Positive Psychology and Second Language Motivation: Empirically Validating a Model of Positive L2 Self
Committee memberBeglar, David J.
Elwood, James Andrew
DepartmentTeaching & Learning
Foreign Language Education
Positive L2 Self
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/3158
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractPositive psychology is rapidly developing as a field in psychology. Many constructs associated with positive psychology have been developed but relationships have not been demonstrated to second language (L2) learning or L2 learning motivation. The main purpose of this study was to explore empirically some core constructs of positive psychology and L2 learning motivation by testing a structural model of the causal relationships among levels of self-concept, and L2 proficiency. In order to do that, it was first necessary to validate measurable components of each of the levels. The self-concept constructs were: a global positive self-concept, a domain-specific positive L2 self, and L2 skill specific self-efficacy. The various self-constructs were organized into finer levels of specificity, from the global to L2 domain to L2 domain skills. A structural model was created from three latent variables that were in turn created from measured variables at each level of specificity. For the latent positive self-concept the measured variables consisted of flourishing, hope, and curiosity. For the latent variable of positive L2 self the measured variables consisted of an interested-in-L2 self, passion-for-L2-learning self, and L2 mastery goal orientation. For the latent motivational variable of L2 self-efficacy the measured variables were L2 speaking self-efficacy, L2 listening self-efficacy, and L2 reading self-efficacy. The measured variables were based on adapted or newly created self-reports. To demonstrate that the model holds beyond self-reports, objective L2 proficiency measures were also modeled with the latent variables of positive self-concept and positive L2 self. To demonstrate the generalizability of the self-model with L2 proficiency, a cross-validation study was done with two different objective measures of L2 proficiency, TOEIC and TOEIC Bridge. The results for the study were all positive for the creation of composite variables and fit to causal models. Latent variables were created for a composite positive self-concept, a composite positive L2 self, and a composite L2 motivation variable. The positive self-concept and positive L2 self also fit a model that included an objective measure of L2 proficiency. Finally, structural equation modeling confirmed causal relationships among positive self-concept, positive L2 self with both L2 motivation and with L2 proficiency. This study showed how constructs from the rapidly expanding field of positive psychology can be integrated with second language motivation. This study showed one way positive psychology can be applied to second language learning and suggests that positive psychology might invigorate future L2 motivation studies.
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RESPONSES TO POSITIVE AFFECT: AN EXAMINATION OF POSITIVE RUMINATION AND DAMPENINGAlloy, Lauren B.; Johnson, Kareem; Heimberg, Richard G.; Weisberg, Robert W.; Kendall, Philip C.; Fauber, Robert L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)Recently, Feldman, Joorman, and Johnson (in press) proposed that differences in the ways individuals respond to positive affect (PA) might impact the length and intensity of PA episodes, perhaps leading to changes in long-term mental and physical health. Feldman et al. (in press) suggested that "positive rumination," repetitive positive self- and symptom-focused responses to positive mood, should enhance PA, whereas "dampening" responses should diminish PA. The Response to Positive Affect Scale (RPA; Feldman et al., in press) was created to measure these constructs. Preliminary research has found that measures of positive rumination and dampening help predict mania and depression symptoms. The current study examined the convergent and predictive criterion validity, and reliability of the constructs of positive rumination and dampening through a combination cross-sectional, experimental, and naturalistic follow-up design. Temple University undergraduates (Phase I N = 1,281, Phase II N = 181, Phase III N = 154) participated in a three-phase study. In Phase I, participants completed the RPA along with a series of positive and negative health and cognition measures. In Phase II, participants were randomly assigned to one of three mood induction groups (negative, neutral, or positive) and completed a series of affect reports over time. One month later, Phase II participants were asked to report on their affect, physical health, mental health, and intervening life events during Phase III. As expected, positive rumination and dampening demonstrated convergent and divergent validity. However, the predictive criterion validity results were mixed, with the constructs predicting some, but not all, responses to mood inductions. The naturalistic follow-up demonstrated that positive rumination interacted with positive life events to predict hypothesized changes in psychological health, but not physical health. The test-retest reliability of the RPA was not acceptable for a trait measure. These results suggest that positive rumination and dampening are important constructs involved in both mental health and illness. Future research should consider alternative strategies for measuring responses to PA, including more realistic experimental paradigms.
Positive, Active, Older But Youthful Women & 'FitDance:' Uplifting Motivation and Adherence in Community Dance ExerciseSachs, Michael L.; Schifter, Catherine; Butcher-Poffley, Lois A.; Park, Gloria H. M. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)ABSTRACT This qualitative research study investigated active, older, but youthful, women and their participation in a community exercise program, FitDance. This dance-fitness fitness program began in 1991, in cooperation with the New Jersey Governor’s Council on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Community Alliance, with a goal of lowering alcoholism and addiction in senior adults. FitDance has been shown to actively contribute to members’ and their families’ health and well-being by providing effective aerobic dance-exercise training, enjoyment, and community. FitDance was found to improve mental and physical health. FitDance framed older adulthood as a time of potential, wisdom, and growth, (Ranzijn, 2002) beyond decrements. FitDance study participants demonstrated high program adherence levels, with some members training for over 15 years, and two, for over 20 years. This study investigated the value of the FitDance program qualities, including PEEPS: Positive, Enjoyable, Exercise Practice Strengths, and what made participants stay active, engaged, and satisfied with this appreciative group exercise program over time (Cooperrider & Fry, 2013). This study revealed how FitDance has had a positive impact on participants, families, communities, and society. This research considered how this program’s attributes, including priming flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997), can be generalized to allow other groups, across domains, to achieve similar positive social-emotional results. This study’s threefold purposes were, first, to present eight active, vibrant, functionally fit, women, ages 71-81, who FitDance, and who are positive role models of motivation, program adherence (training twice weekly from between 5-19 years), and self- determination (Deci & Ryan, 2002). The second purpose was to look at the FitDance model, and how it uplifted mental and physical wellness. The mental health benefits were an important factor emphasized by both participants and their children; efforts to sustain and preserve cognitive and mental health were highly valued. The third purpose examined how FitDance has built a positive community through a social fitness model. The social fitness aspect, combining an enjoyable atmosphere in a professional setting, was deemed an important contributor to motivation and adherence. Participants unanimously revealed that the FitDance program was a place where people felt welcomed, positively engaged, challenged, sincerely praised, and connected to fellow participants. Adult children who were surveyed about their mother’s activity, fitness level, and experience in FitDance substantiated their mother’s general vibrancy and her program satisfaction. The stated goals of the FitDance program were to promote vibrant aging, social connections, and well-being by increasing motivation and adherence in community exercise. These goals were realized. Community group dance-exercise programming has the potential to move masses of people toward health and thriving; this is especially important in gerontological terms, impacting fiscal, and especially quality of life measures. Similar to Aristotle’s investigation of virtue, and views about living the good life (Aristotle/Sachs, 2002), PEEPS: positive enjoyable, exercise practices harnessing strengths, matter. With PEEPS, FitDance offers health and healing against the epidemic of inactivity (Blair, 2009, Sallis, 2009), the age wave (Dychtwald & Flower, 1989), and builds uplifting face-to-face, social capital in a digital world (Putnam, 2000).
Positive Psychology in Education: Hope and time perspective from Rasch, latent growth curve model, and phenomenological research approachesSick, James; Beglar, David; Beglar, David J.; Nemoto, Tomoko; Elwood, James Andrew; Ross, Steven, 1951- (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)The primary purposes of this study were to identify motivational typologies of growth and stability and identify people who have crossed a boundary in terms of levels of hope and time perspective. This study draws upon two fields, philosophy and psychology. The philosophical framework traces its roots back to American pragmatism and Alfred North Whitehead’s Process Philosophy. The second set of theories proposed for investigation came from the relatively recent empirical endeavor known as positive psychology. Specifically, I tested the construct validity and predictive utility of hope and time perspective as predictors of academic time management and academic outcomes in a Japanese sample. The participants were 467 students attending one of the largest private universities in Japan. Several instruments were used to measure the relationship between hope and time perspective as independent variables and self-reported academic outcomes. The instruments were the Hope Disposition Survey, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, self-reported TOEIC and GPA scores, and the Vocabulary Size Test. The research design was a quantitative and qualitative mixed-methods research plan. Two relatively recent constructs from the area of positive psychology research known as hope theory (a goal-oriented construct) and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory were utilized for empirical investigation. The use of a mixed-method research design allowed this study to add to our knowledge of the roles of hope and time management in goal directed behavior. The analytical tools included the Rasch model, confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), structural equation modeling (SEM), and latent growth curve modeling (LGM). The qualitative analysis was a phenomenological investigation (similar to a case study) into the relationship between affect, cognition, and motivation utilizing a Process Philosophy framework. Results of the Rasch and CFA indicated that hope and time perspective were viable constructs for this sample. The hope SEM results indicated that hope had a positive relationship with academic outcomes as hypothesized. The time perspective SEM indicated that future time perspective had a positive relationship and that present-hedonism had a negative relationship with academic behavior as hypothesized. LGM results indicated that study time management had a non-linear relationship with the academic calendar. Both sets of results must be considered with caution due to a design flaw in the data collection instruments and high levels of attrition for the LGMs. Finally, the interview results indicated that students in the sample were extrinsically motivated by situational variables such as professor signals of how to, how much, when to, and what to study and that transitions from secondary to tertiary level studies were difficult for students with low levels of hope. The results were interpreted to suggest that levels of student engagement in the sample were at a less than desirable level when compared to OECD or North American university expectations. However, results were considered to be generally supportive of hope and time perspective theory.