INVESTIGATION OF THE QUASIPARTICLE BAND GAP TUNABILITY OF ATOMICALLY THIN MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE FILMS
|Trainer, Daniel Joseph
|Two dimensional (2D) materials, including graphene, hexagonal boron nitride and layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), have been a revolution in condensed matter physics and they are at the forefront of recent scientific research. They are being explored for their unusual electronic, optical and magnetic properties with special interest in their potential uses for sensing, information processing and memory. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been the flagship semiconducting TMD over the past ten years due to its unique electronic, optical and mechanical properties. In this thesis, we grow mono- to few layer MoS2 films using ambient pressure chemical vapor depositions (AP-CVD) to obtain high quality samples. We employ low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (LT-STM/STS) to study the effect of layer number on the electronic density of states (DOS) of MoS¬2. We find a reduction of the magnitude of the quasiparticle band gap from one to two monolayers (MLs) thick. This reduction is found to be due mainly to a shift of the valence band maxima (VBM) where the conduction band minimum (CBM) does not change dramatically. Density functional theory (DFT) modeling of this system shows that the overlap of the interfacial S-pz orbitals is responsible for shifting the valence band edge at the Γ-point toward the Fermi level (EF), reducing the magnitude of the band gap. Additionally, we show that the crystallographic orientation of monolayer MoS2 with respect to the HOPG substrate can also affect the electronic DOS. This is demonstrated with five different monolayer regions having each with a unique relative crystallographic orientation to the underlying substrate. We find that the quasiparticle band gap is closely related to the moiré pattern periodicity, specifically the larger the moiré periodicity the larger the band gap. Using DFT, we find that artificially increasing the interaction between the film and the substrate means that the magnitude of the band gap reduces. This indicates that the moiré pattern period acts like a barometer for interlayer coupling. We investigate the effect of defects, both point and extended defects, on the electronic properties of mono- to few layer MoS¬2 films. Atomic point defects such including Mo interstitials, S vacancies and O substitutions are identified by STM topography. Two adjacent defects were investigated spectroscopically and found to greatly reduce the quasiparticle band gap and arguments were made to suggest that they are Mo-Sx complex vacancies. Similarly, grain boundaries were found to reduce the band gap to approximately ¼ of the gap found on the pristine film. We use Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to investigate the affect of annealing the films in UHV. The work function measurements show metastable states are created after the annealing that relax over time to equilibrium values of the work function. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is used to show that S vacancies can recombine over time offering a feasible mechanism for the work function changes observed in KPFM. Lastly, we report how strain affects the quasiparticle band gap of monolayer MoS2 by bending the substrate using a custom built STM sample holder. We find that the local, atomic-scale strain can be determined by a careful calibration procedure and a modified, real-space Lawler Fujita algorithm. We find that the band gap of MoS2 reduces with strain at a rate of approximately 400 meV/% up to a maximum strain of 3.1%, after which the film can slip with respect to the substrate. We find evidence of this slipping as nanoscale ripples and wrinkling whose local strain fields alter the local electronic DOS.
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|Theses and Dissertations
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|Physics, Condensed Matter
|Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
|Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy
|INVESTIGATION OF THE QUASIPARTICLE BAND GAP TUNABILITY OF ATOMICALLY THIN MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE FILMS
|Hla, Saw W.
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