Recent Submissions

  • Diastereoselective Diels-Alder reactions. The role of the catalyst. 2

    Huang, Yifang; Sonnet, Philip E.; Dalton, David R. (2005-10-01)
    The Diels-Alder reaction between (R)-(−)-methyl (Z)-3-(4,5-dihydro-2-phenyl-4-oxazolyl)-2-propenoate 1 and cyclopentadiene in the presence of one equivalent of Et2AlCl or BF3 gave stereochemical results opposite to those obtained with one equivalent of EtAlCl2, SnCl4, or TiCl4. Energy minimizations of proposed complexes of these Lewis acids with the chiral dienophile at the RHF/3-21G level suggest that whereas the former coordinate singly to the nitrogen, the latter complex to both the nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen of the substrate. These different complexes expose diastereotopic faces of the dienophile to reaction with the diene.
  • Syntheses of Morphine and Codeine (1992 - 2002): Templates for Exploration of Synthetic Tools

    Mascavage, Linda M.; Wilson, M. L.; Dalton, David R. (2006)
    Morphine (1) and its O-methylated analogue codeine (2), analgesic alkaloids of the opium poppy (Papaver Somniferium), have been targets of organic chemists engaged in synthetic activities for at least half a century. The "first" (Gates) and "most efficient" (Rice) syntheses of morphine (1) and codeine (2) are well known and have been reviewed and analyzed extensively numerous times. However, syntheses of the same two alkaloids that have been reported since 1992 and which have been used as devices to advance the art of organic synthesis are not as widely recognized and they have not been as thoroughly reviewed. Here they are analyzed in the spirit of the use of these two compounds as templates. Further, since both racemic and enantiospecific syntheses are important and since all eight (8) approaches (since 1992) are sufficiently different so as to warrant more tha n superficial examination, they are all considered.
  • The Hoffmann-Schiff dichotomy: on the reaction between chloral and amines

    Mascavage, Linda M.; Tierney, John; Sonnet, Philip E.; Dalton, David R. (2010-09-10)
    In the nearly two centuries since the discovery of chloral (2,2,2-trichloroacetaldehyde), numerous nitrogenous reactants have been used to generate products resulting from attack at the carbonyl group by nitrogen. The resulting tetrahedral species, a carbinolamine, is often unstable and has been reported to lose water to produce an imine as well as to lose chloroform to produce an amide. We find that the path, and hence the product, is a function of the electron density at the nitrogen of the reacting amine. The weaker arylamines produce imine whilst the more strongly basic alkylamines produce amide.
  • An Unusual Ring Contraction in the Formation of N‐Nitrosohexamethyleneimine and N‐Nitrosopiperidine from Tolazamide

    Eshraghi, Jamshid; Longo, John; Dalton, David R.; Harrington, George W. (1990-04)
    The previously reported reaction of tolazamide with nitrite, under physiological conditions, to form N‐nitrosohexamethyleneimine and surprisingly, N‐nitrosopiperidine was confirmed. By using the six‐membered ring analogue of tolazamide, 1‐(piperidyl)‐3‐(p‐tolylsulfonyl)urea, which yields the corresponding N‐nitrosopiperidine and N‐nitrosopyrrolidine, the present study shows that an unusual ring contraction occurs, excising the carbon alpha to the nitrogen.
  • Thoughts on learning advanced mathematics

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy (2005-06-18)
  • Connecting the learning of advanced mathematics with the teaching of secondary mathematics: Inverse functions, domain restrictions, and the arcsine function

    Weber, Keith; Mejía-Ramosa, Juan Pablo; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy; Wasserman, Nicholas (2019-12-26)
    Prospective secondary mathematics teachers are typically required to take advanced university mathematics courses. However, many prospective teachers see little value in completing these courses. In this paper, we present the instantiation of an innovative model that we have previously developed on how to teach advanced mathematics to prospective teachers in a way that informs their future pedagogy. We illustrate this model with a particular module in real analysis in which theorems about continuity, injectivity, and monotonicity are used to inform teachers’ instruction on inverse trigonometric functions and solving trigonometric equations. We report data from a design research study illustrating how our activities helped prospective teachers develop a more productive understanding of inverse functions. We then present pre-test/post-test data illustrating that the prospective teachers were better able to respond to pedagogical situations around these concepts that they might encounter.
  • Individual and situational factors related to undergraduate mathematics instruction

    Johnson, Estrella; Keller, Rachel; Peterson, Valerie; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy (2019-06-28)
    Background: In the US, there is significant interest from policy boards and funding agencies to change students’ experiences in undergraduate mathematics classes. Even with these reform initiatives, researchers continue to document that lecture remains the dominant mode of instruction in US undergraduate mathematics courses. However, we have reason to believe there is variability in teaching practice, even among instructors who self describe their teaching practice as “lecture.” Thus, our research questions for this study are as follows: what instructional practices are undergraduate mathematics instructors currently employing and what are the factors influencing their use of non-lecture pedagogies? Here, we explore these questions by focusing on instruction in abstract algebra courses, an upper-division mathematics course that is particularly well positioned for instructional reform. Results: We report the results of a survey of 219 abstract algebra instructors from US colleges and universities concerning their instructional practices. Organizing our respondents into three groups based on the proportion of class time spent lecturing, we were able to identify 14 instructional practices that were significantly different between at least two of the three groups. Attempting to account for these differences, we analyzed the individual and situational factors reported by the instructors. Results indicate that while significant differences in teaching practices exist, these differences are primarily associated with individual factors, such as personal beliefs. Situational characteristics, such as perceived departmental support and situation of abstract algebra in the broader mathematics curriculum, did not appear to be related to instructional differences. Conclusions: Our results suggest that personal bounds in general, and beliefs in particular, are strongly related to the decision to (not) lecture. However, many of the commonly cited reasons used to justify the use of extensive lecture were not significantly different across the three groups of instructors. This lack of differentiation suggests that there may be relevant institutional characteristics that have not yet been explored in the literature, and a transnational comparison might be useful in identifying them.
  • The Development of Mathematical Argumentation in an Unmoderated, Asynchronous Multi-User Dynamic Geometry Environment

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy; Silverman, Jason (2015)
    This paper explores student interactions from the Virtual Math Teams-With-GeoGebra Project, a computer-supported collaborative learning environment that allows individuals to interact, collaborate, and discuss user-created dynamic mathematics objects. Previous studies of virtual math teams have focused on the coconstruction of a joint problem space and the ways collaborative meaning making can be accomplished in the online environment. Instead, this study explored the development of the students’ argumentation practices. The researchers used Toulman’s (1969) model to analyze and explain the structure of the online interactions and the argumentative practices that become normative among students. In particular, the researchers found that the students made increasingly detailed and mathematical descriptions of the data, developed more abstract warrants, and increasingly acted as if giving reasons was normative in the discussion.
  • The Expected Value of a Random Variable: Semiotic and Lexical Ambiguities

    Kim, Hyung Won; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy (2019)
    In calculus-based statistics courses, the expected value of a random variable (EVORV) is discussed in relation to underlying mathematical notions. This study examines students’ understanding of the mathematical notions of EVORV in connection with its semiotic and lexical representations. It also assesses students’ computational competency revolving around EVORV. We collected qualitative data via surveys and interviews from eight students enrolled in a calculus-based university statistics course. The results suggest that while the students in general had the computational accuracy to correctly calculate EVORV, they struggled to understand the notion, and in particular to make sense of the term “random” in “random variable” and the symbol E(𝑋) in the mathematical context. The study provides a basis for understanding potential challenges to students’ learning of EVORV and other related statistics topics and how such challenges may emerge from the semiotic and lexical ambiguities inherent in terms and symbols used in statistics.
  • Students’ sense-making frames in mathematics lectures

    Weinberg, Aaron; Wiesner, Emilie; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy (2013-12-20)
    The goal of this study is to describe the various ways students make sense of mathematics lectures. Here, sense-making refers to a process by which people construct personal meanings for phenomena they experience. This study introduces the idea of a sense-making frame and describes three different types of frames: content-, communication-, and situating-oriented. We found that students in an abstract algebra class regularly engaged in sense-making during lectures on equivalence relations, and this sense-making influenced their note-taking practices. We discuss the relationship between the choice of frame, the students’ sense-making practices, and the potential missed opportunities for learning from the lecture. These results show the importance of understanding the ways students make sense of aspects of mathematics lectures and how their sense-making practices influence what they might learn from the lecture.
  • Students’ epistemological frames and their interpretation of lectures in advanced mathematics

    Krupnik, Victoria; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy; Weber, Keith (2017-12-15)
    In this paper, we present a comparative case study of two students with different epistemological frames watching the same real analysis lectures. We show that students with different epistemological frames can interpret the same lecture in different ways. These results illustrate how a student’s interpretation of a lecture is not inherently tied to the lecture, but rather depend on the student and her perspective on mathematics. Thus, improving student learning may depend on more than improving the quality of the lectures, but also changing student’s beliefs and orientations about mathematics and mathematics learning.
  • Feasibility of the music therapy assessment tool for awareness in disorders of consciousness (MATADOC) for use with pediatric populations

    Magee, Wendy L.; Ghetti, Claire M.; Moyer, Alvin; Magee|0000-0003-4350-1289 (2015-05-27)
    Measuring responsiveness to gain accurate diagnosis in populations with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is of central concern because these patients have such complex clinical presentations. Due to the uncertainty of accuracy for both behavioral and neurophysiological measures in DOC, combined assessment approaches are recommended. A number of standardized behavioral measures can be used with adults with DOC with minor to moderate reservations relating to the measures’ psychometric properties and clinical applicability. However, no measures have been standardized for use with pediatric DOC populations. When adapting adult measures for children, confounding factors include developmental considerations for language-based items included in all DOC measures. Given the lack of pediatric DOC measures, there is a pressing need for measures that are sensitive to the complex clinical presentations typical of DOC and that can accommodate the developmental levels of pediatric populations. The music therapy assessment tool for awareness in disorders of consciousness (MATADOC) is a music-based measure that has been standardized for adults with DOC. Given its emphasis on non-language based sensory stimuli, it is well-suited to pediatric populations spanning developmental stages. In a pre-pilot exploratory study, we examined the clinical utility of this measure and explored trends for test-retest and inter-rater agreement as well as its performance against external reference standards. In several cases, MATADOC items in the visual and auditory domains produced outcomes suggestive of higher level functioning when compared to outcomes provided by other DOC measures. Preliminary findings suggest that the MATADOC provides a useful protocol and measure for behavioral assessment and clinical treatment planning with pediatric DOC. Further research with a larger sample is warranted to test a version of the MATADOC that is refined to meet developmental needs of pediatric DOC populations.
  • Music Therapy Advances in Neuro-disability - Innovations in Research and Practice: Summary Report and Reflections on a Two-Day International Conference

    O'Kelly, Julian Winn; Magee, Wendy L.; Street, Alexander J.; Fachner, Jörg; Drake, Adèle Isabel; Cahen, Joel; Särkämö, Teppo; Ridder, Hanne Mette; Jungblut, Monika; Melhuish, Ruth; Taylor, Dale; Magee|0000-0003-4350-1289 (2014-02-03)
    This article provides a summary of the oral papers presented during a two day international conference, which took place on 7th & 8th June 2013, at the Royal Hospital for Neuro-disability (RHN) in London. The summary texts detail innovative research projects and clinical developments across music therapy, music neuroscience and music psychology addressing the needs of those with acquired and degenerative neurological conditions. The diverse and evolving work in this field is reflected in the topics covered, including disorders of consciousness, dementia, stroke, and the use of modern neuro-imaging methods to measure the effects of music therapy at a cortical level. A discussion of the implications of these converging foci highlights the benefits of the cross-disciplinary dialogue that characterised the conference.
  • The Future of Technology in Music Therapy: Towards Collaborative Models of Practice

    Arts & Quality of Life Research Center (Temple University) (2016)
    "There is a growing interest in the field of music therapy and the use of technologies. The books, Music Technology in Therapeutic and Health settings (Magee, 2013), and Music, Health, Technology and Design (Stensæth, 2014) are recent examples of this. They reveal that music therapy is rapidly moving into new areas where the use and understanding of – as well as the need for – technology in clinical practice, assessment, theory and research collaboration is explored. In these publications, there are examples of how (computer) technology is becoming an efficient way to analyze improvisations in sessions (Erkkilä, Ala-Ruona & Lartillot, 2014), and how interdisciplinary research collaboration between music therapists and technology professionals use music therapy theory as a backdrop to explore how musical and interactive media can be developed to promote health and well-being among people with special needs (Cappelen & Andersson, 2011a, b, 2014 ; Stensæth, Holone & Herstad, 2014; Stensæth & Ruud, 2014). Historically, published accounts of using technology in music therapy relate to the adoption of music technology within clinical practice to support and understand the ways in which clients express themselves. In the following sections this particular history is further described. In the last part of this chapter we will present an ongoing, interdisciplinary research collaboration project to exemplify one of many potential models for the future of technology in music therapy."
  • Envisioning the Future of Music Therapy

    Dileo, Cheryl; Arts & Quality of Life Research Center (Temple University) (2016)
  • Music interventions for acquired brain injury (Review)

    Magee, Wendy L.; Clark, Imogen; Tamplin, Jeanette; Bradt, Joke; Magee|0000-0003-4350-1289 (2017-01-20)
    Background: Acquired brain injury (ABI) can result in impairments in motor function, language, cognition, and sensory processing, and in emotional disturbances, which can severely reduce a survivor's quality of life. Music interventions have been used in rehabilitation to stimulate brain functions involved in movement, cognition, speech, emotions, and sensory perceptions. An update of the systematic review published in 2010 was needed to gauge the efficacy of music interventions in rehabilitation for people with ABI. Objectives: To assess the effects of music interventions for functional outcomes in people with ABI. We expanded the criteria of our existing review to: 1) examine the efficacy of music interventions in addressing recovery in people with ABI including gait, upper extremity function, communication, mood and emotions, cognitive functioning, social skills, pain, behavioural outcomes, activities of daily living, and adverse events; 2) compare the efficacy of music interventions and standard care with a) standard care alone, b) standard care and placebo treatments, or c) standard care and other therapies; 3) compare the efficacy of different types of music interventions (music therapy delivered by trained music therapists versus music interventions delivered by other professionals). Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (January 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1946 to June 2015), Embase (1980 to June 2015), CINAHL (1982 to June 2015), PsycINFO (1806 to June 2015), LILACS (1982 to January 2016), and AMED (1985 to June 2015). We handsearched music therapy journals and conference proceedings, searched dissertation and specialist music databases, trials and research registers, reference lists, and contacted relevant experts and music therapy associations to identify unpublished research. We imposed no language restriction. We performed the original search in 2009. Selection criteria: We included all randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that compared music interventions and standard care with standard care alone or combined with other therapies. We examined studies that included people older than 16 years of age who had ABI of a non‐degenerative nature and were participating in treatment programmes offered in hospital, outpatient, or community settings. We included studies in any language, published and unpublished. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We contacted trial researchers to obtain missing data or for additional information when necessary. Where possible, we presented results for continuous outcomes in meta‐analyses using mean differences (MDs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs). We used post‐test scores. In cases of significant baseline difference, we used change scores. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of the randomisation method. Main results: We identified 22 new studies for this update. The evidence for this update is based on 29 trials involving 775 participants. A music intervention known as rhythmic auditory stimulation may be beneficial for improving the following gait parameters after stroke. We found a reported increase in gait velocity of 11.34 metres per minute (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.40 to 14.28; 9 trials; 268 participants; P < 0.00001; moderate‐quality evidence). Stride length of the affected side may also benefit, with a reported average of 0.12 metres more (95% CI 0.04 to 0.20; 5 trials; 129 participants; P = 0.003; moderate‐quality evidence). We found a reported average improvement for general gait of 7.67 units on the Dynamic Gait Index (95% CI 5.67 to 9.67; 2 trials; 48 participants; P < 0.00001). There may also be an improvement in gait cadence, with a reported average increase of 10.77 steps per minute (95% CI 4.36 to 17.18; 7 trials; 223 participants; P = 0.001; low‐quality evidence). Music interventions: may be beneficial for improving the timing of upper extremity function after stroke as scored by a reduction of 1.08 seconds on the Wolf Motor Function Test (95% CI ‐1.69 to ‐0.47; 2 trials; 122 participants; very low‐quality evidence). Music interventions may be beneficial for communication outcomes in people with aphasia following stroke. Overall, communication improved by 0.75 standard deviations in the intervention group, a moderate effect (95% CI 0.11 to 1.39; 3 trials; 67 participants; P = 0.02; very low‐quality evidence). Naming was reported as improving by 9.79 units on the Aachen Aphasia Test (95% CI 1.37 to 18.21; 2 trials; 35 participants; P = 0.02). Music interventions may have a beneficial effect on speech repetition, reported as an average increase of 8.90 score on the Aachen Aphasia Test (95% CI 3.25 to 14.55; 2 trials; 35 participants; P = 0.002). There may be an improvement in quality of life following stroke using rhythmic auditory stimulation, reported at 0.89 standard deviations improvement on the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale, which is considered to be a large effect (95% CI 0.32 to 1.46; 2 trials; 53 participants; P = 0.002; low‐quality evidence). We found no strong evidence for effects on memory and attention. Data were insufficient to examine the effect of music interventions on other outcomes. The majority of studies included in this review update presented a high risk of bias, therefore the quality of the evidence is low. Authors' conclusions: Music interventions may be beneficial for gait, the timing of upper extremity function, communication outcomes, and quality of life after stroke. These results are encouraging, but more high‐quality randomised controlled trials are needed on all outcomes before recommendations can be made for clinical practice.
  • Upper limb rehabilitation in chronic stroke using neurologic music therapy: Two contrasting case studies to inform on treatment delivery and patient suitability

    Street, Alexander J.; Ruskin, Anglia; Fachner, Jörg; Magee, Wendy L.; Magee|0000-0003-4350-1289 (2019-05-14)
    Introduction: Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance (TIMP) is well suited for upper limb rehabilitation following stroke. Published protocols serve to inform clinicians on intervention design and delivery. However, few case studies are available that address patient suitability, protocol modifications to support treatment adherence and suitability of home environment. Methods: Two case studies from a small randomized controlled trial illustrate TIMP protocol modifications and considerations required for home delivery. Qualitative, quantitative and observational data report on participants‘ outcomes and engagement with six weeks of bi-weekly exercises. TIMP adaptations to enhance audio-motor synchronization are described. Results: Outcomes for the less impaired participant with fewer complex health needs were significantly better after six weeks, particularly pinch grip (1 peg in 20 seconds to 15/120). The second participant improved on the water pouring task: 44 seconds to 13.16. Discussion: Severity of stroke and impairment are major factors influencing treatment outcomes. Flexibility in the TIMP protocols, such as emphasizing the underlying pulse and building the dynamic contour, aids treatment adherence and movement synchrony. It is essential to assess homes for access, sound containment and space. Outcome measures for detecting compensatory movement, smoothness and velocity of movement are needed to better inform treatment effects.
  • Music in the Treatment of Children and Youth with Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness

    Pool, Jonathan; Magee, Wendy L.; Magee|0000-0003-4350-1289 (2016-02-17)
  • Why include music therapy in a neuro-rehabilitation team?

    Magee, Wendy L.; Magee|0000-0003-4350-1289 (2019-01-10)
    Interdisciplinary neuro-rehabilitation programmes can be enhanced by including music therapy as music interventions can incorporate a patient’s goals across behavioural domains. Neurologically, music is intrinsically motivating, drives motor function and elicits emotional responses. Incorporating live music delivered by trained and qualified professionals ensures interventions are tailored to patients’ needs and goals, assisting with engagement and adherence to treatment. The evidence for the effects of music therapy in neuro-rehabilitation is reviewed, with reference to a recent Cochrane Review.
  • The Future of Medical Music Therapy In Neuro-Rehabilitation

    Arts & Quality of Life Research Center (Temple University) (2016)
    "Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is an umbrella term that includes a range of conditions stemming from rapid onset of brain injury. The underlying causes range from: traumatic injuries, caused by head injury or postsurgical insult; vascular accidents including hemorrhagic or ischemic strokes and subarachnoid hemorrhage; cerebral anoxia caused by a starvation of oxygen within the brain; toxic or metabolic events such as hypoglycemia; and viral infection or inflammation (Royal College of Physicians, 2004). Other conditions that involve acquired brain injury to some degree, but follow a different trajectory from ABI from rapid onset and may be neuropalliative in nature, include Parkinson’s Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Huntington’s Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Motor Neurone Disease (also known as Lou Gehrig’s Disease). The purpose of rehabilitation with people with rapid onset ABI is to restore the person’s functioning to levels comparable to those the person had prior to brain injury, and to enable optimal levels of independence. This is different from the goal of rehabilitation with a person with a degenerative disease. In these cases, the purpose of rehabilitation is to maintain the person’s current level of functioning for as long as possible and to provide technological aids as functional levels degenerate. This paper will only discuss music therapy with people with ABI from non-degenerative causes."

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