Committee memberDeDe, Gayle
Apraxia of Speech
Apraxia of Speech Treatment
Principles of Motor Learning
Speech Language Pathology
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/360
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AbstractApraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder associated with an impairment in motor planning and programming. It is therefore a logical step to derive treatment of the disorder from the principles of motor learning. Principles of motor learning refer to relatively predictable benefits of certain practice conditions over others (e.g., random practice enhances learning compared to blocked practice). A number of studies have begun to examine principles of motor learning in treatment for AOS (e.g., Austermann Hula et al., 2008; Katz et al., 2010). The current project aims to continue the investigation of motor learning principles and its application to motor speech disorders. In particular, the primary goal of this study is to examine the role of feedback control in treatment for AOS. Two types of feedback control are typically distinguished: self-controlled feedback and clinician-controlled feedback (Chiviacowsky & Wulf, 2004; Chiviacowsky & Wulf, 2007; Janelle, Barba, Frehlich, Tennant, & Cauraugh, 1997; Wulf, 2007). A secondary goal is then to examine the efficacy of script training for AOS. Youmans et al. (2011) provided promising initial evidence supporting its efficacy for AOS, yet no studies have replicated these findings (Ballard et al., 2015). The results of this study suggest that self-controlled feedback is more efficacious in treating adults with AOS than clinician-controlled feedback. Greater improvements of performance for self-controlled feedback were noted especially in accuracy of productions. There was the potential to impact rate of speech as well. Findings across conditions (treated versus untreated scripts) also indicate that script training is an efficacious method of treating adults with AOS.
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Using Discourse Rating Scales to Measure Effectiveness of Treatment in People with AphasiaDeDe, Gayle; Martin, Nadine, 1952-; Kohen, Francine (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)Improving discourse is often targeted in aphasia treatment because it is an important skill for meaningful conversation and interaction. The aphasia literature offers a variety of methods to analyze and treat discourse impairments in aphasia, however, there is no true consensus on what the best method is for discourse analysis. Very few studies have utilized listener perception as a method to capture discourse-related changes in aphasia. However, many researchers in other areas of speech-language pathology (e.g. dysarthria, fluency) use listener perceptions and rating scales as a valid measure to assess connected speech. The overarching goal of this study is to determine whether people with aphasia (PWA) and naïve listeners perceive changes in discourse associated with conversational treatment. A questionnaire, the Discourse Rating Scale for Aphasia, was created based on three constructs of discourse analysis in aphasia: macrolinguistic, microlinguistic, and functional features. Six PWA and nine naïve listeners listened to 30-35 second speech samples obtained before and after conversational treatment and rated their judgments on the questionnaire. We examined the relationship between the ratings on the Discourse Rating Scale for Aphasia (DRSA) and standardized language tests to validate the items and rating scale. Additionally, we looked for descriptive pre and post differences within the data to determine whether the DRSA was sensitive to treatment. It was found that each item and total DRSA score correlated highly with standardized tests of language in aphasia. We did not find strong evidence for the DRSA’s sensitivity to treatment; however, we discuss the clinical implications of utilizing listener perception in the assessment of discourse in aphasia.
THE TEST OF TIME: USING MOTOR SPEECH TIMING ERRORS TO DIFFERENTIATE CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT SPEECH SOUND DISORDERSMaas, Edwin; Caspari, Susan; Krakow, Rena A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)Purpose: The current study investigates relative and absolute motor speech timing errors in children with typically developing speech production (TD), Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) and Phonological Disorder (PD). The study’s overarching goal is to examine these speech timing errors as a potential objective measure for differential diagnosis of Speech Sound Disorders (SSDs). Timing is a critical aspect of motor planning, and it is assumed that CAS is a speech motor planning impairment. However, it is not clear whether the errors of children with other SSDs, such as PD, are a result of additional influence by imprecise speech-motor control, and therefore whether these children would also show greater timing errors. We predicted three outcomes: (1) Adults will show smaller timing errors than children for both absolute timing and relative timing, (2) the SSD group will have larger timing errors than the TD group, and (3) children with CAS are the only children who will show differences from the control (TD) group on these timing error measures. Method: This retrospective study examined timing accuracy based on speech samples obtained at the phrase level from 10 adults, 21 typically developing (TD) children, and 12 children with SSD. Samples (brief phrases containing novel words) were elicited via a repetition task following prerecorded models. Data was abstracted from the acoustic record and analyzed to determine the accuracy of relative timing (PROP) and absolute timing (E). Each timing error measure was averaged for each speaker across sessions and blocks by fricative and vowel. The results of each of these measurements quantified the extent in which a generalized motor program (GMP) and its manipulations (parameters) deviate from the target production (represented by the prerecorded model). Results: Children with SSDs demonstrated significantly higher values of absolute and relative timing error than typically-developing children, suggesting either delayed or disordered speech-motor timing control. As a group, children with CAS (but not children with non-CAS SSD) had larger timing errors than the TD children, suggesting that the group effect (SSD > TD) was driven largely by the children with CAS. However, individual analyses revealed high variability in groups. Conclusions: Measures of relative and absolute timing error at the phrase level during a repetition task may capture aspects of speech motor control in adults, typically developing children, and children with SSDs. Future research with larger sample sizes and longitudinal designs is needed to determine: (1) how relative and absolute timing control develop as children stabilize speech motor control, (2) the degree in which children with SSD deviate from the typical development of these measures, and (3) whether or not these measures are sensitive enough to be a potential objective measure of children with CAS.
The effect of genre-based instruction on academic speechBeglar, David; Nemoto, Tomoko; Elwood, James Andrew; Swenson, Tamara (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)Developing speaking proficiency in English has been highly demanded in the field of English education in Japan; however, teaching speaking in academic settings is difficult because of its complex nature. Many Japanese high school students cannot organize their spoken production coherently because they have not been explicitly taught how to meet the expectation of particular contexts or genres. Research on genre-based instruction has shown its effectiveness in the development of reading, writing, and listening skills; however, investigations of genre-based instruction have not been fully applied to the teaching of speaking. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of genre-based instruction to develop the academic speaking ability of Japanese high school students through a one-year longitudinal study. The effectiveness of genre-based instruction was assessed by focusing on the development of a macro-genre, academic monologic speech, and three micro-genres—procedure, definition, and causation—for within-group assessment as well as one oral summary of a research project micro-genre for between-group assessment. The research design was a multistage intervention mixed-method approach with qualitative data gathered after the experiment. Three analytical techniques were employed: (a) multi-faceted Rasch measurement (MFRM) was used to assess the extent to which the participants’ performance improved quantitatively, (b) descriptive analyses were used to investigate frequency changes in the use of target lexis, and (c) genre analysis was used to analyze how the discourse structure of the target genres changed qualitatively. The results indicated that genre-based instruction led to improvements in the participants’ speaking ability. The findings from the analysis of the three micro-genres—procedure, definition, causation—revealed statistically significant differences between the pretest and the posttest speeches in the procedure and causation micro-genres. A descriptive analysis also revealed the increases in the use of the target lexis in the micro-genres. A genre analysis of the three micro- genres illustrated how the schematic and rhetorical structure of the participants’ speech changed to meet the genre expectations of the target micro- and macro-genre. The analysis of the oral summary of a research project micro-genre demonstrated the effectiveness of genre-based instruction, as the experimental group outperformed the comparison group. This result was supported by the MFRM results, the descriptive analysis of lexis, and quantitative and qualitative genre analyses. The external validity analysis using the TOEIC Speaking Test also confirmed the effectiveness of genre-based instruction. In sum, the results provide evidence that genre-based instruction can improve Japanese high school students’ speaking ability.