• Rumor and Gossip: The Social Psychology of Hearsay

      Rosnow, Ralph L.; Fine, Gary Alan (1976)
      Presents findings from a sociological and psychological study of rumor, gossip, and hearsay, showing that the distribution patterns of these communication forms closely parallel characteristics and rules of economic exchange, and that the consumption of rumor and gossip corresponds to the consumption of goods and services. Recommendations and guidelines for rumor control centers based on World War II clinics are presented.
    • People Studying People: Artifacts and Ethics in Behavioral Research

      Rosenthal, Robert, 1933-; Rosnow, Ralph L. (1977)
      This is a lively and engaging look at the factors, known as `artifacts', that can confound behavioural experiments. By describing key research studies in a narrative style, Rosnow and Rosenthal address the issues of scientific method and clarify the difficulties that behavioural researchers will encounter. Their final chapter addresses ethical issues, again through narrative use of examples.
    • Imitations of Insanity and Victorian Medical Aesthetics

      LOGAN, PETER MELVILLE; 0000-0003-2362-8282 (2008-02)
      The pre-eminent figure in mid-Victorian psychological medicine, Dr. John Conolly had his reputation damaged in the 1850s by scandals linking him to cases of wrongful confinement, including one that figures in Charles Reade’s novel, Hard Cash. This essay looks at two major works Conolly published during the scandals and argues that they are responses to the charges against him. Both works focus on representations of insanity in art, rather than actual patients. “The Physiognomy of Insanity” (1858-59) is a series of essays on photographic portraits of asylum patients, and his essays prove to be more fictional than factual. A Study of Hamlet (1863) looks at the ambiguity of madness in Shakespeare’s portrayal of Hamlet, but it explains how Conolly understood the relationship between fact and fiction in cases of insanity. In both works, Conolly defends himself as an aesthete and defines his diagnostic method as a deliberate and necessary form of impressionism.
    • Literature and Medicine: Twenty-Five Years Later

      LOGAN, PETER MELVILLE; 0000-0003-2362-8282 (2008-10-03)
      An analysis of ten recent studies in Victorian literature and medicine examines the changes in the interdisciplinary field since G. S. Rousseau published an influential article on the topic in 1981.
    • What do social groups have to do with culture? The crucial role of shared experience

      Bergey, Bradley W.; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-0495-7219; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2010)
    • Tweeting Conventions: Political journalists' use of Twitter to cover the 2012 presidential campaign

      Lawrence, Regina G.; Molyneux, Logan; Coddington, Mark; Holton, Avery E.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2013-09-20)
      This study explores the use of Twitter by political reporters and commentators—an understudied population within the rapidly growing literature on digital journalism—covering the 2012 Republican and Democratic conventions. In particular, we want to know if and how the “affordances” of Twitter are shaping the traditional norms and routines of US campaign reporting surrounding objectivity, transparency, gatekeeping, and horse race coverage, and whether Twitter is bursting the “bubble” of insider talk among reporters and the campaigns they cover. A sample derived from all tweets by over 400 political journalists reveals a significant amount of opinion expression in reporters' tweets, but little use of Twitter in ways that improve transparency or disrupt journalists' (and campaigns') role as gatekeepers of campaign news. Overall, particularly when looking at what political journalists retweet and what they link to via Twitter, the campaign “bubble” seems at the moment to have remained largely intact.
    • Clustering, hierarchical organization, and the topography of abstract and concrete nouns

      Dove, Guy; Eleanor Saffran Center for Cognitive Neuroscience (Temple University) (2014-04-28)
      The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are “disembodied” in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N = 365) rated target words (n = 400 English nouns) across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence). Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.
    • Branding (Health) Journalism: Perceptions, practices, and emerging norms

      Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-04-30)
      Observational studies of journalists on social media platforms suggest that journalists are beginning to develop personal brands using social media. Similar studies suggest that journalists covering specialty areas such as health are more likely to experiment with and adopt new forms of practice that break with the traditional tenets of journalism. Through interviews with such journalists, this study explores the perceptions, practices, and drivers of personal branding among journalists. Findings indicate journalists are squarely focused on branding at the individual level (rather than branding the organizations they work for). Journalists cite technological and cultural changes in the profession as giving rise to personal branding. They also describe the tension they feel between their obligation to uphold the traditional tenets of journalism and their perceived need to incorporate more branding into their practice, especially on social media platforms. The findings indicate that journalists may be changing the fundamental elements of branding in at least one way, exchanging the differentiation between themselves and their content for the mutual sharing and co-creation of content with their colleagues and audience.
    • Fact Checking the Campaign: How Political Reporters Use Twitter to Set the Record Straight (or Not)

      Coddington, Mark; Molyneux, Logan; Lawrence, Regina G.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-07-01)
      In a multichannel era of fragmented and contested political communication, both misinformation and fact checking have taken on new significance. The rise of Twitter as a key venue for political journalists would seem to support their fact-checking activities. Through a content analysis of political journalists’ Twitter discourse surrounding the 2012 presidential debates, this study examines the degree to which fact-checking techniques were used on Twitter and the ways in which journalists on Twitter adhered to the practices of either “professional” or “scientific” objectivity—the mode that underlies the fact-checking enterprise—or disregarded objectivity altogether. A typology of tweets indicates that fact checking played a notable but secondary role in journalists’ Twitter discourse. Professional objectivity, especially simple stenography, dominated reporting practices on Twitter, and opinion and commentary were also prevalent. We determine that Twitter is indeed conducive to some elements of fact checking. But taken as a whole, our data suggest that journalists and commentators posted opinionated tweets about the candidates’ claims more often than they fact checked those claims.
    • Reporters' Smartphone Use Improves Quality of Work

      Molyneux, Logan; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-09-01)
      A survey of U.S. newspaper reporters and editors found that journalists with smartphones are more likely to produce multimedia, including audio, video and photo content; however, many complain that smartphones keep them tethered to their work seven days a week.
    • What journalists retweet: Opinion, humor, and brand development on Twitter

      Molyneux, Logan; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-09-25)
      Using Twitter, journalists may pass along comment from other users without, at least ostensibly, taking accountability for that message. Minimizing responsibility and editorial oversight, as is the case with retweets, allows a different view of individual journalists as gatekeepers. Through a qualitative textual analysis, this study finds that journalists are challenging norms of objectivity and independence on Twitter. Journalists frequently pass along subtle interpretation and analysis rather than strong opinions. Many retweets are humorous, sometimes even at journalism’s expense. Journalists also retweet many messages about themselves, working to build a personal brand and relationships with their audience. Implications for journalists, their industry, and the audience are discussed.
    • Child Maltreatment and the Adolescent Patient With Severe Obesity: Implications for Clinical Care

      Center for Weight and Eating Disorders (University of Pennsylvania) (2015-01-29)
      Objective: To characterize prevalence and correlates of child maltreatment (CM) in a clinical sample of adolescents with severe obesity. Method Multicenter baseline data from 139 adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery (Mage = 16.9; 79.9% female, 66.2% White; Mbody mass index [BMI] = 51.5 kg/m2) and 83 nonsurgical comparisons (Mage = 16.1; 81.9% female, 54.2% White; MBMI = 46.9 kg/m2) documented self-reported CM (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and associations with psychopathology, quality of life, self-esteem and body image, high-risk behaviors, and family dysfunction. Results CM prevalence (females: 29%; males: 12%) was similar to national adolescent base rates. Emotional abuse was most prevalent. One in 10 females reported sexual abuse. For females, CM rates were higher in comparisons, yet correlates were similar for both cohorts: greater psychopathology, substance use, and family dysfunction, and lower quality of life. Conclusion While a minority of adolescents with severe obesity reported a CM history, they carry greater psychosocial burden into the clinical setting.
    • Clinical Study: Sustained Weight Loss with Vagal Nerve Blockade but Not with Sham: 18-Month Results of the ReCharge Trial

      Papadia, Francesco Saverio (2015-06-28)
      Background/Objectives. Vagal block therapy (vBloc) is effective for moderate to severe obesity at one year. Subjects/Methods. The ReCharge trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of 239 participants with body mass index (BMI) of 40 to 45 kg/m or 35 to 40 kg/m with one or more obesity-related conditions. Interventions were implantation of either vBloc or Sham devices and weight management counseling. Mixed models assessed percent excess weight loss (%EWL) and total weight loss (%TWL) in intent-to-treat analyses. At 18 months, 142 (88%) vBloc and 64 (83%) Sham patients remained enrolled in the study. Results. 18-month weight loss was 23% EWL (8.8% TWL) for vBloc and 10% EWL (3.8% TWL) for Sham (P < 0.0001). vBloc patients largely maintained 12-month weight loss of 26% EWL (9.7% TWL). Sham regained over 40% of the 17% EWL (6.4% TWL) by 18 months. Most weight regain preceded unblinding. Common adverse events of vBloc through 18 months were heartburn/dyspepsia and abdominal pain; 98% of events were reported as mild or moderate and 79% had resolved. Conclusions. Weight loss with vBloc was sustained through 18 months, while Sham regained weight between 12 and 18 months. vBloc is effective with a low rate of serious complications.
    • Brimonidine gel 0.33% rapidly improves patient-reported outcomes by controlling facial erythema of rosacea: A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study

      Layton, A. M.; Schaller, M.; Homey, B.; Hofmann, M. A.; Bewley, A. P.; Lehmann, P.; Nohlgård, C.; Sarwer, David; Kerrouche, N.; Ma, Y. M.; 0000-0003-1033-5528 (2015-09)
      Background: Facial redness contributes to impaired psychosocial functioning in rosacea patients and the only approved treatment for erythema is topical brimonidine gel 0.33%. Objectives: To evaluate patient‐reported outcomes, as well as efficacy and safety, in subjects with self‐perceived severe erythema treated with brimonidine gel 0.33% compared to vehicle. Methods: An 8‐day multicenter, randomized study comparing once‐daily brimonidine gel 0.33% with vehicle gel using a facial redness questionnaire, subject satisfaction questionnaire and a patient diary of facial redness control to assess patient‐reported outcomes. Results: Of the 92 included subjects with self‐perceived severe erythema, very few were satisfied with their appearance at baseline (4.2% brimonidine group, 0 vehicle group). On Day 8, significantly more brimonidine group subjects were satisfied with their facial appearance compared to vehicle group (36.9% vs. 21.5%; P < 0.05), with the overall treatment effect (69.6% vs. 40.4%; P < 0.01), and with the improvement in their facial redness (67.4% vs. 33.3%; P < 0.001). More brimonidine group subjects were able to control their facial redness daily (e.g. 83.0% vs. 38.9% on Day 1). On Day 8, significantly more brimonidine group subjects than vehicle group had at least a one‐grade improvement from baseline in the Clinician Erythema Assessment score (71.7% vs. 35.7%; P = 0.0011) and Patient Self‐Assessment score (76.1% vs. 47.6%; P = 0.004). More subjects in the brimonidine group (29.2%) reported treatment‐related adverse events than in the vehicle group (15.9%) but most were mild and transient. Conclusions: Once‐daily brimonidine gel 0.33% allowed patients to rapidly control their facial redness and significantly improved patient‐reported outcomes in the treatment of persistent facial erythema of rosacea.
    • The Right to Nonparticipation for Global Digital Citizenship

      Iliadis, Andrew; 0000-0002-8345-6251 (2015-10-01)
      This article argues for the right to nonparticipation for Global Digital Citizenship (GDC). It recuperates the notion of political nonparticipation in the context of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and GDC in order to show that nonparticipation can operate effectively in non-State spheres, particularly online. The paper begins with a discussion of nonparticipation in the context of Nation States and non-Statal Organi-zations before offering a brief survey of the terms Global Citizenship (GC), Digital Citizenship (DC), and GDC. Nonparticipation in an online context is then explained, followed by a discussion of practical concerns, such as who might enforce GDC rights among global digital citizens.
    • Identity lost? The personal impact of brand journalism

      Holton, Avery E.; Molyneux, Logan; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2015-11-03)
      Researchers have explored the role of organizational and personal branding in journalism, paying particular attention to digital media and social network sites. While these studies have observed a rise in the incorporation of branding practices among journalists, they have largely avoided questions about the implications such shifts in practice may have on the personal identities of journalists. This study addresses that gap, drawing on interviews with 41 reporters and editors from US newspapers. The findings suggest that as reporters incorporate branding into their routines, they may feel as though they are sacrificing the ability to simultaneously maintain a personal identity online. For their part, editors seem to sympathize with journalists’ loss of personal identity but defer to organizational policies.