journalists. Findings indicate journalists are squarely focused on branding at the individual level (rather than branding the organizations they work for). Journalists cite technological and cultural changes in the profession as giving rise to personal branding. They also describe the tension they feel between their obligation to uphold the traditional tenets of journalism and their perceived need to incorporate more branding into their practice, especially on social media platforms. The findings indicate that journalists may be changing the fundamental elements of branding in at least one way, exchanging the differentiation between themselves and their content for the mutual sharing and co-creation of content with their colleagues and audience.
    • Commentary on: Motivations, Expectations, and Experiences of Labiaplasty: A Qualitative Study

      Center for Obesity Research and Education (Temple University) (2016-04-12)
    • Concise Syntheses of bis‐Strychnos Alkaloids (−)‐Sungucine, (−)‐Isosungucine, and (−)‐Strychnogucine B from (−)‐Strychnine

      Zhao, Senzhi; Chen, Heng; Sirasani, Gopal; Dobereiner, Graham; Andrade, Rodrigo B.; Teijaro, Christiana; Vaddypally, Shivaiah; Zdilla, Michael; 0000-0001-5375-0241; 0000-0001-6203-9689; 0000-0003-0212-2557; 0000-0001-6885-2021 (2016-06-15)
      The first chemical syntheses of complex, bis‐Strychnos alkaloids (−)‐sungucine (1), (−)‐isosungucine (2), and (−)‐strychnogucine B (3) from (−)‐strychnine (4) is reported. Key steps included (1) the Polonovski–Potier activation of strychnine N‐oxide; (2) a biomimetic Mannich coupling to forge the signature C23−C5′ bond that joins two monoterpene indole monomers; and (3) a sequential HBr/NaBH3CN‐mediated reduction to fashion the ethylidene moieties in 1–3. DFT calculations were employed to rationalize the regiochemical course of reactions involving strychnine congeners.
    • Convergent vegetation fog and dew water use in the Namib Desert

      Wang, Lixin; Farai Kaseke, Kudzai; Ravi, Sujith; Jiao, Wenzhe; Mushi, Roland; Shuuya, Titus; Maggs-Kolling, Gillian; Ravi|0000-0002-0425-9373 (2019-06-18)
      Nonrainfall water inputs (e.g., fog and dew) are the least studied hydrological components in ecohydrology. The importance of nonrainfall waters on vegetation water status in arid ecosystems is receiving increasing attention. However, a clear understanding on how common plant water status benefits from nonrainfall waters, the impacts of different types of fog and dew events on vegetation water status, and the vegetation uptake mechanisms of nonrainfall waters is still lacking. In this study, we used concurrent leaf and soil water potential measurements from 3 years to investigate the species-specific capacity to utilize moisture from fog and dew within the Namib Desert. Eight common plant species in the Namib Desert were selected. Our results showed that both fog and dew significantly increased soil water potential. Seven of the eight plant species studied responded to fog and dew events, although the magnitude of the response differed. Plants generally showed stronger responses to fog than to dew. Fog timing seemed to be an important factor determining vegetation response; for example, night fog did not affect plant water potential. We also found that Euclea pseudebenus and Faidherbia albida likely exploit fog moisture through foliar uptake. This study provides a first comprehensive assessment of the effects of nonrainfall waters on plant water status within the Namib Desert. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of concurrent leaf and soil water potential measurements to identify the pathways of nonrainfall water use by desert vegetation. Our results fill a knowledge gap in dryland ecohydrology and have important implications for other drylands.
    • Crowdsourcing hypothesis tests: Making transparent how design choices shape research results

      Landy, Justin F.; Jia, Miaolei; Ding, Isabel L.; Viganola, Domenico; Tierney, Warren; Dreber, Anna; Johannesson, Magnus; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Ebersole, Charles R.; Gronau, Quentin F.; Ly, Alexander; van den Bergh, Don; Marsman, Maarten; Derks, Koen; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Proctor, Andrew; Bartels, Daniel M.; Bauman, Christopher W.; Brady, William J.; Cheung, Felix; Cimpian, Andrei; Dohle, Simone; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hahn, Adam; Hall, Michael P.; Jimenez-Leal, William; Johnson, David J.; Lucas, Richard E.; Monin, Benoit; Montealegre, Andres; Mullen, Elizabeth; Pang, Jun; Ray, Jennifer; Reinero, Diego A.; Reynolds, Jesse; Sowden, Walter; Storage, Daniel; Su, Runkun; Tworek, Christina M.; Van Bavel, Jay J.; Walco, Daniel; Wills, Julian; Xu, Xiaobing; Yam, Kai Chi; Yang, Xiaoyu; Cunningham, William A.; Schweinsberg, Martin; Urwitz, Molly; Uhlmann, Eric L.; The Crowdsourcing Hypothesis Tests Collaboration; Baker, Bradley; Baker|0000-0002-1697-4198 (2020-01-16)
      To what extent are research results influenced by subjective decisions that scientists make as they design studies? Fifteen research teams independently designed studies to answer five original research questions related to moral judgments, negotiations, and implicit cognition. Participants from 2 separate large samples (total N > 15,000) were then randomly assigned to complete 1 version of each study. Effect sizes varied dramatically across different sets of materials designed to test the same hypothesis: Materials from different teams rendered statistically significant effects in opposite directions for 4 of 5 hypotheses, with the narrowest range in estimates being d = −0.37 to + 0.26. Meta-analysis and a Bayesian perspective on the results revealed overall support for 2 hypotheses and a lack of support for 3 hypotheses. Overall, practically none of the variability in effect sizes was attributable to the skill of the research team in designing materials, whereas considerable variability was attributable to the hypothesis being tested. In a forecasting survey, predictions of other scientists were significantly correlated with study results, both across and within hypotheses. Crowdsourced testing of research hypotheses helps reveal the true consistency of empirical support for a scientific claim.
    • Development of an Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Dietary Sodium Intake for Preventing Hypertension and Chronic Disease in Filipino Americans

      Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2020-06-03)
      Hypertension is a common chronic health condition affecting Filipino Americans. This pilot study examined the feasibility of addressing high rates of hypertension among Filipino Americans through the implementation of a culturally tailored education intervention. Filipino Americans living in the Greater Philadelphia Area were recruited through community-based organizations for participation and were engaged using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework. The study included pre- and post-intervention blood pressure measurements, self-reported body mass index, and questionnaires about physical activity and salt intake. The intervention to promote physical activity and reduce salt intake was conducted through two educational sessions and was accompanied by follow-up at 3 months and by the collection of urine samples for 24-h urinary sodium intake biomarker analysis. Following intervention, a non-statistically significant decrease in urine sodium was observed in both the intervention and the control groups. For systolic blood pressure, a reduction of 12.6 mmHg and an increase in 5.3 mmHg was observed in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Diastolic pressure decreased 3.8 mmHg for the intervention group and increased 5.6 mmHg among controls. The culturally tailored education intervention reported here represents a promising tool for blood pressure reduction in high-risk ethnic populations. The methods used were effective for the recruitment and retention of ethnic minorities in a community-based setting.
    • Dichotomy of decorin activity on the insulin-like growth factor-I system

      Morrione, Andrea; Neill, Thomas; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione|0000-0002-2319-7884 (2013-01-25)
      The stromal-specific proteoglycan decorin has emerged in recent years as a critical regulator of tumor initiation and progression. Decorin regulates the biology of various types of cancer by modulating the activity of several receptor tyrosine kinases coordinating growth, survival, migration, and angiogenesis. Decorin binds to surface receptors for epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor with high affinity, and negatively regulates their activity and signaling via robust internalization and eventual degradation. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I system plays a critical role in the regulation of cell growth both in vivo and in vitro. The IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is also essential for cellular transformation, owing to its ability to enhance cell proliferation and protect cancer cells from apoptosis. Recent data have pointed to a role of decorin in regulating the IGF-I system in both nontransformed and transformed cells. Significantly, there is a surprising dichotomy in the mechanism of decorin action on IGF-IR signaling, which differs considerably between physiological and pathological cellular models. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on decorin regulation of the IGF-I system in normal and transformed cells, and discuss possible decorin-based therapeutic approaches to target IGF-IR-driven tumors.
    • Experimental Investigations on the Basis for Intellectual Property Rights

      Fast, Anne A.; Olson, Kristina R.; Mandel, Gregory N. (2016-05-05)
      Lay people routinely misunderstand or do not obey laws protecting intellectual property (IP), leading to a variety of (largely unsuccessful) efforts by policymakers, IP owners, and researchers to change those beliefs and behaviors. The current work tests a new approach, inquiring whether lay people’s views about IP protection can be modified by arguments concerning the basis for IP rights. Across 2 experiments, 572 adults (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) read 1 of 6 arguments about the basis for IP protection (incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, plagiarism, commons, or no argument). Participants then reported their general support for IP protection. Participants also reported their evaluations of 2 scenarios that involved infringement of IP rights, including cases in which there were mitigating experiences (e.g., the copier acknowledged the original source), and completed several demographic questions. Three primary findings emerged: (a) exposure to the importance of the public commons (and to a lesser extent, exposure to the argument that plagiarism is the basis of IP protection) led participants to become less supportive of IP protection than the incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, and control conditions; (b) people believed that infringement was more acceptable if the infringer acknowledged the original creator of the work; and (c) older adults and women were especially likely to see infringement as problematic. These findings illustrate several ways in which lay beliefs are at odds with legal doctrine, and suggest that people’s views about IP protection can be shaped in certain ways by learning the basis for IP rights.
    • Grb10/Nedd4-mediated multiubiquitination of the insulin-like growth factor receptor regulates receptor internalization

      Monami, Giada; Emiliozzi, Velia; Morrione, Andrea; Morrione|0000-0002-2319-7884 (2008-02-19)
      The adaptor protein Grb10 is an interacting partner of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and the insulin receptor (IR). Previous work from our laboratory has established the role of Grb10 as a negative regulator of IGF-IR-dependent cell proliferation. We have shown that Grb10 binds the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and promotes IGF-I-stimulated ubiquitination, internalization, and degradation of the IGF-IR, thereby giving rise to long-term attenuation of signaling. Recent biochemical evidence suggests that tyrosine-kinase receptors (RTK) may not be polyubiquitinated but monoubiquitinated at multiple sites (multiubiquitinated). However, the type of ubiquitination of the IGF-IR is still not defined. Here we show that the Grb10/Nedd4 complex upon ligand stimulation mediates multiubiquitination of the IGF-IR, which is required for receptor internalization. Moreover, Nedd4 by promoting IGF-IR ubiquitination and internalization contributes with Grb10 to negatively regulate IGF-IR-dependent cell proliferation. We also demonstrate that the IGF-IR is internalized through clathrin-dependent and-independent pathways. Grb10 and Nedd4 remain associated with the IGF-IR in early endosomes and caveosomes, where they may participate in sorting internalized receptors. Grb10 and Nedd4, unlike the IGF-IR, which is targeted for lysosomal degradation are not degraded and likely directed into recycling endosomes. These results indicate that Grb10 and Nedd4 play a critical role in mediating IGF-IR down-regulation by promoting ligand-dependent multiubiquitination of the IGF-IR, which is required for receptor internalization and regulates mitogenesis.
    • Growth of v-src-transformed cells in serum-free medium through the induction of growth factors

      Deangelis, Tiziana; Quong, Andrew; Morrione, Andrea; Baserga, Renato; Morrione|0000-0002-2319-7884 (2012-12-18)
      The v-src oncogene is one of only two oncogenes capable of transforming mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking the IGF-IR gene (R-cells). R-/v-src cells grow robustly in the absence of serum, suggesting the hypothesis that they may produce one or more growth factors that would sustain their ability to proliferate in serum-free condition. Using proteomic approaches on serum-free conditioned media derived from v-src-transformed cells, we have identified two growth promoting factors: ostepontin and proliferin. Subsequent experiments have indicated that osteopontin plays a prevalent role in promoting growth of v-src-transformed cells in serum-deprived condition.
    • How journalists engage in branding on Twitter: individual, organizational, and institutional levels

      Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; Lewis, Seth C.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2017-04-18)
      In a social media age, branding is an increasingly visible aspect of identity construction online. For media professionals generally and journalists especially, branding on spaces such as Twitter reveals the complicated set of forces confronting such public-facing actors as they navigate tensions between personal disclosure for authenticity and professional decorum for credibility, and between establishing one’s own distinctiveness and promoting one’s employer or other stakeholders. While studies have begun to reveal what journalists say about branding, they have yet to provide a broad profile of what they do. This study takes up that challenge through a content analysis of the Twitter profiles and tweets of a representative sample of 384 U.S. journalists. We focus on the extent of branding practices; the levels at which such branding occurs, whether to promote one’s self (individual), one’s news organization (organizational), or the journalism profession at large (institutional); and how other social media practices may be related to forms of journalistic branding. Results suggest that branding is now widely common among journalists on Twitter; that branding occurs at all three levels but primarily at the individual and organizational levels, with organizational branding taking priority; and that time on Twitter is connected with more personal information being shared.