ROLE OF CKD AND CASPASE-1 IN NEOINTIMAL HYPERPLASIA DEVELOPMENT
|Nelson, Deborah B.
|Ferrer, Lucas Manuel
|Vascular access dysfunction is a cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients that require hemodialysis. The major cause of vascular access failure is venous stenosis due to neointimal hyperplasia (NH). Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are critical for the development of NH lesions, as they have the ability to modulate their phenotype from a "contractile" to a "synthetic" phenotype in the presence of uremia, through the regulation of sensor genes for uremia danger signals and VSMC-specific differentiation genes. Recent research indicates that Caspase-1 (casp-1) activation plays an essential role in sensing metabolic danger signal-associated molecular patterns and initiating vascular inflammation. Carbamylated LDL, a uremic toxin that has been shown to be found in higher levels in patients with CKD and in CKD murine models when compared to controls, and could play a role in casp-1 activation. Therefore, the goal of this project is to examine the role of cLDL/CKD-driven casp-1 activation in VSMC and CKD-related NH. We have established a CKD mouse model and published on CKD-associated vascular remodeling. We exposed wild type and caspase-1 knockout mice to our CKD model, analyzed and quantified the NH lesion formed. We also examined in vitro and ex-vivo changes in VSMC-specific differentiation genes when exposed to uremic serum and cLDL, in the presence or absence of caspase-1 inhibitor. We found that CKD serum induces with casp-1 activation and phenotypic changes in VSMCs from a "contractile" to a "synthetic" phenotype, which are reversed with casp-1 inhibition. In an ex-vivo model using relative quantification we found that VSMC contractile markers α -Actin, Calponin, SM-22, and Smoothelin gene expression of CKD mouse carotid VSMC were higher in casp-1 knockout mice when compared to wild-type (1.40, 1.28, 1.22, 1.41 respectively). Also using an in-vivo model, relative quantification of α-actin decreased from 1.0 to 0.329 when VSMCs were exposed to uremic serum and but increased back to 0.588 when Caspase-1 inhibitor is added. The relative quantification of Calponin also decreased from 1.0 to 0.394 when exposed to uremic serum and increased back to 0.601 with caspase-1 inhibitor. We also found that caspase-1 deficiency significantly reversed CKD-related vascular remodeling in casp-1 knockout mice and reduced NH volume by 50% from 1,440,023in wild-type mice to 71,069 µm2 in casp-1 knockouts (p-value 0.002). This evidence provides evidence that casp-1 plays a critical role in NH formation. Furthermore our results provide a novel insight over the therapeutic potential of casp-1 inhibitors for CKD induced NH and other inflammation induced vascular remodeling.
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|Chronic Kidney Disease
|ROLE OF CKD AND CASPASE-1 IN NEOINTIMAL HYPERPLASIA DEVELOPMENT
|Parkman, Henry P.
|Choi, Eric T.
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