Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/4202
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AbstractBackground: Genomic sequence analyses have shown that horizontal gene transfer occurred during the origin of eukaryotes as a consequence of symbiosis. However, details of the timing and number of symbiotic events are unclear. A timescale for the early evolution of eukaryotes would help to better understand the relationship between these biological events and changes in Earth's environment, such as the rise in oxygen. We used refined methods of sequence alignment, site selection, and time estimation to address these questions with protein sequences from complete genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Results: Eukaryotes were found to evolve faster than prokaryotes, with those eukaryotes derived from eubacteria evolving faster than those derived from archaebacteria. We found an early time of divergence (∼4 billion years ago, Ga) for archaebacteria and the archaebacterial genes in eukaryotes. Our analyses support at least two horizontal gene transfer events in the origin of eukaryotes, at 2.7 Ga and 1.8 Ga. Time estimates for the origin of cyanobacteria (2.6 Ga) and the divergence of an early-branching eukaryote that lacks mitochondria (Giardia) (2.2 Ga) fall between those two events. Conclusions: We find support for two symbiotic events in the origin of eukaryotes: one premitochondrial and a later mitochondrial event. The appearance of cyanobacteria immediately prior to the earliest undisputed evidence for the presence of oxygen (2.4-2.2 Ga) suggests that the innovation of oxygenic photosynthesis had a relatively rapid impact on the environment as it set the stage for further evolution of the eukaryotic cell. © 2001 Hedges et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
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Has partBMC Evolutionary Biology
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Reference-Free Comparative Genomics of 174 ChloroplastsKua, CS; Ruan, J; Harting, J; Ye, CX; Helmus, MR; Yu, J; Cannon, CH; Helmus, Matthew|0000-0003-3977-0507 (2012-11-27)Direct analysis of unassembled genomic data could greatly increase the power of short read DNA sequencing technologies and allow comparative genomics of organisms without a completed reference available. Here, we compare 174 chloroplasts by analyzing the taxanomic distribution of short kmers across genomes . We then assemble de novo contigs centered on informative variation. The localized de novo contigs can be separated into two major classes: tip = unique to a single genome and group = shared by a subset of genomes. Prior to assembly, we found that ~18% of the chloroplast was duplicated in the inverted repeat (IR) region across a four-fold difference in genome sizes, from a highly reduced parasitic orchid  to a massive algal chloroplast , including gnetophytes  and cycads . The conservation of this ratio between single copy and duplicated sequence was basal among green plants, independent of photosynthesis and mechanism of genome size change, and different in gymnosperms and lower plants. Major lineages in the angiosperm clade differed in the pattern of shared kmers and de novo contigs. For example, parasitic plants demonstrated an expected accelerated overall rate of evolution, while the hemi-parasitic genomes contained a great deal more novel sequence than holo-parasitic plants, suggesting different mechanisms at different stages of genomic contraction. Additionally, the legumes are diverging more quickly and in different ways than other major families. Small duplicated fragments of the rrn23 genes were deeply conserved among seed plants, including among several species without the IR regions, indicating a crucial functional role of this duplication. Localized de novo assembly of informative kmers greatly reduces the complexity of large comparative analyses by confining the analysis to a small partition of data and genomes relevant to the specific question, allowing direct analysis of next-gen sequence data from previously unstudied genomes and rapid discovery of informative candidate regions. © 2012 Kua et al.
Uncovering genomic regions associated with trypanosoma infections in wild populations of the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipesGloria-Soria, A; Augustine Dunn, W; Yu, X; Vigneron, A; Lee, KY; Li, M; Weiss, BL; Zhao, H; Aksoy, S; Caccone, A (2018-03-01)© 2018 Andrea et al. Vector-borne diseases are responsible for > 1 million deaths every year but genomic resources for most species responsible for their transmission are limited. This is true for neglected diseases such as sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis), a disease caused by Trypanosoma parasites vectored by several species of tseste flies within the genus Glossina. We describe an integrative approach that identifies statistical associations between trypanosome infection status of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff ) flies from Uganda, for which functional studies are complicated because the species cannot be easily maintained in laboratory colonies, and ~73,000 polymorphic sites distributed across the genome. Then, we identify candidate genes involved in Gff trypanosome susceptibility by taking advantage of genomic resources from a closely related species, G. morsitans morsitans (Gmm). We compiled a comprehensive transcript library from 72 published and unpublished RNAseq experiments of trypanosome-infected and uninfected Gmm flies, and improved the current Gmm transcriptome assembly. This new assembly was then used to enhance the functional annotations on the Gff genome. As a consequence, we identified 56 candidate genes in the vicinity of the 18 regions associated with Trypanosoma infection status in Gff. Twenty-nine of these genes were differentially expressed (DE) among parasite-infected and uninfected Gmm, suggesting that their orthologs in Gff may correlate with disease transmission. These genes were involved in DNA regulation, neurophysiological functions, and immune responses. We highlight the power of integrating population and functional genomics from related species to enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of physiological traits, particularly in nonmodel organisms.
Depletion of the RNA binding protein HNRNPD impairs homologous recombination by inhibiting DNA-end resection and inducing R-loop accumulationAlfano, L; Caporaso, A; Altieri, A; Dell'Aquila, M; Landi, C; Bini, L; Pentimalli, F; Giordano, A; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2019-01-01)© The Author(s) 2019. DNA double strand break (DSB) repair through homologous recombination (HR) is crucial to maintain genome stability. DSB resection generates a single strand DNA intermediate, which is crucial for the HR process. We used a synthetic DNA structure, mimicking a resection intermediate, as a bait to identify proteins involved in this process. Among these, LC/MS analysis identified the RNA binding protein, HNRNPD. We found that HNRNPD binds chromatin, although this binding occurred independently of DNA damage. However, upon damage, HNRNPD re-localized to γH2Ax foci and its silencing impaired CHK1 S345 phosphorylation and the DNA end resection process. Indeed, HNRNPD silencing reduced: the ssDNA fraction upon camptothecin treatment; AsiSI-induced DSB resection; and RPA32 S4/8 phosphorylation. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated HNRNPD knockout impaired in vitro DNA resection and sensitized cells to camptothecin and olaparib treatment. We found that HNRNPD interacts with the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein SAF-A previously associated with DNA damage repair. HNRNPD depletion resulted in an increased amount of RNA:DNA hybrids upon DNA damage. Both the expression of RNase H1 and RNA pol II inhibition recovered the ability to phosphorylate RPA32 S4/8 in HNRNPD knockout cells upon DNA damage, suggesting that RNA:DNA hybrid resolution likely rescues the defective DNA damage response of HNRNPD-depleted cells.