The Psychodynamics of Music-centered Group Music Therapy with People on the Autistic Spectrum
AuthorMattos, Andre Brandalise
AdvisorBrooks, Darlene M.
Committee memberAigen, Kenneth
Willier, Stephen Ace, 1952-
Dilworth, Rollo A.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Music-centered Music Therapy
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/3251
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AbstractThe aim of this qualitative study was to conduct a naturalistic examination of the process of a music therapy group with preverbal individuals on the autistic spectrum. The study involved a music therapy treatment process, based on music-centered music therapy and music psychotherapy, that occurred in 16 sessions over a period of approximately four months. The study investigated the nature of the clinical process, the elements that characterized the intrapersonal and interpersonal dynamics of the group, and the way participants engaged with and utilized the music in their intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions. The research design was one originally developed by Smeijsters and Storm (1996) in which the researcher functions in an ongoing consultative role to the therapists as the therapy process proceeds. The study investigated and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of Smeijsters and Storm’s (1996) model. The analyses of the 16 sessions revealed that all the studied clients were able to operate, in terms of intra-relationship, according to Greenspan and Wieder’s (2006) first developmental stage: they demonstrated interest, curiosity, and initiative. In terms of inter-relationship, they were able to operate according to Greenspan and Wieder’s (2006) developmental second stage: they engaged and established relationship with others. It was concluded that music had a relevant role in the process of assessing, treating, and evaluating the individuals in the group.
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Pre-Service and In-Service Music Teachers' Perceptions of Readiness to Teach East Asian Vocal MusicDilworth, Rollo A.; Confredo, Deborah A.; Buonviri, Nathan O.; Lindorff, Joyce, 1950-; Burkhardt, T. W. (Theodore W.), 1940- (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare pre-service and in-service music teachers' perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music. Through a survey design, the study focused on pre-service and in-service music teachers' preparation, satisfaction, and self-confidence to explore the extent to which the two groups of music teachers feel ready to teach East Asian vocal music. A web-based survey was developed to explore pre-service music teachers' perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music. It was sent to 149 pre-service music teachers who were undergraduate music education majors at eight northeastern NASM accredited universities. A similar web-based survey was developed to explore in-service music teachers' perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music. It was sent to 132 in-service music teachers who were K-12 public school certified music teachers in Mid-Atlantic states. The two surveys were designed for pre-service and in-service music teachers to rate their multicultural/world music training regarding East Asian vocal music in order to reflect their preparation, satisfaction, and self-confidence in teaching East Asian vocal music. Data regarding participants' demographic information (e.g., gender, age, ethnicity, educational background, second language learning), collegiate course work, music education faculty, and musical experiences were also collected to investigate what factors influenced pre-service and in-service music teachers' preparation, satisfaction, and self-confidence in relation to their perceptions of readiness for teaching East Asian vocal music. Descriptive statistics (e.g., frequency distribution, central tendency, and dispersion) were used to analyze demographic data, responses to questions in Preparation component, Satisfaction component, and Self-Confidence component, and responses for the questions reflected participants' beliefs about teaching world music and East Asian vocal music. Inferential statistics (Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient, Pearson Correlation, and Independent-Sample T-Test) were used to analyze factors that influenced participants' perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music, and to compare the differences in perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music between pre-service music teachers and in-service music teachers. Data revealed that both pre-service and in-service music teacher participants felt they received inadequate preparation for teaching East Asian vocal music from their college training and professional development experiences, they felt dissatisfied with their college programs and training experiences in relation to teaching East Asian vocal music, and they did not feel confident to teach East Asian vocal music. The results of the t-tests suggested that no significant differences existed in the perceptions of readiness to teach East Asian vocal music between pre-service and in-service music teachers.
PREDICTORS OF ACCULTURATIVE STRESS AMONG INTERNATIONAL MUSIC THERAPY STUDENTS IN THE U.S.Bruscia, Kenneth E.; Aigen, Kenneth; Reynolds, Alison (Alison M.) (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)The purpose of the study was to examine factors such as the number of years lived in the U.S., English proficiency, neuroticism, openness, and music therapy student academic stress (MTSAS) that predict acculturative stress among international music therapy students studying in the U.S. An on-line survey was conducted with a U.S. sample of international music therapy students. Among the 134 participants who originally came from 25 countries returned the survey, 97 with complete data (88 women and 9 men; 38 undergraduate and 59 graduate students) were included in the main analyses. Results showed this sample had a substantially higher mean on acculturative stress (M = 83.04) than the normative mean (M = 66.32) reported by Sandhu and Asrabadi (1994). In addition, 13 participants' (12.89%) scores were within the "high risk" category, indicating the need for psychological intervention. Asian students were found to have experienced a higher level of acculturative stress than their European counterparts. There were no significant differences found between undergraduate and graduate students relating to levels of acculturative stress. Correlational analyses indicated that acculturative stress had significant correlations with level of English proficiency, neuroticism, and MTSAS. There were no significant findings regarding years lived in the U.S., openness, and level of acculturative stress. Regression analyses revealed that (a) the entire set of 5 aforementioned predictors accounted for 41% of variance in acculturative stress, which is considered a large effect size, and (b) among these predictors, English proficiency, neuroticism, and MTSAS appeared to be the most powerful predictors of acculturative stress. In addition, making presentations, taking exams, and participating in class discussion were found to be the most stressful classroom activities. Implications for music therapy and future research directions are discussed.
The Relationship Between Music Therapists' Spiritual Beliefs and Clinical PracticeDileo, Cheryl; Bruscia, Kenneth E.; Brooks, Darlene M.; Anderson, Christine L.; Flanagan, Edward (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)This study examined the relationship between music therapists' spiritual beliefs and their clinical practices. A survey was sent to 4243 members of the Certification Board for Music Therapy, using an electronic program, SurveyMonkey. There was a return rate of 32%. The survey contained two parts; Part I was the Music Therapy Questionnaire, and Part II was the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS). Data were analyzed using a combination of Kruskal-Wallis Anova, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman Rho correlation tests to analyze both the relationships as well as significant variations in responses between the survey questions and the SIBS scores. Research questions focused on the relationships between the music therapists' spirituality scores (SIBS) and their demographics, their reported spiritual beliefs and practices, and their clinical practices. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the relationship between SIBS scores and gender, age, and years of professional experience; however, there were no significant differences between SIBS scores and education level, regions of AMTA, or client populations served. Significant correlations were found between SIBS scores and music therapists' personal appraisal of their own spirituality, their use of music as a spiritual experience, the use of music in their own personal practice, and their belief in the importance of some type of contemplative experience in their own personal lives. Further statistical analyses also revealed significant correlations between music therapists' SIBS scores and the following clinical practices: 1) the role of spirituality as a sustaining force in their music therapy career, 2) their spiritual ideals as exemplified in their work, 3) attention to their own spirituality in their role as a music therapist, 4) their spiritual growth as a music therapist, 5) the classifying of their work as a spiritual endeavor, 6) their choice of music therapy as a profession. Additional positive correlations were found between music therapists' SIBS scores and the reported influence of spirituality on their choice of population, their comfort in addressing clients' spiritual needs when they are similar to their own, and their comfort in addressing clients' spiritual needs when they are different from their own.