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Abstract© 2018 The Author(s). Background: A unified analysis of DNA sequences from hundreds of tumors concluded that the driver mutations primarily occur in the earliest stages of cancer formation, with relatively few driver mutation events detected in the late-arising subclones. However, emerging evidence from the sequencing of multiple tumors and tumor regions per individual suggests that late-arising subclones with additional driver mutations are underestimated in single-sample analyses. Methods: To test whether driver mutations generally map to early tumor development, we examined multi-regional tumor sequencing data from 101 individuals reported in 11 published studies. Following previous studies, we annotated mutations as early-arising when all tumors/regions had those mutations (ubiquitous). We then inferred the fraction of mutations occurring early and compared it with late-arising mutations that were found in only single tumors/regions. Results: While a large fraction of driver mutations in tumors occurred relatively early in cancers, later driver mutations occurred at least as frequently as the early drivers in a substantial number of patients. This result was robust to many different approaches to annotate driver mutations. The relative frequency of early and late driver mutations varied among patients of the same cancer type and in different cancer types. We found that previous reports of the preponderance of early driver mutations were primarily informed by analysis of single tumor variant allele profiles, with which it is challenging to clearly distinguish between early and late drivers. Conclusions: The origin and preponderance of new driver mutations are not limited to early stages of tumor evolution, with different tumors and regions showing distinct driver mutations and, consequently, distinct characteristics. Therefore, tumors with extensive intratumor heterogeneity appear to have many newly acquired drivers.
Citation to related workSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
Has partBMC Cancer
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Plasmodium falciparum K76T pfcrt gene mutations and parasite population structure, Haiti, 2006–2009Charles, M; Das, S; Daniels, R; Kirkman, L; Delva, GG; Destine, R; Escalante, A; Villegas, L; Daniels, NM; Shigyo, K; Volkman, SK; Pape, JW; Golightly, LM (2016-05-01)© 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved. Hispaniola is the only Caribbean island to which Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains endemic. Resistance to the antimalarial drug chloroquine has rarely been reported in Haiti, which is located on Hispaniola, but the K76T pfcrt (P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter) gene mutation that confers chloroquine resistance has been detected intermittently. We analyzed 901 patient samples collected during 2006–2009 and found 2 samples showed possible mixed parasite infections of genetically chloroquine-resistant and -sensitive parasites. Direct sequencing of the pfcrt resistance locus and single-nucleotide polymorphism barcoding did not definitively identify a resistant population, suggesting that sustained propagation of chloroquine-resistant parasites was not occurring in Haiti during the study period. Comparison of parasites from Haiti with those from Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela reveals a geographically distinct population with highly related parasites. Our findings indicate low genetic diversity in the parasite population and low levels of chloroquine resistance in Haiti, raising the possibility that reported cases may be of exogenous origin.
Coronavirus Resistance Database (CoV-RDB): SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility to monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and plasma from vaccinated personsTzou, Philip L.; Tao, Kaiming; Pond, Sergei; Shafer, Robert W.; Kosakovsky Pond|0000-0003-4817-4029 (2022-03-09)As novel SARS-CoV-2 variants with different patterns of spike protein mutations have emerged, the susceptibility of these variants to neutralization by antibodies has been rapidly assessed. However, neutralization data are generated using different approaches and are scattered across different publications making it difficult for these data to be located and synthesized. The Stanford Coronavirus Resistance Database (CoV-RDB; https://covdb.stanford.edu) is designed to house comprehensively curated published data on the neutralizing susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 variants and spike mutations to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), convalescent plasma (CP), and vaccinee plasma (VP). As of December 31, 2021, CoV-RDB encompassed 257 publications including 91 (35%) containing 9,070 neutralizing mAb susceptibility results, 131 (51%) containing 16,773 neutralizing CP susceptibility results, and 178 (69%) containing 33,540 neutralizing VP results. The database also records which spike mutations are selected during in vitro passage of SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of mAbs and which emerge in persons receiving mAbs as treatment. The CoV-RDB interface interactively displays neutralizing susceptibility data at different levels of granularity by filtering and/or aggregating query results according to one or more experimental conditions. The CoV-RDB website provides a companion sequence analysis program that outputs information about mutations present in a submitted sequence and that also assists users in determining the appropriate mutation-detection thresholds for identifying non-consensus amino acids. The most recent data underlying the CoV-RDB can be downloaded in its entirety from a GitHub repository in a documented machine-readable format.
TumorNext: A comprehensive tumor profiling assay that incorporates high resolution copy number analysis and germline status to improve testing accuracyFox Chase Cancer Center (Temple University) (2016-09-08)The development of targeted therapies for both germline and somatic DNA mutations has increased the need for molecular profiling assays to determine the mutational status of specific genes. Moreover, the potential of off-label prescription of targeted therapies favors classifying tumors based on DNA alterations rather than traditional tissue pathology. Here we describe the analytical validation of a custom probe-based NGS tumor panel, TumorNext, which can detect single nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions in 142 genes that are frequently mutated in somatic and/or germline cancers. TumorNext also detects gene fusions and structural variants, such as tandem duplications and inversions, in 15 frequently disrupted oncogenes and tumor suppressors. The assay uses a matched control and custom bioinformatics pipeline to differentiate between somatic and germline mutations, allowing precise variant classification. We tested 170 previously characterized samples, of which > 95% were formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 8 different cancer types, and highlight examples where lack of germline status may have led to the inappropriate prescription of therapy. We also describe the validation of the Affymetrix OncoScan platform, an array technology for high resolution copy number variant detection for use in parallel with the NGS panel that can detect single copy amplifications and hemizygous deletions. We analyzed 80 previously characterized formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens and provide examples of hemizygous deletion detection in samples with known pathogenic germline mutations. Thus, the TumorNext combined approach of NGS and OncoScan potentially allows for the identification of the “second hit” in hereditary cancer patients.