Perturbation of synapsins homeostasis through HIV-1 Tat-mediated suppression of BAG3 in primary neuronal cells
AuthorMohseni Ahooyi, T
SubjectAdaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
Autophagy-Related Protein 5
tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/4545
MetadataShow full item record
Abstract© 2019, The Author(s). HIV-1 Tat is known to be released by HIV infected non-neuronal cells in the brain, and after entering neurons, compromises brain homeostasis by impairing pro-survival pathways, thus contributing to the development of HIV-associated CNS disorders commonly observed in individuals living with HIV. Here, we demonstrate that synapsins, phosphoproteins that are predominantly expressed in neuronal cells and play a vital role in modulating neurotransmitter release at the pre-synaptic terminal, and neuronal differentiation become targets for Tat through autophagy and protein quality control pathways. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat in neurons results in downregulation of BAG3, a co-chaperone for heat shock proteins (Hsp70/Hsc70) that is implicated in protein quality control (PQC) processes by eliminating mis-folded and damaged proteins, and selective macroautophagy. Our results show that treatment of cells with Tat or suppression of BAG3 expression by siRNA in neuronal cells disturbs subcellular distribution of synapsins and synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) leading to their accumulation in the neuronal soma and along axons in a punctate pattern, rather than being properly distributed at axon-terminals. Further, our results revealed that synapsins partially lost their stability and their removal via lysosomal autophagy was noticeably impaired in cells with low levels of BAG3. The observed impairment of lysosomal autophagy, under this condition, is likely caused by cells losing their ability to process LC3-I to LC3-II, in part due to a decrease in the ATG5 levels upon BAG3 knockdown. These observations ascribe a new function for BAG3 in controlling synaptic communications and illuminate a new downstream target for Tat to elicit its pathogenic effect in impacting neuronal cell function and behavior.
Citation to related workSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
Has partCell Death and Disease
ADA complianceFor Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) accommodation, including help with reading this content, please contact email@example.com
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Quantifying Nucleoporin Stoichiometry Inside Single Nuclear Pore Complexes In vivoMi, L; Goryaynov, A; Lindquist, A; Rexach, M; Yang, W; Yang, Weidong|0000-0002-3554-3035 (2015-01-01)© 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved. The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is one of the largest supramolecular structures in eukaryotic cells. Its octagonal ring-scaffold perforates the nuclear envelope and features a unique molecular machinery that regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport. NPCs are composed of ∼30 different nucleoporins (Nups), averaged at 8, 16 or 32 copies per NPC. This estimate has not been confirmed for individual NPCs in living cells due to the inherent difficulty of counting proteins inside single supramolecular complexes. Here we used single-molecule SPEED microscopy to directly count the copy-number of twenty-four different Nups within individual NPCs of live yeast, and found agreement as well as significant deviation from previous estimates. As expected, we counted 8 copies of four peripheral Nups and 16 copies of fourteen scaffold Nups. Unexpectedly, we counted a maximum of 16 copies of Nsp1 and Nic96, rather than 32 as previously estimated; and found only 10-15 copies of six other Nups, rather than 8 or 16 copies as expected. This in situ molecular-counting technology can test structure-function models of NPCs and other supramolecular structures in cells.
A Spiroligomer α-Helix Mimic That Binds HDM2, Penetrates Human Cells and Stabilizes HDM2 in Cell CultureBrown, ZZ; Akula, K; Arzumanyan, A; Alleva, J; Jackson, M; Bichenkov, E; Sheffield, JB; Feitelson, MA; Schafmeister, CE (2012-10-18)We demonstrate functionalized spiroligomers that mimic the HDM2-bound conformation of the p53 activation domain. Spiroligomers are stereochemically defined, functionalized, spirocyclic monomers coupled through pairs of amide bonds to create spiro-ladder oligomers . Two series of spiroligomers were synthesized, one of structural analogs and one of stereochemical analogs, from which we identified compound 1, that binds HDM2 with a Kd value of 400 nM. The spiroligomer 1 penetrates human liver cancer cells through passive diffusion and in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner increases the levels of HDM2 more than 30-fold in Huh7 cells in which the p53/HDM2 negative feed-back loop is inoperative. This is a biological effect that is not seen with the HDM2 ligand nutlin-3a. We propose that compound 1 modulates the levels of HDM2 by stabilizing it to proteolysis, allowing it to accumulate in the absence of a p53/HDM2 feedback loop. © 2012 Brown et al.
The retinoblastoma family: Twins or distant cousins?Claudio, PP; Tonini, T; Giordano, A; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2002-09-23)The destiny of a cell - whether it undergoes division, differentiation or death - results from an intricate balance of many regulators, including oncoproteins, tumor-suppressor proteins and cell-cycle-associated proteins. One of the better-studied tumor suppressors is the retinoblastoma protein, known as pRb or p105. Two recently identified proteins, pRb2/p130 and p107, show structural and functional similarities to pRb, and these proteins and their orthologs make up the retinoblastoma (Rb) family. Members of the family have been found in animals and plants, and a related protein is known in the alga Chlamydomonas. Members of the Rb family are bound and inactivated by viral proteins and, in turn, bind cellular transcription factors and repress their function, and can also form complexes with cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases and with histone deacetylases. The are found in the nucleus and their subnuclear localization depends on binding to the nuclear matrix. Members of the family form part of a signal-transduction pathway called the Rb pathway, which is important in cell-cycle regulation and have roles in growth suppression, differentiation and apoptosis in different organisms and cell types.