• A Better Way to Spend $500,000: How the Juvenile Justice System Fails Girls

      Beyer, Marty; Blair, Gillian; Katz, Sarah; Simkins, Sandra (2003)
    • A Buddhist Contribution to Artificial Intelligence?

      Duckworth, Douglas S. (2020)
      Significant questions confront Buddhist traditions in the wake of emergent technologies: can the human body be configured in a certain way, such that it reveals a new world or environment to inhabit beyond optimized self-preservation or survival? Can we manipulate our bodies with technologies—inhibited (or enhanced) by a chemical, a trauma, a contemplative technique, or an implant—such that we are reoriented to a transformed and liberating understanding of the nature of the world and our being in it? As new technologies enhance certain domains of cognitive performance by modelling and extending the structure and capacities of cognition, Buddhism, with a theory of mind and mental development in the absence of an independent essence, owner, or agent like a self, can potentially be a valuable resource. Buddhism provides a useful theoretical foundation to articulate not only the potentials for engineering intelligence, but also by identifying problems in this project.
    • A Case Against Collaboration

      Rebouché, Rachel (2017)
      In family law, as in other legal disciplines, the use of alternative dispute resolution has dramatically increased. In a process called collaborative divorce, separating spouses hire attorneys who agree to work together—almost entirely outside of the court system—to reach a settlement ending the marriage. A team of experts, including mental health professionals, financial neutrals, and parenting coordinators, helps the parties resolve conflicts and settle property, support, and custody disputes. For divorcing couples, the collaborative process promises emotional healing and avoidance of contentious litigation. Advocates for collaborative divorce describe the transformational effects of the process in an evangelical tone. But collaborative divorce has costs. Collaboration can include considerations of marital fault that feminists helped eliminate from divorce laws. By focusing on conflict resolution, even for the purpose of building post-divorce relationships, collaborative negotiations introduce judgments of “good” and “bad” marital conduct, potentially reinforcing stereotyped gender roles, such as the blameless wife and the guilty husband. These heteronormative paradigms are out of date: gender roles have evolved, the population of married people has changed, and marriage rights have extended to couples of the same sex. Collaborative processes also have distributive consequences. Collaboration privileges wealthy parties who may understate their bargaining power. At the same time, collaboration may not reach vulnerable spouses who could benefit from therapeutic interventions. Collaborative divorce can be blind to situational power and structural inequality. The purpose of these critiques is not to undermine therapeutic approaches or to argue that law should ignore spousal misconduct. Rather, this Article suggests that advocates for collaborative divorce—including some feminist scholars who have theorized the shortcomings of no-fault divorce laws—might understand better how parties negotiate, and what they may sacrifice, within a collaborative framework.
    • A complex systems perspective on policy standards for teacher learning and development

      Garner, Joanna K.; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2020-09)
      In the United States, the Interstate Teacher Assessment Consortium (InTASC) Standards and Learning Progressions inform pre-service teacher curricula and in-service teacher professional development and evaluation policies (Council of Chief State School Officers, CCSSO, 2013). We apply a complex dynamic systems (CDS) lens to analyze the Standards document’s ontological assumptions about the nature of teaching and teachers’ professional learning. Our inductive and model-guided content analysis revealed that the Standards’ representation of effective teaching highlights the contextual and iterative, feedback-driven nature of teacher learning and change. Teachers’ learning is described as non-linear and as requiring qualitative reconfigurations of expertise. The development of critical teaching dispositions reflects processes typically associated with identity system exploration. These ideas are congruent with complex dynamic systems theories of teachers’ learning and identity formation such as the Dynamic Systems Model of Role Identity (DSMRI). We derive two conceptual behavioral landscapes for teachers’ practices and for their means of learning. We close by proposing that the findings underscore the importance of partnerships among researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in the use, application, and revision of policy.
    • A Decade of Research on Social Media and Journalism: Assumptions, Blind Spots, and a Way Forward

      Lewis, Seth C.; Molyneux, Logan; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2018-11-08)
      Amid a broader reckoning about the role of social media in public life, this article argues that the same scrutiny can be applied to the journalism studies field and its approaches to examining social media. A decade later, what hath such research wrought? In the broad study of news and its digital transformation, few topics have captivated researchers quite like social media, with hundreds of studies on everything from how journalists use Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, and Snapchat to how such platforms facilitate various forms of engagement between journalists and audiences. Now, some 10 years into journalism studies on social media, we need a more particular accounting of the assumptions, biases, and blind spots that have crept into this line of research. Our purpose is to provoke reflection and chart a path for future research by critiquing themes of what has come before. In particular, our goal is to untangle three faulty assumptions—often implicit but no less influential—that have been overlooked in the rapid take-up of social media as a key phenomenon for journalism studies: (1) that social media would be a net positive; (2) that social media reflects reality; and (3) that social media matters over and above other factors.
    • A Legal Mandate That Authorizers Consider Fiscal and Other Impacts of Charter School Expansion

      DeJarnatt, Susan L. (2019)
      Pennsylvania’s Constitution mandates that the Commonwealth provide “for the maintenance and support of a thorough and efficient system of public education to serve the needs of the Commonwealth.” Pennsylvania decided to add charter schools to this system in 1997, a decision that, like all legislation, must be considered in light of this constitutional commitment to public education and to its role in preparing the Commonwealth’s students for their participation in democracy. Charter schools cost money and the vast bulk of that money comes directly out of the budgets of Pennsylvania school districts. Pennsylvania spent nearly $1.7 billion on charter schools in 2016-2017. Pennsylvania also underfunds its school districts. It ranks 46 out of 50 states for the state contribution to education funding and has the dubious honor of having the largest gap in the country between highly funded districts and poorly funded ones. Those districts also have the responsibilities of authorizing new charter schools, exercising oversight over existing schools, and determining whether to renew or revoke charters. Some charter proponents argue that Pennsylvania’s Charter School Law bars school districts from giving any consideration to the financial impact on districts when they authorize or renew charter schools. This belief conflicts with the plain language of the Charter School Law and its legislative history, and is not supported by court decisions. It rests on a few decisions of the Charter Appeals Board (CAB) which have misinterpreted the language and intent of the Charter School Law. Not one opinion from the Pennsylvania appellate courts has held that authorizers are forbidden from any consideration of financial impact. Balancing the needs and interests of all of the stakeholders in the public education system—students, families, teachers, support staff, administrators, schools—both traditional and charter, tax payers, retirees, and communities—is an enormous challenge. Charter schools are part of that public education system. But requiring school districts to completely ignore the financial impact of their decisions about charter growth cannot be the response to that challenge. If charters must be granted and renewed without any consideration of their financial impact on the school system as a whole, Pennsylvania will be even further impaired in its ability to meet its constitutional obligations. Thus, authorizers not only may consider financial impact, they must do so.
    • A Letter to Mary Daly

      Levitt, Laura S. (2012)
    • A Multi-Level Analysis on School Connectedness, Family Support, and Adolescent Depression: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 1995–1996

      Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2018-04-25)
      Objective: The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the effect of family support, school connectedness, and school environments on depressive symptoms among adolescents across racial/ethnic groups on both the student-level and school-level. Method: This study uses a sample of 4228 students (2122 girls and 2016 boys) from the public use data of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Students were measured at two time points (one year apart) on school connectedness, family support, socio-demographic factors, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies’ Depression Scale. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to examine potential predictors on adolescent depressive symptoms. This is, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the first study to examine the interplay of school connectedness, school racial composition, and adolescent depression. Results: School connectedness partially mediates the effects of family support on depressive symptoms, but both remain strong predictors of depressive symptoms. African American adolescents are the only racial/ethnic group that has constantly higher CES-D scores than the non-Hispanic white adolescents. School-level connectedness is positively related to students’ depressive symptoms. The racial composition of a school has different effects on students’ depressive symptoms on student’s race. Conclusions: Low perceived family support, low school connectedness, being female, and being African American are consistently associated with greater depressive symptoms one year later. The overall level of school connectedness of a school is found to be related with greater individual student’s depressive symptoms, while the effects of school proportion of minority students on students’ depressive symptoms differ significantly across the race/ethnicity of students. Future study is needed to explore the association between racial/ethnic segregation and adolescent depression while considering students’ racial/ethnic status.
    • A Multilevel Intervention to Increase HPV Vaccination among Asian American Adolescents

      Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2021-07-07)
      Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US. HPV vaccine is a viable source of prevention against high-risk strains that are likely to cause cancer. However, particularly among racial and ethnic minorities such as Chinese Americans, HPV vaccination rates are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of a culturally tailored intervention on HPV vaccine uptake in Chinese Americans. We designed and implemented a multilevel longitudinal pilot study to examine the efficacy of the HPV intervention among Chinese American parents/guardians. We recruited 180 participants from federally qualified health center and community-based clinics that serve predominantly low-income Chinese Americans in Philadelphia. Participants were randomized into an intervention group (n = 110) or a control group (n = 70). The intervention group received an HPV specific intervention, while the control group received a general health intervention. The primary outcome was medical record-confirmed receipt of first shot and completion of HPV vaccine within six months of receiving the interventions. Repeated measure ANOVA was utilized to examine the intervention effect on knowledge between intervention and control groups. Knowledge differed significantly, with participants in the intervention group demonstrating the greatest improvement following the intervention. A multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between HPV vaccine initiation and study group assignment. There was a significant effect of provider recommendation, parent’s gender, and health insurance status on HPV vaccine uptake. This study demonstrated positive impact of a culturally tailored intervention on HPV vaccination uptake among Chinese Americans.
    • A Nonobvious Comparison: Nonobviousness Decisions at the PTAB and in the Federal Courts

      Mandel, Gregory N. (2016)
      In an effort to elucidate how the challenges of nonobviousness decisions affect different decision-makers, this article presents an original dataset of nonobviousness decisions throughout the patent decision process. This dataset includes nonobviousness decisions at the Patent and Trademark Office and in the federal courts for the time period subsequent to the effective date of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act’s (AIA) first-to-file provisions. The results provide strong evidence that nonobviousness decisions are highly indeterminate: similarly situated decision-makers in the same cases reach differing conclusions on nonobviousness at a strikingly high rate. The data does not support the hypothesis that technologically sophisticated decision-makers are better able to make judgements from the perspective of a person of ordinary skill in the art. Finally, the analysis provides some potential support for the possibility that technologically trained individuals may exhibit slightly less of a hindsight bias than untrained decision-makers. Comparing the data reported here with earlier studies of nonobviousness decisionmaking indicates that both the district courts and the Federal Circuit reacted significantly to the Supreme Court’s nonobviousness decision in KSR v. Teleflex in 2007 by establishing a higher threshold for patentees to demonstrate nonobviousness. Subsequent to the AIA of 2011, however, both judicial bodies have reverted to nonobviousness decisionmaking that is more consistent with pre-KSR outcomes.
    • A novel functional crosstalk between DDR1 and the IGF axis and its relevance for breast cancer

      Belfiore, Antonino; Malaguarnera, Roberta; Nicolosi, Maria Luisa; Lappano, Rosamaria; Ragusa, Marco; Morrione, Andrea; Vella, Veronica; Morrione|0000-0002-2319-7884 (2018-03-23)
      In the last decades increasing importance has been attributed to the Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor signaling (IIGFs) in cancer development, progression and resistance to therapy. In fact, IIGFs is often deregulated in cancer. In particular, the mitogenic insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) are frequently overexpressed in cancer together with their cognate ligands IGF-1 and IGF-2. Recently, we identified discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) as a new IR-A interacting protein. DDR1, a non-integrin collagen tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed in several malignancies and plays a role in cancer progression and metastasis. Herein, we review recent findings indicating that DDR1 is as a novel modulator of IR and IGF-1R expression and function. DDR1 functionally interacts with IR and IGF-1R and enhances the biological actions of insulin, IGF-1 and IGF-2. Conversely, DDR1 is upregulated by IGF-1, IGF-2 and insulin through the PI3K/AKT/miR-199a-5p circuit. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the non-canonical estrogen receptor GPER1 in the DDR1-IIGFs crosstalk. These data suggest a wider role of DDR1 as a regulator of cell response to hormones, growth factors, and signals coming from the extracellular matrix.
    • A novel role for drebrin in regulating progranulin bioactivity in bladder cancer

      Xi, Shi-Qiong; Buraschi, Simone; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Maro; Shirao, Tomoaki; Peiper, Stephen C.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Birbe, Ruth; Belfiore, Antonino; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea; Morrione|0000-0002-2319-7884 (2015-03-12)
      We recently established a critical role for the growth factor progranulin in bladder cancer insofar as progranulin promotes urothelial cancer cell motility and contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating invasion and anchorage-independent growth. In addition, progranulin expression is upregulated in invasive bladder cancer tissues compared to normal controls. However, the molecular mechanisms of progranulin action in bladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we searched for novel progranulin-interacting proteins using pull-down assays with recombinant progranulin and proteomics. We discovered that drebrin, an F-actin binding protein, bound progranulin in urothelial cancer cells. We characterized drebrin function in urothelial cancer cell lines and showed that drebrin is critical for progranulin-dependent activation of the Akt and MAPK pathways and modulates motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. In addition, drebrin regulates tumor formation in vivo and its expression is upregulated in bladder cancer tissues compared to normal tissue controls. Our data are translationally relevant as indicate that drebrin exerts an essential functional role in the regulation of progranulin action and may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention in bladder tumors. In addition, drebrin may serve as novel biomarker for bladder cancer.
    • A Personalized Self-image: Gender and Branding Practices Among Journalists

      Molyneux, Logan; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2019-09-11)
      As the field of journalism becomes increasingly unrecognizable, the messages that identify the journalist, their work, and their affiliations are of increasing importance. This study envisions journalism and social media both as gendered spaces and examines their intersection as the setting of much of journalists’ branding work. In this setting, gender’s influence on the extent, style, and target of journalists’ branding efforts is examined using data from two different datasets (content analysis and survey). The findings suggest that female journalists take a more personalized approach by speaking about themselves in their profiles and their tweets and focusing more resources and attention on their individual brands. This suggests that female journalists are not well served by male-dominated news organizations and therefore turn to a more personalized self-image in their branding efforts. This understanding is particularly important as societies and newsrooms both work toward a more inclusive, egalitarian future.
    • A Randomized Study of Endobronchial Valves for Advanced Emphysema

      VENT Study Research Group (2010-09-23)
      BACKGROUND: Endobronchial valves that allow air to escape from a pulmonary lobe but not enter it can induce a reduction in lobar volume that may thereby improve lung function and exercise tolerance in patients with pulmonary hyperinflation related to advanced emphysema. METHODS: We compared the safety and efficacy of endobronchial-valve therapy in patients with heterogeneous emphysema versus standard medical care. Efficacy end points were percent changes in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the 6-minute walk test on intention-to-treat analysis. We assessed safety on the basis of the rate of a composite of six major complications. RESULTS: Of 321 enrolled patients, 220 were randomly assigned to receive endobronchial valves (EBV group) and 101 to receive standard medical care (control group). At 6 months, there was an increase of 4.3% in the FEV1 in the EBV group (an increase of 1.0 percentage point in the percent of the predicted value), as compared with a decrease of 2.5% in the control group (a decrease of 0.9 percentage point in the percent of the predicted value). Thus, there was a mean between-group difference of 6.8% in the FEV1 (P=0.005). Roughly similar between-group differences were observed for the 6-minute walk test. At 12 months, the rate of the complications composite was 10.3% in the EBV group versus 4.6% in the control group (P=0.17). At 90 days, in the EBV group, as compared with the control group, there were increased rates of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring hospitalization (7.9% vs. 1.1%, P=0.03) and hemoptysis (6.1% vs. 0%, P=0.01). The rate of pneumonia in the target lobe in the EBV group was 4.2% at 12 months. Greater radiographic evidence of emphysema heterogeneity and fissure completeness was associated with an enhanced response to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Endobronchial-valve treatment for advanced heterogeneous emphysema induced modest improvements in lung function, exercise tolerance, and symptoms at the cost of more frequent exacerbations of COPD, pneumonia, and hemoptysis after implantation. (Funded by Pulmonx; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00129584.)
    • A Study of Physical Activity Determinants among High-Risk Hypertensive Filipino and Korean Americans

      Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2019-03-31)
      Physical activity (PA) serves a critical role in maintaining health and preventing chronic diseases, though its influence on high-risk Asian American populations is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine PA levels among Filipino and Korean Americans at high risk of hypertension and to identify sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with PA levels in these populations. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 137 participants in the Greater Philadelphia Area. Data was collected on PA levels, sociodemographic factors, and health factors. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to determine predictors associated with low, moderate, and high PA and predictive probabilities were calculated for interaction terms, incorporating ethnicity and blood pressure variables. Overall, 42.33% of participants belonged to the moderately active PA group and 21.90% belonged to the highly active group. In the final multinomial regression model, it was found that having gone to college increased the odds of being in the moderately active PA group (coef. = 1.96, p = 0.034), while having high blood pressure reduced the odds of being in the moderately active PA group (coef. = −2.21, p = 0.022). Lastly, being Korean versus Filipino reduced the odds of being in the highly active category (coef. = −2.89, p = 0.035). Based on predictive probabilities, Koreans and Filipinos with high blood pressure were more likely to belong in the low active PA category (52.31% and 46.33%). These findings highlight the need for culturally relevant PA interventions for promoting and increasing PA levels to prevent and manage hypertension among these populations.
    • A Win-Win: The Intentional Cultivation of Reciprocal Relationships Between LSP and Community Partners

      Moore-Martínez, Patricia; Pongan, Joshua M. (2018)
      Este artículo identifica una necesidad y presenta un modelo sostenible para incorporar la integración a la comunidad en los cursos de español para fines específicos (EFE). Para combatir el descenso en la matrícula, los programas han aumentado su oferta de EFE—cursos que proporcionan relevancia y valor, igual a la integración de componentes de aprendizaje experiencial. Estos componentes contextualizan el aprendizaje experiencial y abarcan desde entrevistas informativas hasta pasantías estructuradas. El acoplamiento de estas prácticas de alto impacto requiere superar obstáculos: desembolso de recursos o establecimiento de expectativas razonables. Este modelo detalla integraciones de varias intensidades para hacer accesible la práctica a educadores independientemente de su experiencia previa y para asegurar beneficios tanto para los estudiantes como para las comunidades: una relación recíproca.
    • A “Cost-Benefit State”? Reports of Its Birth Have Been Greatly Exaggerated

      Sinden, Amy (2016-11)
      In a spate of recent cases (Michigan v. EPA, EME Homer City v. EPA, and Entergy Corp. v. Riverkeeper), the U.S. Supreme Court has been widely viewed as abruptly changing course in its treatment of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in environmental decisionmaking. In fact, these cases represent less of a change in course than is commonly believed. They did not so much eliminate the Court’s previously emerging anti-cost presumption as narrow and perhaps more clearly define it. The term “cost-benefit analysis” can refer to a broad range of decisionmaking techniques, and an even longer list of methods involve agencies “considering costs” in one way or another. These cases indicate that the Court’s anti-cost presumption no longer applies to informal CBA or feasibility analysis, but they do nothing to disturb the presumption as applied to other cost consideration tools. Indeed, Riverkeeper can be read to at least gesture in the direction of a continuing presumption against formal CBA. It is not entirely clear that Michigan articulated a pro-cost presumption at all, but to the extent it did, that presumption can be read to exclude or at least de-emphasize formal CBA.
    • Abstract: Biopsy through lung parenchymal lesion using virtual bronchoscopy navigation (VBN) Archimedes with EBUS sheath tunneling

      Ramzy, Joseph; Travaline, John M.; Thomas, Jiji; Basile, Matthew; Massetti, Patrick; Criner, Gerard J. (2018-11-19)
      Introduction: The (VBN) device (Archimedes, Broncus Medical Inc.) integrates CT pattern recognition software and fluoroscopy providing realtime airway parenchymal navigation called Bronchoscopic TransParenchymal Nodule Access (BTPNA). We present a case in which BTPNA was guided by radial EBUS sheath tunneling. Case: An 84YO man presented for evaluation of SPN in the LUL. CT showed 2 LUL nodules (1cm, 0.8cm). VBN was begun with a medium bronchoscope (Olympus BF-190 4.3OD, 2.1ID). The lateral nodule was found through airway path. Biopsies were done with forceps and FNA. None were adequate per ROSE. Using an 18G FleXNeedle®, a tunnel opening was created at the posterior wall of (LB3c). A Radial EBUS and sheath were introduced into the tunnel, and images were used to advance the catheter sheath to the lesion. The lesion and adjacent blood vessel were located. The Radial EBUS was removed, and using fluoroscopy brushing of the lesion via the catheter was performed obtaining adequate samples. Pathology revealed benign reactive bronchial cells and macrophages. Discussion: This is the first case using VBN to create a tunnel using a radial EBUS sheath (2mm diameter) through the lung tissue to biopsy a distal SPN. Herth et al. did the first trial using the technique, however their tunnels were created using 2.6mm diameter sheath via a therapeutic bronchoscope (6.3OD, 2.6ID) after airway dilation using a balloon.
    • Active Ecological Restoration of Cold-Water Corals: Techniques, Challenges, Costs and Future Directions

      Montseny, Maria; Linares, Cristina; Carreiro-Silva, Marina; Henry, Lea-Anne; Billett, David; Cordes, Erik E.; Smith, Christopher J.; Papadopoulou, Nadia; Bilan, Meri; Girard, Fanny; Burdett, Heidi L.; Larsson, Ann; Strömberg, Susanna; Viladrich, Núria; Barry, James P.; Baena, Patricia; Godinho, Antonio; Grinyó, Jordi; Santín, Andreu; Morato, Telmo; Sweetman, Andrew K.; Gili, Josep-Maria; Gori, Andrea (2021-09-13)
      Cold-water coral (CWC) habitats dwell on continental shelves, slopes, seamounts, and ridge systems around the world’s oceans from 50 to 4000 m depth, providing heterogeneous habitats which support a myriad of associated fauna. These highly diverse ecosystems are threatened by human stressors such as fishing activities, gas and oil exploitation, and climate change. Since their life-history traits such as long lifespan and slow growth rates make CWCs very vulnerable to potential threats, it is a foremost challenge to explore the viability of restoration actions to enhance and speed up their recovery. In contrast to terrestrial and shallow-water marine ecosystems, ecological restoration in deep marine environments has received minimal attention. This review, by means of a systematic literature search, aims to identify CWC restoration challenges, assess the most suitable techniques to restore them, and discuss future perspectives. Outcomes from the few restoration actions performed to date on CWCs, which have lasted between 1 to 4 years, provide evidence of the feasibility of coral transplantation and artificial reef deployments. Scientific efforts should focus on testing novel and creative restoration techniques, especially to scale up to the spatial and temporal scales of impacts. There is still a general lack of knowledge about the biological, ecological and habitat characteristics of CWC species exploration of which would aid the development of effective restoration measures. To ensure the long-term viability and success of any restoration action it is essential to include holistic and long-term monitoring programs, and to ideally combine active restoration with natural spontaneous regeneration (i.e., passive restoration) strategies such as the implementation of deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs). We conclude that a combination of passive and active restoration approaches with involvement of local society would be the best optimal option to achieve and ensure CWC restoration success.