• Crystal structures of sodium-, lithium-, and ammonium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate (tiron) hydrates

      Herbst-Gervasoni, CJ; Gau, MR; Zdilla, MJ; Valentine, AM; Valentine, Ann|0000-0002-5943-5493; Zdilla, Michael|0000-0003-0212-2557 (2018-01-01)
      © Herbst-Gervasoni et al. 2018. The solid-state structures of the Na+, Li+, and NH4+ salts of the 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate (tiron) dianion are reported, namely disodium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate, 2Na+·C6H4O8S22-, μ-4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonato-bis[aqualithium(I)] hemihydrate, [Li2(C6H4O8S2)(H2O)2]·0.5H2O, and diammonium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate monohydrate, 2NH4+·C6H4O8S22-·H2O. Intermolecular interactions vary with the size of the cation, and the asymmetric unit cell, and the macromolecular features are also affected. The sodium in Na2(tiron) is coordinated in a distorted octahedral environment through the sulfonate oxygen and hydroxyl oxygen donors on tiron, as well as an interstitial water molecule. Lithium, with its smaller ionic radius, is coordinated in a distorted tetrahedral environment by sulfonic and phenolic O atoms, as well as water in Li2(tiron). The surrounding tiron anions coordinating to sodium or lithium in Na2(tiron) and Li2(tiron), respectively, result in a three-dimensional network held together by the coordinate bonds to the alkali metal cations. The formation of such a three-dimensional network for tiron salts is relatively rare and has not been observed with monovalent cations. Finally, (NH4)2(tiron) exhibits extensive hydrogen-bonding arrays between NH4+ and the surrounding tiron anions and interstitial water molecules. This series of structures may be valuable for understanding charge transfer in a putative solid-state fuel cell utilizing tiron.
    • Solution structure, glycan specificity and of phenol oxidase inhibitory activity of Anopheles C-type lectins CTL4 and CTLMA2

      Bishnoi, R; Sousa, GL; Contet, A; Day, CJ; Hou, CFD; Profitt, LA; Singla, D; Jennings, MP; Valentine, AM; Povelones, M; Baxter, RHG; Valentine, Ann|0000-0002-5943-5493 (2019-12-01)
      © 2019, The Author(s). Malaria, the world’s most devastating parasitic disease, is transmitted between humans by mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus. An. gambiae is the principal malaria vector in Sub-Saharan Africa. The C-type lectins CTL4 and CTLMA2 cooperatively influence Plasmodium infection in the malaria vector Anopheles. Here we report the purification and biochemical characterization of CTL4 and CTLMA2 from An. gambiae and An. albimanus. CTL4 and CTLMA2 are known to form a disulfide-bridged heterodimer via an N-terminal tri-cysteine CXCXC motif. We demonstrate in vitro that CTL4 and CTLMA2 intermolecular disulfide formation is promiscuous within this motif. Furthermore, CTL4 and CTLMA2 form higher oligomeric states at physiological pH. Both lectins bind specific sugars, including glycosaminoglycan motifs with β1-3/β1-4 linkages between glucose, galactose and their respective hexosamines. Small-angle x-ray scattering data supports a compact heterodimer between the CTL domains. Recombinant CTL4/CTLMA2 is found to function in vivo, reversing the enhancement of phenol oxidase activity in dsCTL4-treated mosquitoes. We propose these molecular features underline a common function for CTL4/CTLMA2 in mosquitoes, with species and strain-specific variation in degrees of activity in response to Plasmodium infection.