Recent Submissions

  • Using a Size-Spectrum Community Model to Simulate the Carbon Cost of Different Fishing Strategies: Why Size Matters

    Jennings, Robert; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The net effect of carbon sequestration in deep sea sediments in response to phytoplankton blooms has been very well studied. Recently, researchers have started to view large marine species as analogous to terrestrial old growth forests, holding onto carbon stores between seasons and years and eventually the deep sea when they die. By removing heterotrophs from the marine environment through whaling or fishing, the net carbon in the community of organisms can decrease, adding to greenhouse gas emissions. Through mizer, a size-spectrum model, food chain interactions in response to different size-selective fishing strategies were simulated. The results suggest that fishing over a wider range of fish sizes to maintain a target yield can preserve more carbon within the community. This project introduces a novel ecosystem service that can be exploited through thoughtful fisheries management.
  • Prepping for PrEP: A Qualitative Study of HIV Service Providers’ Experiences in working with Women Who Inject Drugs (WWIDs)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Purpose/Hypothesis: Women who inject drugs (WWIDs) are at elevated risk for HIV due to myriad factors including injecting drugs and engagement in sex work. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce HIV risk when taken-daily and is indicated for use in this population. Few studies have explored barriers and facilitators to PrEP use in WWIDs despite the medication’s harm-reducing potential. As such, this study explored the perspectives of HIV service providers on PrEP care in WWIDs at a community-based syringe exchange. Methods: A purposeful sample of 10 HIV-service providers of WWIDs at a Philadelphian syringe exchange were interviewed. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were read to develop a coding schema, coded, and analyzed by thematic analysis using the qualitative software, DeDoose. The Temple University IRB approved this study protocol number 25028. Results: Most participants were female (n=6), half were white, 20% were black, 20% Hispanic/Latinx, and 10% were multi-racial. Interviewees had a high-level understanding of harm reduction efforts in serving WWIDs. Barriers to PrEP for WWIDs included homelessness, gender stigmas, low socioeconomic status, mistrust in healthcare, PrEP and HIV misinformation. WWIDs can be empowered by emboldened patient-provider relationship, which may improve access and adherence to PrEP. To achieve empowerment, recommendations included bundling PrEP care with other services and female-focused events that may reduce HIV, PrEP, and help-seeking stigmas. Conclusions: Providers reported many barriers to PrEP use in WWIDs. Access barriers may be surmounted by linking PrEP-services with other health- and social services within a community-facing organization. PrEP adherence may improve when patients are empowered to surmount stigmas through PrEP education.
  • Graph Convolution Neural Network for predicting Photo-excited State Properties of Indole C8H7N Absorption Spectra

    Matsika, Spiridoula; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Absorption spectroscopy is a very important tool in chemistry which predicts which part of the electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by a molecule, giving a unique signature for each molecule. All photo-responsive biological phenomena (i.e., photosynthesis, photocatalysis, UV absorption of DNA leading to skin cancer, and fluorescence in biological systems) are initiated by absorption of light, so many recent efforts have been shifted towards accurately modeling the spectra of molecules, where the collective vibrational effects have been identified to significantly affect the spectra shape in electronic spectroscopy. With the growing promise of deep learning in predicting properties in photo-excited molecules, this research explores the feasibility of applying the SchNet deep learning model to predict excited states properties of a molecule with added complexity outside the popular QM9 and MD17 datasets. We have found the graph convolutional structure of SchNet to account for the molecular dynamics requirements and reproduce the spectra with significantly less time and computational resources.
  • Impact of Warm Water Anomalies on Phytoplankton Composition in the Santa Barbara Channel

    Houskeeper, Henry; Kudela, Raphe; Cordes, Eric; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
    Ocean color remote sensing enables the study of sea surface temperature (SST) and phytoplankton on a large scale, although coastal systems remain a challenge due to their optical complexity. Here I focus on the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), a complex coastal system that lies in the lee of Point Conception, which partially shelters the region from strong equatorward winds that flow along the central California coastline. I use a remote sensing abundance-based approach that partitions Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations by phytoplankton size class and functional type to estimate the underlying biomass composition. I validate the remote sensing classification method using matchups with in situ time series of phytoplankton abundance, and perform a regional spatial analysis of Chl-a and biomass composition in the SBC to improve understanding of how phytoplankton may respond to future ocean temperature shifts in coastal upwelling ecosystems. In 2005, delayed upwelling-favorable winds throughout the California Current System (CCS) triggered a warm water anomaly that coincided with increased levels of toxic dinoflagellate species. Then in 2013-2015 the oceanic phenomenon known as the Blob resulted in record water temperatures in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. I examine whether the Blob triggered a similar shift in phytoplankton composition in the SBC as during the 2005 warm water anomaly. As harmful algal blooms (HABs) become less predictable and occur more frequently in the CCS, improvements to remote sensing methods for studying phytoplankton must be made for largescale analyses. To gain a socioeconomic perspective of this issue in California, I interview fishermen local to the Santa Barbara region and examine the effects that toxic blooms and warm water events have on their businesses.
  • Peer Victimization Predicts Neural Response to Simulated Social Feedback from Peers

    Olino, Thomas; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
    Peer victimization has been found to relate to internalizing problems, including depression and anxiety (Reijntjes et al., 2010). Research has also shown that peer victimization relates to neural response to social feedback, such as increased activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior prefrontal cortex to social exclusion (Rudolph et al., 2016; Will et al., 2015). The current study aims to examine the impact of peer victimization on neural response to social feedback using the Chatroom Task. It is hypothesized that higher levels of peer victimization will be associated with increased neural response to social feedback. Fifty-two adults (Mage = 17.32, SD = 1.00) recruited from the Adolescent Cognition and Emotion Project at Temple University participated in the current study. The Social Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ) was administered to measure levels of peer victimization, and the Chatroom Task was completed in the scanner to examine neural response to social feedback. Multiple regressions will be run with level of peer victimization as the predictor variable and neural response as the outcome variable using Statistical Parametric Mapping 12. These findings will contribute to the understanding of the impact of peer victimization on response to social feedback and the associated internalizing symptoms.
  • High-Achieving Low-Income High School Students and their Awareness and Perceptions of Acceptance to Top-Tier Universities

    Neuber, Amanda; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    The purpose of this study is to determine specific barriers that prevent students in a high-achieving low-income (HALI) school from applying to selective colleges and universities. Currently, there is a drastically lower number of HALI students applying to the most selective higher education institutions (HEIs) in the United States in comparison to their equally academically successful high income peers. Prior research has shown that there are many known barriers that hinder HALI students from submitting their applications to selective HEIs, but there is no current research about the most persistent barrier that affects application submission. Therefore, this study is looking to find if the lack of HALI student applications to selective HEIs primarily stems from negative self-perceptions of ability, a lack of awareness of selective HEIs, or a misconception of the selectivity of HEIs. More specific knowledge of student experiences before and during the college application process can be used to better inform supports for HALI students leading up to and during the college application process.
  • Assessing the Cherry Pantry’s First Year of Operation and Planning for the Future

    Neuber, Amanda; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    This research examines how Temple University supports its food insecure students and what can be learned from other school’s support systems. This includes a broad survey of food security literature as well as a deeper review of how students experience the effects of food insecurity, and how the issue is further compounded depending on one’s gender or sexuality. An analysis of public data documenting food insecurity at Temple, in addition to interviews with Temple faculty and staff offer an insight into how well services like the Cherry Pantry are serving the student body. Identifying problems and successes is a crucial first step in improving student services, but this research then offers potential solutions for Temple by investigating what strategies have worked for other schools fighting food insecurity on their campuses. This research joins a growing body of literature that shows why food insecurity needs to be a major priority for all colleges and universities. A lack of access to affordable, nutritional food greatly affects the ability of students to live happy and successful lives and their ability to engage with their academic work.
  • Paving the Road for Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Imaging of Myelin

    Patil, Chetan A.; Lemay, Michel; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), result in the deterioration of the myelin sheath that covers the neural cells of the brain. A microscopy method that can be used to assess the effectiveness of therapeutics aimed at healing demyelinating diseases and to further study these diseases is needed. Specifically, a microscopy method with high specificity to myelin and low photobleaching of myelin is needed. Photobleaching is the fading of fluorescence after repeated cycles of excitation. Currently, fluorescence microscopy and similar methods that result in photobleaching and use dyes have been used to visualize the myelin. Dyes, however, stain tissue samples and may affect molecular functions. Besides these methods, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has also been used. In contrast to other used microscopy methods, CARS microscopy’s photobleaching can be minimized, and CARS microscopy does not use stains. As an initial step toward investigating the ability of the CARS microscope to visualize different levels of myelin, which consists primarily of lipids, and to demonstrate CARS value for use in studying demyelinating diseases and in the development of therapeutic efficacy of drugs developed to treat MS; CARS imaging of lipid droplets in engineered adipose tissue was performed, and quantification and measurement of the lipid droplets was done. In addition, a mini incubation chamber for long-term in vitro imaging of demyelination was built, and a protocol for a demyelination study has been developed.
  • Talk Rocks: A Field Guide to Creative Writing

    McCarthy, Pattie; Buynevich, Ilya; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
  • Evaluation of Transcranial NIR Light Propagation for Photo-biomodulation of Neurons Using Mesh-Based Monte Carlo Modeling

    Patil, Chetan A.; Lemay, Michel A.; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    Research has shown that photo-biomodulation of neurons with near-infrared (NIR) light can stimulate their regeneration, and thus various research groups have developed devices that emit NIR light transcranially (through the skull) to stimulate neural growth in the brain in an effort to treat neurological diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer’s. However, it is not clear that clinical device designs illuminate cells in the brain with similar parameters as those shown effective for neuro-regeneration in pre-clinical work. This project employed computational modeling and simulations to assess the effect of device design parameters on transcranial light propagation, in order to optimize illumination of brain tissue and cells and thus ultimately improve clinical results of transcranial NIR-emitting devices for neuro-regeneration. Specifically, this project consisted of the development of two computational models for transcranial NIR-emitting devices and the evaluation of three device parameters: wavelength, photon number, and power density, on transcranial NIR light propagation.
  • From Civil Rights to Women's Liberation: Women's Rights in SDS and SNCC, 1960-1980

    Glasson, Travis; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
  • 'Glory of Yet Another Kind': The Evolution & Politics of First-Wave Queer Activism, 1867-1924

    Lowe, Hilary I.; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
  • 'Men of instinct, impetuousness, and action': chivalry and the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland

    Glasson, Travis; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
  • Ambiguous Attacks on Democracy in Europe and the Americas: What can intergovernmental organizations do?

    Pollack, Mark; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
    Past the time of traditional coups, today’s would-be dictators are seeking out more ambiguous ways to undercut democracy. These norm violations are often difficult to identify, and sometimes are conceived of as less threatening to outsiders. So, what can an intergovernmental organization do if its member states begin to violate common democratic norms in an ambiguous way? While some have claimed IGO action is determined by the violating state’s power or the pressure of third parties, few have explored the influence of an IGO’s structure and design on its decision to enforce norms. This paper explores some ambiguous measures being taken to undermine democracy, and seeks to disaggregate the complex process of IGO norm enforcement and subject the moving parts to initial scrutiny. In this paper, I assess the impact of five IGO characteristics on its decision to enforce democratic norms in member states: IGO composition or democratic density, democratic norm legalization, enforcement provisions, voting rules in the IGO’s intergovernmental branches, and delegation to the IGO’s supranational bodies. I develop six, independent hypotheses, relating one IGO characteristic to one aspect of the decision-making process. Using a pattern matching research design, I conduct a comparative case-study analysis of the Peruvian autogolpe facing the Organization of American States in 1992 and the Hungarian constitutional crisis challenging the European Union today to test each variable’s predicted effect.
  • Pigs in the Promised Land

    Ratzman, Elliot; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
  • “¡Represión!”: Punk Resistance and the Culture of Silence in the Southern Cone, 1978-1990

    Bailey, Beth L.; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
  • No Enemies to the Left: The Communist Party of the United States and Crises of International Communism, 1956-1968

    Goedde, Petra; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
  • From Classroom to Battlefield: The Role of Students in the Closing of Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 1918

    Isenberg, Andrew C. (Andrew Christian); Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
  • A Crisis of Identity: Advertising & the British Ministry of Information's Propaganda Posters of World War II

    Immerman, Richard H.; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
  • Fenianism In Irish Catholic Philadelphia: The American Catholic Church's Battle for Acceptance

    Goedde, Petra; Varon, Elizabeth R.; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)

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