• Deforestation and the spread of non-native species

      Sewall, Brent; Reuter, Kim E. (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Over ninety percent of Madagascar’s original forests have been deforested, and the population of Madagascar has doubled in the past forty years, further exacerbating problems of local, unsustainable forest use. While research on Madagascar's endemic species is common, less information is known about its non-native species and the increasing effects they have on local biodiversity as the forest becomes more degraded. This study aimed to fill this gap in knowledge. We collected data on human forest use and the presence/absence of five non-native plant species: Mangifera indica, (cultivated) Albizia lebbeck (cultivated), Mucuna pruriens (non-cultivated), Lantana camara (non-cultivated), Tamarindus indica (origin unknown) in and around the periphery of the Ankarana National Park, northern Madagascar. Data was collected systematically along transects across three different forest types which ranged low to high human disturbance. We found that the presence of historically cultivated non-native species positively correlated with human disturbance. In contrast, historically non-cultivated species did not show this correlation to human disturbance levels. Our results indicate that anthropogenic modification of habitats could impacts the densities and spread of cultivated species. This study increases understanding of the negative effects that humans have on densities of non-native species in disturbed habitats, the effects of roads and human access points, and illustrates the importance of natural history knowledge of non-native species regarding their anthropogenic cultivation histories.
    • Development of the Student Sexual Health and Wellbeing Questionnaire

      Angel Adaros, Ada Esperanza (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      While university can be an exciting opportunity for sexual exploration, many young adults come into this experience with inadequate or inconsistent sexual health education and knowledge, and consequently experience negative sexual health outcomes. Universities can play an important role in providing resources that support students’ sexual health and wellbeing, however, this requires meaningful assessment of the students’ needs. Current measures for young adult sexual health and wellbeing are underdeveloped; often too narrow, biomedical, and outdated in their language, existing measures are not meaningful nor are they inclusive. The main objectives of this study were to (a) develop a revised, comprehensive definition of young adult sexual health and wellbeing, and (b) develop a meaningful, relevant measure for sexual health and wellbeing that could provide insight into university students’ needs. The questionnaire development process included creating an original measure for student sexual health, and a pilot study to assess the validity and reliability of the measure. The participants of the pilot study included a sample of 75 students from a small, private international university in Tokyo, Japan. Inter-item reliability analysis was used to assess the reliability for appropriate subscales, while all data was assessed for trends in participants’ experiences. The results of the inter-item reliability showed adequate to good reliability across all relevant subscales. Results showed that most students had received sexual health education during their schooling prior to entering university, and that outside of schooling the internet was, and continues to be, a primary source for sexual health information. While most students reported confidence in expressing consent, notably fewer felt confident with withdrawing consent. Regarding methods of sexual protection, students overwhelming showed comfortability with using condoms, yet were commonly unsure about using any other methods of sexual protection. Finally, while the majority of students acknowledged their sexual experiences affecting their emotional wellbeing, they much less commonly felt comfortable seeking related emotional supported when needed. Results of this study support previous research that the internet is a significant source of sexual health information, and support the benefit of utilizing a comprehensive definition for sexual health and wellbeing. They also provide key insight into directions of improvements that universities can take to provide support for their students’ sexual health. Provided the limited sample size of this study and the limited cross-cultural relevance for this measure, future research should continue include larger samples and consider adapting the measure to be specifically relevant for various cultural backgrounds.
    • Emotion and Gender in Reasoning and Decision Making

      Overton, Willis F. (Temple University. Libraries, 2005)
      This study addresses three issues: (1) whether there is a relation between reasoning and decision making performance, (2) whether general levels of positive or negative emotion predict reasoning or decision making performance, and (3) whether there are gender differences in reasoning or decision making performance. Undergraduate students were assessed with three measures: the Selection Task, the Iowa Gambling Task, and the PANAS questionnaire were used to assess reasoning, decision making, and general emotion, respectively. The results suggest that a positive relation exists between decision making and reasoning performance, that general levels of emotion predict neither reasoning performance nor decision making performance, and that there are significant gender differences in decision making performance, favoring males, but not in reasoning performance. It is concluded that similar processes appear to underlie both reasoning and decision making, that general levels of emotion do not predict reasoning or decision making performance, and that the gender difference observed for decision making performance is likely related to the way the Iowa Gambling Task is approached.
    • Ending the 'Inhuman Traffic': The Role of Humanitarianism in the British Abolition Movement

      Glasson, Travis; Biddick, Kathleen (Temple University. Libraries, 2007)
    • Explaining variations in treaty entry into force thresholds

      Bush, Sarah S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      It is widely known that treaties have different stipulations on when they come into force. Unfortunately, current research on treaty design has offered no substantial explanation on why treaties have different entry into force (EIF) thresholds. I argue that variations in EIF thresholds are the result of the issue area of the treaty. Specifically, issue areas that face greater potential for collective action problems have the highest EIF threshold as a result of the rational design choice of states to protect themselves from free riders and strengthen the effectiveness of the treaty. I test my argument using original data from coding treaty EIF thresholds along four issue areas and on the EIF negotiations for the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.
    • Exploring the food hub network of Philadelphia

      Howe, Deborah A.; Temple University. Diamond Research Scholars (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
    • Fenianism In Irish Catholic Philadelphia: The American Catholic Church's Battle for Acceptance

      Goedde, Petra; Varon, Elizabeth R.; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
    • From Civil Rights to Women's Liberation: Women's Rights in SDS and SNCC, 1960-1980

      Glasson, Travis; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    • From Classroom to Battlefield: The Role of Students in the Closing of Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 1918

      Isenberg, Andrew C. (Andrew Christian); Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
    • Fungal diseases in wildlife: emerging threats from pathogenic fungi

      Sewall, Brent (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      Since 1970 there has been a steady rise in infectious disease cases in wildlife and emerging fungal pathogens, even when controlling for reporting bias. Two of the more visible emerging fungal diseases-- chytridiomycosis in amphibians and white-nose syndrome in bats-- have caused unprecedented die-offs of wildlife populations around the globe, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services. Here we clarify factors associated with fatality from fungal disease in order to shed light on the dynamics of these pathogens and their wildlife hosts and discuss how these factors can be used to advise and prioritize conservation approaches.
    • Gender and Jazz: The Experience of Young Women in Jazz Education

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Temple University. Diamond Research Scholars (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The number of young women who participate in instrumental high school jazz education programs peaks in middle school, then drops precipitously throughout the high school years. Most high school jazz bands are populated by only a small percentage of female instrumentalists by the later years of high school. These percentages drop still further when examining female instrumental participation in jazz performance at the college level. While this disparity is well documented, efforts to understand and address the issue have lacked the perspective of the young women instrumentalists taking part in these programs.This qualitative research study, based on in-depth interviews with 16 young female instrumentalists, taking part in high school jazz education programs in different regions of the US and Canada, examines ‘band culture’ from the perspective of young women participants. The result is a portrait of their experience and an analysis of key issues relevant to the challenge of creating jazz education environments that sustain and support everyone.
    • Gender Quotas as Strategy: Exploring the Relationship Among International Perceptions of Democracy, Transnational Influence, and Female Representation in Sub-Saharan Africa

      Bush, Sarah S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Do countries that adopt parliamentary gender quotas do so as strategy in response to global pressure to improve the international perception of their democratic progress? Rwanda’s 2000 constitution called for a quota, and since then there has been a trend across Sub-Saharan Africa to “fast-track” women’s legislative representation. There has been a significant amount of literature on the use of quotas as signaling devices by autocratic regimes to indicate democratic progress. I argue that there is a gap in the scholarship on whether or not strategic gender quotas are efficient tools in achieving the regime’s intentions of appearing more democratic by the international community. I explore this relationship through both a case study of Rwanda as an extreme sample case, and descriptive analyses of certain data across countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Freedom House Freedom Scores. Using statistical test methods and comparing sample groups of countries that have and have not adopted quotas, I find evidence to substantiate prevailing theories of signaling. Countries that adopted quotas had higher percentages of women in parliament, ranked higher for female representation, and saw their Freedom Scores improve more over time, compared to the countries that did not have quotas. Further findings are assessed.
    • Girl, Translated

      Samponaro, Laura (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
    • 'Glory of Yet Another Kind': The Evolution & Politics of First-Wave Queer Activism, 1867-1924

      Lowe, Hilary I.; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
    • Harvesting Stormwater for Urban Farm Irrigation

      Picone, Joseph; Ryan, Robert (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Rainwater control and reuse contributes to a healthier environment, especially in urban regions. A rainwater harvesting system was designed for an urban farm located in the Germantown section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This design includes a transport mechanism to convey captured rainwater from the roof, approximately 2350 ft2, to a constructed wetland system, where it will be treated. The water, treated to EPA non-potable reuse standards, will then be stored or transported by pumping to the adjacent half-acre farm to irrigate the crops. When the system fills, overflow is controlled and directed to the combined sewer system. Research has shown elevated heavy metals concentrations in runoff coming from aging roof structures; these concentrations can be reduced substantially through treatment in a constructed wetland. Onsite treatment of rainwater reduces the farmers’ dependency on municipal water resources and usage costs. Additional benefits of this system are reducing the hydraulic load and improving water quality of runoff from the property into Philadelphia’s combined sewer system.
    • How does land-use and climate change affect soil organic carbon stocks and processes in temperate grasslands?

      Toran, Laura (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      Climate and land use changes have significant consequences on the global carbon (C) cycle. Changes to the C cycle in soils of temperate grasslands are important to consider because they often comprise regions of human agriculture and they may significantly alter global C cycles for hundreds to thousands of years. Experiments in temperate grasslands around Western Europe, Northern China, and the United States have shown either slight increases in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks or no net change over the 20th century, possibly due to increased CO2 stimulating plant growth, in turn offsetting increased SOC loss via soil respiration. There is little consensus in the scientific community over what causes these effects. Experiments testing hypothesis on some SOC factors, such as soil microbial communities, have yielded inconclusive or conflicting results. Uncertainties and lack of inclusion of certain SOC dynamics and experimental variables may explain why model simulations show widely varying predictions of future global and regional SOC stocks and dynamics.
    • Immigrant Children and School

      Levi, Heather, 1962- (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    • Interstate Station Stop: A Voyage into the American Frontier Myth

      Pron, John J.; Patel, Sneha; Wingert-Playdon, Kate; Cleveland, Kate (Temple University. Libraries, 2006)
      The myth of the frontier has been a recurrent theme within American history . The seductive and provocative nature of the American landscape, a great burgeoning wilderness open to the planting of dreams, has been an inspiration to many pioneering spirits ever since the first European explorers landed on the continent. The myth that has developed around the construct of the landscape is one that holds great hope in its realization of democratic institutions and opportunity. Yet its very nature is one of a violent imposition, eradicating previous systems to allow for the emergence of a new order, an order of pragmatically-driven and profit-motivated consumption that views the land as a means of extracting utility and commodity with little recognition of its potential for an enhanced transcendental resonance. Surrounded by the hyperrealism of the American way of life, the road traveler cruising westward in hope of the fulfillment of promise finds a revelation within the desert. Here, in the desert of the American west, in the land passage journeyed before by so many previous pilgrims of the American experience, the traveler can find temporary fulfillment and hope. The emergence of a place of contemplation, personal reflection, and human connection on the horizon proves to be an architectural realization of the mythic American promise. This quick station stop, manifesting itself as a highway rest area, acts as a mediating experience for transcendent reflection upon the hope that can be found somewhere within the depths ofthe vast surface of the American Dream.