• A complex systems perspective on policy standards for teacher learning and development

      Garner, Joanna K.; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2020-09)
      In the United States, the Interstate Teacher Assessment Consortium (InTASC) Standards and Learning Progressions inform pre-service teacher curricula and in-service teacher professional development and evaluation policies (Council of Chief State School Officers, CCSSO, 2013). We apply a complex dynamic systems (CDS) lens to analyze the Standards document’s ontological assumptions about the nature of teaching and teachers’ professional learning. Our inductive and model-guided content analysis revealed that the Standards’ representation of effective teaching highlights the contextual and iterative, feedback-driven nature of teacher learning and change. Teachers’ learning is described as non-linear and as requiring qualitative reconfigurations of expertise. The development of critical teaching dispositions reflects processes typically associated with identity system exploration. These ideas are congruent with complex dynamic systems theories of teachers’ learning and identity formation such as the Dynamic Systems Model of Role Identity (DSMRI). We derive two conceptual behavioral landscapes for teachers’ practices and for their means of learning. We close by proposing that the findings underscore the importance of partnerships among researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in the use, application, and revision of policy.
    • A Decade of Research on Social Media and Journalism: Assumptions, Blind Spots, and a Way Forward

      Lewis, Seth C.; Molyneux, Logan; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2018-11-08)
      Amid a broader reckoning about the role of social media in public life, this article argues that the same scrutiny can be applied to the journalism studies field and its approaches to examining social media. A decade later, what hath such research wrought? In the broad study of news and its digital transformation, few topics have captivated researchers quite like social media, with hundreds of studies on everything from how journalists use Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, and Snapchat to how such platforms facilitate various forms of engagement between journalists and audiences. Now, some 10 years into journalism studies on social media, we need a more particular accounting of the assumptions, biases, and blind spots that have crept into this line of research. Our purpose is to provoke reflection and chart a path for future research by critiquing themes of what has come before. In particular, our goal is to untangle three faulty assumptions—often implicit but no less influential—that have been overlooked in the rapid take-up of social media as a key phenomenon for journalism studies: (1) that social media would be a net positive; (2) that social media reflects reality; and (3) that social media matters over and above other factors.
    • A Personalized Self-image: Gender and Branding Practices Among Journalists

      Molyneux, Logan; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2019-09-11)
      As the field of journalism becomes increasingly unrecognizable, the messages that identify the journalist, their work, and their affiliations are of increasing importance. This study envisions journalism and social media both as gendered spaces and examines their intersection as the setting of much of journalists’ branding work. In this setting, gender’s influence on the extent, style, and target of journalists’ branding efforts is examined using data from two different datasets (content analysis and survey). The findings suggest that female journalists take a more personalized approach by speaking about themselves in their profiles and their tweets and focusing more resources and attention on their individual brands. This suggests that female journalists are not well served by male-dominated news organizations and therefore turn to a more personalized self-image in their branding efforts. This understanding is particularly important as societies and newsrooms both work toward a more inclusive, egalitarian future.
    • Behavioural and Neural Responses to Facial Disfigurement

      Center for Obesity Research and Education (Temple University) (2019-05-29)
      Faces are among the most salient and relevant visual and social stimuli that humans encounter. Attractive faces are associated with positive character traits and social skills and automatically evoke larger neural responses than faces of average attractiveness in ventral occipito-temporal cortical areas. Little is known about the behavioral and neural responses to disfigured faces. In two experiments, we tested the hypotheses that people harbor a disfigured is bad bias and that ventral visual neural responses, known to be amplified to attractive faces, represent an attentional effect to facial salience rather than to their rewarding properties. In our behavioral study (N = 79), we confirmed the existence of an implicit ‘disfigured is bad’ bias. In our functional MRI experiment (N = 31), neural responses to photographs of disfigured faces before treatment evoked greater neural responses within ventral occipito-temporal cortex and diminished responses within anterior cingulate cortex. The occipito-temporal activity supports the hypothesis that these areas are sensitive to attentional, rather than reward properties of faces. The relative deactivation in anterior cingulate cortex, informed by our behavioral study, may reflect suppressed empathy and social cognition and indicate evidence of a possible neural mechanism underlying dehumanization.
    • Brimonidine gel 0.33% rapidly improves patient-reported outcomes by controlling facial erythema of rosacea: A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study

      Layton, A. M.; Schaller, M.; Homey, B.; Hofmann, M. A.; Bewley, A. P.; Lehmann, P.; Nohlgård, C.; Sarwer, David; Kerrouche, N.; Ma, Y. M.; 0000-0003-1033-5528 (2015-09)
      Background: Facial redness contributes to impaired psychosocial functioning in rosacea patients and the only approved treatment for erythema is topical brimonidine gel 0.33%. Objectives: To evaluate patient‐reported outcomes, as well as efficacy and safety, in subjects with self‐perceived severe erythema treated with brimonidine gel 0.33% compared to vehicle. Methods: An 8‐day multicenter, randomized study comparing once‐daily brimonidine gel 0.33% with vehicle gel using a facial redness questionnaire, subject satisfaction questionnaire and a patient diary of facial redness control to assess patient‐reported outcomes. Results: Of the 92 included subjects with self‐perceived severe erythema, very few were satisfied with their appearance at baseline (4.2% brimonidine group, 0 vehicle group). On Day 8, significantly more brimonidine group subjects were satisfied with their facial appearance compared to vehicle group (36.9% vs. 21.5%; P < 0.05), with the overall treatment effect (69.6% vs. 40.4%; P < 0.01), and with the improvement in their facial redness (67.4% vs. 33.3%; P < 0.001). More brimonidine group subjects were able to control their facial redness daily (e.g. 83.0% vs. 38.9% on Day 1). On Day 8, significantly more brimonidine group subjects than vehicle group had at least a one‐grade improvement from baseline in the Clinician Erythema Assessment score (71.7% vs. 35.7%; P = 0.0011) and Patient Self‐Assessment score (76.1% vs. 47.6%; P = 0.004). More subjects in the brimonidine group (29.2%) reported treatment‐related adverse events than in the vehicle group (15.9%) but most were mild and transient. Conclusions: Once‐daily brimonidine gel 0.33% allowed patients to rapidly control their facial redness and significantly improved patient‐reported outcomes in the treatment of persistent facial erythema of rosacea.
    • Child Maltreatment and the Adolescent Patient With Severe Obesity: Implications for Clinical Care

      Center for Weight and Eating Disorders (University of Pennsylvania) (2015-01-29)
      Objective: To characterize prevalence and correlates of child maltreatment (CM) in a clinical sample of adolescents with severe obesity. Method Multicenter baseline data from 139 adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery (Mage = 16.9; 79.9% female, 66.2% White; Mbody mass index [BMI] = 51.5 kg/m2) and 83 nonsurgical comparisons (Mage = 16.1; 81.9% female, 54.2% White; MBMI = 46.9 kg/m2) documented self-reported CM (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and associations with psychopathology, quality of life, self-esteem and body image, high-risk behaviors, and family dysfunction. Results CM prevalence (females: 29%; males: 12%) was similar to national adolescent base rates. Emotional abuse was most prevalent. One in 10 females reported sexual abuse. For females, CM rates were higher in comparisons, yet correlates were similar for both cohorts: greater psychopathology, substance use, and family dysfunction, and lower quality of life. Conclusion While a minority of adolescents with severe obesity reported a CM history, they carry greater psychosocial burden into the clinical setting.
    • Clinical Study: Sustained Weight Loss with Vagal Nerve Blockade but Not with Sham: 18-Month Results of the ReCharge Trial

      Papadia, Francesco Saverio (2015-06-28)
      Background/Objectives. Vagal block therapy (vBloc) is effective for moderate to severe obesity at one year. Subjects/Methods. The ReCharge trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of 239 participants with body mass index (BMI) of 40 to 45 kg/m or 35 to 40 kg/m with one or more obesity-related conditions. Interventions were implantation of either vBloc or Sham devices and weight management counseling. Mixed models assessed percent excess weight loss (%EWL) and total weight loss (%TWL) in intent-to-treat analyses. At 18 months, 142 (88%) vBloc and 64 (83%) Sham patients remained enrolled in the study. Results. 18-month weight loss was 23% EWL (8.8% TWL) for vBloc and 10% EWL (3.8% TWL) for Sham (P < 0.0001). vBloc patients largely maintained 12-month weight loss of 26% EWL (9.7% TWL). Sham regained over 40% of the 17% EWL (6.4% TWL) by 18 months. Most weight regain preceded unblinding. Common adverse events of vBloc through 18 months were heartburn/dyspepsia and abdominal pain; 98% of events were reported as mild or moderate and 79% had resolved. Conclusions. Weight loss with vBloc was sustained through 18 months, while Sham regained weight between 12 and 18 months. vBloc is effective with a low rate of serious complications.
    • Clustering, hierarchical organization, and the topography of abstract and concrete nouns

      Dove, Guy; Eleanor Saffran Center for Cognitive Neuroscience (Temple University) (2014-04-28)
      The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are “disembodied” in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N = 365) rated target words (n = 400 English nouns) across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence). Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.
    • Concept Mapping as a Mechanism for Assessing Science Teachers’ Cross-Disciplinary Field-Based Learning

      Garner, Joanna K.; Kaplan, Avi; Hathcock, Stephanie; Bergey, Bradley W.; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2019-07-11)
      Two common goals of science teacher professional development (PD) are increased content knowledge (CK) and improved readiness to teach through inquiry. However, PD assessment challenges arise when the context is structured around inquiry-based, participant-driven learning, and when the content crosses scientific disciplines. This study extended the use of concept mapping as an assessment tool for examining changes in the content knowledge of 21 high school science teachers who participated in a field-based environmental science summer institute. The scoring rubric focused on documenting concepts, links, and map organization and scope in an attempt to capture development of cross-disciplinary knowledge in ways that correspond with theories of expertise development. The analysis revealed significant gains from pre-PD to post PD maps in the sophistication of links between concepts and in the number of additional, participant-generated scientifically valid concepts. Relative to the initial maps, post PD maps also manifested more complete clustering of concepts. Findings are discussed in reference to previous studies on teachers’ learning and implications for future research using concept mapping as a means of assessing teacher PD.
    • CRISPR based editing of SIV proviral DNA in ART treated non-human primates

      Center for Neurovirology (Temple University) (2020-11-27)
      Elimination of HIV DNA from infected individuals remains a challenge in medicine. Here, we demonstrate that intravenous inoculation of SIV-infected macaques, a well-accepted non-human primate model of HIV infection, with adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9)-CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing construct designed for eliminating proviral SIV DNA, leads to broad distribution of editing molecules and precise cleavage and removal of fragments of the integrated proviral DNA from the genome of infected blood cells and tissues known to be viral reservoirs including lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and brain among others. Accordingly, AAV9-CRISPR treatment results in a reduction in the percent of proviral DNA in blood and tissues. These proof-of-concept observations offer a promising step toward the elimination of HIV reservoirs in the clinic.
    • Critical data studies: An introduction

      Iliadis, Andrew; Russo, Federica; 0000-0002-8345-6251 (2016-07-01)
      Critical Data Studies (CDS) explore the unique cultural, ethical, and critical challenges posed by Big Data. Rather than treat Big Data as only scientifically empirical and therefore largely neutral phenomena, CDS advocates the view that Big Data should be seen as always-already constituted within wider data assemblages. Assemblages is a concept that helps capture the multitude of ways that already-composed data structures inflect and interact with society, its organization and functioning, and the resulting impact on individuals’ daily lives. CDS questions the many assumptions about Big Data that permeate contemporary literature on information and society by locating instances where Big Data may be naively taken to denote objective and transparent informational entities. In this introduction to the Big Data & Society CDS special theme, we briefly describe CDS work, its orientations, and principles.
    • Editorial: Obesity Science and Practice (Dec 2016)

      Sarwer, David; 0000-0003-1033-5528 (2016-12-28)
    • Editorial: Obesity Science and Practice (Sep 2016)

      Sarwer, David; 0000-0003-1033-5528 (2016-09-19)
    • Elimination of HIV-1 Genomes from Human T-lymphoid Cells by CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing

      Center for Neurovirology (Temple University); Comprehensive NeuroAIDS Center (CNAC) (Temple University) (2016-03-03)
      We employed an RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 DNA editing system to precisely remove the entire HIV-1 genome spanning between 5′ and 3′ LTRs of integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA copies from latently infected human CD4+ T-cells. Comprehensive assessment of whole-genome sequencing of HIV-1 eradicated cells ruled out any off-target effects by our CRISPR/Cas9 technology that might compromise the integrity of the host genome and further showed no effect on several cell health indices including viability, cell cycle and apoptosis. Persistent co-expression of Cas9 and the specific targeting guide RNAs in HIV-1-eradicated T-cells protected them against new infection by HIV-1. Lentivirus-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 significantly diminished HIV-1 replication in infected primary CD4+ T-cell cultures and drastically reduced viral load in ex vivo culture of CD4+ T-cells obtained from HIV-1 infected patients. Thus, gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9 may provide a new therapeutic path for eliminating HIV-1 DNA from CD4+ T-cells and potentially serve as a novel and effective platform toward curing AIDS.
    • Enrollment Management in the Context of Responsibility Center Management

      Paris, Joseph (2020-11-22)
      Responsibility Center Management (RCM) budget models are designed to create financial incentives that encourage expense reduction and revenue generation. This article—a primer on RCM—equips enrollment management leaders and other higher education professionals with the knowledge required to support the attainment of enrollment headcount and net tuition revenue goals.
    • Evaluation of a Web-based Weight Loss Intervention in Overweight Cancer Survivors Aged 50 and Younger: Web-based Weight Loss in Younger Cancer Survivors

      Center for Obesity Research and Education (Temple University) (2016-12-19)
      Purpose: Half of adult cancer survivors under age 50 years are obese. Excess body weight is associated with cancer recurrence, and effective weight loss interventions for younger cancer survivors are needed. Commercially available, online weight loss programmes are readily accessible, but few have been studied in this population. This study employed a single‐arm, pre‐post intervention (baseline‐6 month/baseline‐12 month comparisons) to preliminarily explore feasibility, efficacy and safety of an online, commercially available weight loss programme in breast (n = 30) and testicular (n = 16) cancer survivors under age 50 years. Methods: The intervention included three daily components: exercise, nutritional/behavioural modification strategies and health lessons. Intention‐to‐treat and completers analyses were conducted. Feasibility was measured by participation (number of participants enrolled/number screened), retention (number of participants attending 6/12 month study visit/number of enrolled) and self‐reported adherence rates (average of mean percent adherence to each of the three intervention components). Efficacy was assessed by changes in initial weight (percent weight loss). Safety was assessed by adverse events. Results: The mean participation rate was 42%. The retention rate was 59% at 6 and 49% at 12 months. The adherence rate for all participants (completers/dropouts/lost‐to‐follow‐up) was 50.1% at 6 and 44% at 12 months. Completers reported adherence rates of 68% at 12 months. Study participants lost 5.3% body weight at 12 months; completers lost 9%. Only three unexpected adverse events (unrelated to the intervention) were reported. Conclusion: Clinically significant weight loss was observed, although retention rates were low. Findings generally support preliminary feasibility, efficacy and safety of this online weight loss programme, and future randomized control trials should be explored.
    • Exploring the “At-Risk” Student Label Through the Perspectives of Higher Education Professionals

      Dix, Nick; Lail, Andrew; Birnbaum, Matt; Paris, Joseph (2020-11-01)
      Institutions of higher education often use the term “at-risk” to label undergraduate students who have a higher likelihood of not persisting. However, it is not clear how the use of this label impacts the perspectives of the higher education professionals who serve and support these students. Our qualitative study explores the descriptions and understandings of higher education professionals who serve and support at-risk students. We use thematic analysis (Braun & Clark, 2006) to interpret our data and develop our themes. These themes include conflicting views of the “at-risk” definition, attempts to normalize at-risk, fostering relationships, and “at-promise.”
    • Fact Checking the Campaign: How Political Reporters Use Twitter to Set the Record Straight (or Not)

      Coddington, Mark; Molyneux, Logan; Lawrence, Regina G.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-07-01)
      In a multichannel era of fragmented and contested political communication, both misinformation and fact checking have taken on new significance. The rise of Twitter as a key venue for political journalists would seem to support their fact-checking activities. Through a content analysis of political journalists’ Twitter discourse surrounding the 2012 presidential debates, this study examines the degree to which fact-checking techniques were used on Twitter and the ways in which journalists on Twitter adhered to the practices of either “professional” or “scientific” objectivity—the mode that underlies the fact-checking enterprise—or disregarded objectivity altogether. A typology of tweets indicates that fact checking played a notable but secondary role in journalists’ Twitter discourse. Professional objectivity, especially simple stenography, dominated reporting practices on Twitter, and opinion and commentary were also prevalent. We determine that Twitter is indeed conducive to some elements of fact checking. But taken as a whole, our data suggest that journalists and commentators posted opinionated tweets about the candidates’ claims more often than they fact checked those claims.
    • Geographic Imputation of Missing Activity Space Data from Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) GPS Positions

      Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael J.; Coffman, Donna L.; Henry, Kevin; 0000-0001-6319-8622; 0000-0002-5348-9669 (2018-12-04)
      This research presents a pilot study to develop and compare methods of geographic imputation for estimating the location of missing activity space data collected using geographic ecological momentary assessment (GEMA). As a demonstration, we use data from a previously published analysis of the effect of neighborhood disadvantage, captured at the U.S. Census Bureau tract level, on momentary psychological stress among a sample of 137 urban adolescents. We investigate the impact of listwise deletion on model results and test two geographic imputation techniques adapted for activity space data from hot deck and centroid imputation approaches. Our results indicate that listwise deletion can bias estimates of place effects on health, and that these impacts are mitigated by the use of geographic imputation, particularly regarding inflation of the standard errors. These geographic imputation techniques may be extended in future research by incorporating approaches from the non-spatial imputation literature as well as from conventional geographic imputation and spatial interpolation research that focus on non-activity space data.