Browsing Livingstone Undergraduate Research Awards by Title
Now showing items 73-75 of 75
Using Green Infrastructure to Minimize Combined Sewer OverflowsThis project addresses the problems posed by combined sewer systems in high-density urban environments, and aims to minimize combined sewer overflows through an innovative green infrastructure solution. In order to identify the best solution, bioretention basins, green roofs, and permeable pavement were analyzed according to the following criteria: runoff volume reduction, peak flowrate reduction, pollutant treatment rates, greenhouse gas emissions contribution, cost effectiveness, and implementation feasibility. Bioretention basins were found to perform best in almost all criteria considered. Thus, implementation of bioretention basins is the proposed solution. Bioretention has significant potential in cost savings, as well as positive impact on the local economy, and environmental and social benefits.
Using Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Mechanisms to Improve Eye Moisture Over Extended Periods of Contact Lens WearMillions of people around the world suffer from dry eye symptoms as a result of extended contact lens wear. The objective of this design document is to engineer a solution for chronic dry eyes. The solution must be safe, effective, easy to use, and affordable. The goal of the treatment is to decrease tear film osmolarity by 20 mOsmol/L. Three types of nanotechnologies were considered for this task. The candidate solutions were 1) hydrogel contact lenses infused with lubricant-loaded liposomes, 2) lubricantloaded microemulsions applied as eye drops, and 3) lubricant-loaded niosomes applied as eye drops. All solutions use polyethylene glycol 400 as the primary active ingredient in the lubricant. The three solutions provide a safe treatment option that allows increased bioavailability of drug and increased retention time, as well as controlled release of drug. A combination of candidates 1 and 3 – namely, hydrogel contact lenses infused with lubricant-loaded niosomes – seems to be the best solution because of excellent drug delivery kinetics and minimal safety concerns. The success of this project would encourage further research in niosome-based and contact lens-based drug delivery. It would also allow this company to expand research and development and further specialize in ocular drug delivery.
(Z)-Selective Isomerization of Terminal Alkenes using an air-stable Mo(0) ComplexTerminal olefin isomerization with transition metal catalysts has emerged in the past decade as a useful means of generating regio- and stereo-selective internal alkenes. In this work, an array of previously characterized and uncharacterized molybdenum(0) phosphine complexes were synthesized and tested by their ability to catalyze olefin isomerization for a variety of reagents. When coupled with co-catalytic acid (TsOH), these catalysts—specifically the cis-Mo(CO)4(PPh3)2 complex—generally produced an excess of the higher energy (Z)-2-alkene isomer from terminal olefin substrates with state-of-the-art selectivity. Importantly, the Mo(0) complexes examined herein are air-stable, simple to produce and isolate, and demonstrate activity with low catalytic loading (0.5%) and under mild conditions (66 °C in THF). This practicality may extend their use to the organic synthesis of fine chemicals without the generation of significant reagent or solvent waste. Furthermore, the activity and unique selectivity observed with these catalysts should encourage further inquiry into other molybdenum-mediated reactions involving olefins.