Media for Media Literacy: Discourses of the Media Literacy Education Movement in Media&Values Magazine, 1977-1993
AdvisorMurphy, Patrick D.
Committee memberMendelson, Andrew L. (Andrew Lawrence), 1967-
Alvermann, Donna E.
DepartmentMedia & Communication
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/3477
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AbstractThis dissertation contributes to the history of media literacy by tracing the emergence and development of media literacy concepts and practices in Media&Values magazine (1977-1993), which spoke across discourse communities of scholars, teachers, activists and media professionals to build a media literacy movement in the United States. Media literacy evolved in changing contexts of media studies and education discourses as well as changes in media technologies, industries, politics, and popular culture. Taking a genealogical approach to historical inquiry, this study uses discourse analysis to describe how Media&Values constructed media literacy as a means for reform, as a practice of understanding representation and reality, and as pedagogy of social analysis and inquiry. These constructions position media literacy as interventions in power, articulating agency through addressing institutions, demystifying ideology, and negotiating identities. This history provides perspective on debates across diverse strands of practice in the current field of media literacy education.
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MEDIA LITERACY EDUCATION, GENDER, AND MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS IN THE HIGH SCHOOL CLASSROOMDarling-Wolf, Fabienne; Shaw, Adrienne, 1983-; Duffy, Brooke Erin (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)The media impact how people perform their gender, and play an important role in the reproduction of gender binary. Media representations of gender can be described as hegemonic in the sense that, because of their complexity, they contribute to the reproduction of gender norms by otherwise agentic audiences. Media literacy education offers useful strategies for helping audiences question media representations of gender, allowing them to trouble the hegemonic system that keeps inequalities in place. This dissertation answers the question: How do high school students respond to the instruction in a media literacy program informed by gender studies and scholarship on media representations? To answer this question, I used ethnographic methods and the case study approach. My main findings are: (1) Classes that involve analysis of media representations of gender have an agenda-setting effect on students, helping them notice problematic media messages and connect them to social problems and inequalities. (2) Media and gender classes can encourage students to engage in social action, even without the teacher’s prompting. (3) Media and gender classes are not part of a standard curriculum, and teachers choose to include them because they are passionate about gender inequalities. This is why these teachers might lean towards the protectionist approach. (4) Students might embrace teachers’ message about the value of gender equality and diversity, but keep their implicit biases unchecked. Teachers should think of ways to address these biases in the classroom. (5) In order to help students acquire a balanced set of media literacy skills, it is important to work on all competencies of the AACRA model of media literacy education: Access, Analyze, Create, Reflect, and Act.
Mass Media and the Domestic Politics of Economic GlobalizationFioretos, Karl Orfeo, 1966-; Wlezien, Christopher; Hsueh, Roselyn, 1977-; Glatzer, Miguel (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)This dissertation argues that the mass media have played a critical but misunderstood role in the variety of national political responses to economic globalization around the world since the 1960s. More specifically, quantitative as well as qualitative methods across three article-length studies demonstrate how mass media have played a variety of anti-democratic roles in the domestic politics of economic globalization since the 1960s, in ways which have gone largely unnoticed by political scientists. The first article, "Mass Media and the Domestic Politics of Economic Globalization," argues that the mass media make welfare spending less responsive to domestic groups harmed by economic globalization. Statistical tests on state-level economic data as well as individual-level survey data are found to be consistent with this theory. The second article, "Media Ownership and the Social Construction of Economic Globalization," argues that the response of mass publics toward the global economic exposure of their country varies according to the degree of foreign ownership in the national media market. Statistical analysis of state-level media ownership data and aggregate public opinion data, combined with qualitative analyses of newspaper con- tent, provides mixed evidence for the theory. The third article, "Why are the Most Trade-Open Countries More Likely to Repress the Media?" argues that different components of economic globalization exert contradictory pressures on state-media relations. Statistical analysis of economic data and media freedom data combined with process-tracing in Argentina and Mexico pro- vide evidence for the theory.
MEDIA LITERACY EDUCATION TO PROMOTE CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND ADAPTATION AMONG DIVERSE STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF NORTH KOREAN REFUGEES IN SOUTH KOREAHobbs, Renee; Lent, John A.; Darling-Wolf, Fabienne; Domine, Vanessa Elaine (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)This dissertation examines how media literacy education can be implemented and practiced for North Korean refugees to enhance their cultural competency. It is conducted as a form of participatory action research, which pursues knowledge and progressive social change. As a participant researcher, I taught media literacy to North Korean refugees in five different institutions during the summer of 2008 for a period of three months. This dissertation reviews my strategies for gaining permission and access to these educational institutions to teach media literacy education. Since media literacy classes cannot be separated from current events nor from the media environments of the given period, the dissertation also presents the significant role that the issues of importing U.S. beef and the candlelight demonstration played in the design of media literacy lessons during the summer of 2008 and in the process illustrates the value of teachable moments. It is hoped that other media educators will see how I made a connection between current affairs and media literacy lessons. Since this dissertation aimed to address how media literacy education can be effectively used to enhance North Korean refugees' cultural competence, I as researcher adopted an emergent curriculum approach which incorporates what emerges in the classroom into the learning. Based on predetermined educational goals, on what emerged in the classroom, on students' reactions, and on my own reflections, I continuously modified lesson plans throughout the summer. While I tried various pedagogies and covered several themes in the class, I selectively presented six different lesson models in this dissertation. The first lesson model includes drawing and talking about the mapping of students' media experiences. I started the initial class at each institution with this media mapping. As students drew and shared their media maps, they were able to reflect upon their own media usage. I also was able to gain better knowledge and insight about their media experiences. This exercise also allowed me to set the tone of the class as a comfortable venue in which students could honestly share their stories; as a result, the students were able to gain confidence in sharing their thoughts and experiences. The second lesson model used the film Crossing, the fictional film about North Korean refugees. Using this film in the lesson created an atmosphere in which students could talk freely about issues of North Korea and North Korean refugees. 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Because North Korean refugees are not familiar with the various possible uses of the media, they found it helpful to see effective ways to utilize the media to accomplish various goals. In addition, this activity was a valuable way by which to teach the concept of target audience, helping the students to see how different target audiences influence the emphasis, format, and style of media content. The fourth lesson model incorporated comparisons of different news sources about the candlelight demonstration. This helped students to understand the variety of views and tones of different news sources that are influenced by their own history and political affiliations. By closely examining what factors impacted the creation of the news stories and their influence on the public, students started to acknowledge the importance of critically examining media messages and locating a reliable news source that they could trust. The fifth lesson model was the stereotyping activity. Students reflected upon their own stereotypes that they had toward others and how the prevalent images of certain groups of people are influenced by the media. This lesson encouraged students to think about the importance of conveying a balance of varied images of different groups of people so that these people could not be misunderstood and stereotyped by others. The six lesson model involved watching and discussing documentaries about North Korean refugees in order to help students to better learn how the same group of people can be differently represented based on the purpose of the film and the knowledge and perspective of the producers. As two of the four documentaries discussed were created by teenage North Korean refugees, students also were inspired and learned how direct participation in producing the stories which they felt were important could make a difference. Ultimately, students who earlier had considered themselves as inadequate and incapable started to see that they themselves are valuable and that their voices are important, and therefore they can have a meaningful impact on others and on society.