EFFECTS OF RACIALIZED TRACKING ON RACIAL GAPS IN SCIENCE SELF-EFFICACY, IDENTITY, ENGAGEMENT, AND ASPIRATIONS: CONNECTION TO SCIENCE AND SCHOOL SEGREGATION
AuthorChang, Briana L.
AdvisorJordan, Will J.
Committee memberCromley, Jennifer
Lombardi, Doug, 1965-
Thurman, S. Kenneth
Education, Sociology of
Stem Career Aspirations
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/2681
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractGiven the concentration of economic growth and power in science fields and the current levels of racial stratification in schooling, this study examined (1) the effects of race on students’ connectedness to science and career aspirations, (2) the extent to which these effects were moderated by school racial composition and racialized tracking, and (3) the differences in modeling effects using separate variables for race and gender (i.e., White, Black, Hispanic, female) versus race/gender (e.g., White female, Black male, etc.). Using the lens of racial formation theory, this study situated access to science knowledge as a racial project, conferring and denying access to resources along racial lines. Reviews of the literature on science self-efficacy, identity, engagement, and career aspirations revealed an under-emphasis on school institutional factors, such as racial composition and racialized tracking (which are important in sociological literature), as shaping student outcomes. The study analyzed data from the nationally representative High School Longitudinal Study that surveyed students in 2009 during their freshman year in high school and again in 2012 during most students’ junior year (n = 6,998). Affective ratings (in self-efficacy, identity, engagement) and career aspirations for students measured in 2012 were examined as dependent variables and a variable for racialized tracking was estimated given schools’ placement of students in advanced science coursework in 2012. Although school racial composition was not found to moderate race on outcome effects, primary analyses demonstrated that the presence of racialized tracking in the students’ schools did moderate these effects. Overall these results suggested that the student subgroups most often at a disadvantage compared to White students for the science outcomes studied were Hispanic males and females; Black students’ ratings and aspirations were largely on par or exceeded those of their White counterparts. In addition, results indicated that racialized tracking served to exacerbate gaps for Hispanic students and may also diminish career aspirations for Black students. Finally, while examining effects by race/gender did provide some additional insight and nuance in the interpretation of these results, there were clear instances where these more detailed analyses were not needed or may have obscured results that were clearer when aggregated by race. Given these results, implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
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Psychosocial Characteristics and Gestational Weight Change among Overweight, African American Pregnant WomenAllison, Kelly C; Wrotniak, Brian H; Paré, Emmanuelle; Sarwer, David B; Sarwer, David B|0000-0003-1033-5528 (2012)<jats:p><jats:italic>Objectives</jats:italic>. To describe psychosocial factors identified as contributors of weight gain in the general population and to examine the relationship between these factors and gestational weight gain among low socioeconomic status, African American, overweight pregnant women.<jats:italic>Methods</jats:italic>. African American women (<mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" id="M1"><mml:mrow><mml:mi>n</mml:mi><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>120</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:math>) with a pregravid body mass index<mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" id="M2"><mml:mrow><mml:mo>≥</mml:mo><mml:mn>25</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:math> kg/m<jats:sup>2</jats:sup>completed measures of eating, sleep, and depressed mood between 14 and 24 weeks of gestation. Weight was tracked. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and linear regression modeling were used to characterize the sample and examine predictors of gestational weight gain.<jats:italic>Results</jats:italic>. Four percent screened positive for night eating syndrome, with 32% consuming at least 25% of their daily caloric intake after dinner (evening hyperphagia). None met criteria for binge eating disorder; 4% reported occasional binge episodes. Cognitive restraint over eating was low. Participants slept 7.1 (<mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" id="M3"><mml:mrow><mml:mtext>SD</mml:mtext><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>1.9</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:math>) h per night and reported 4.3 (<mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" id="M4"><mml:mrow><mml:mtext>SD</mml:mtext><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>3.6</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:math>) awakenings per week; 18% reported some level of depressed mood. Night and binge eating were related to each other, sleep quality, and depressed mood. Eating due to cravings was the only psychosocial variable to predict gestational weight gain.<jats:italic>Conclusions</jats:italic>. Depressed mood, night eating, and nighttime awakenings were common in this cohort, while cognitive restraint over eating was low. Most psychosocial variables were not predictive of excess gestational weight gain.</jats:p>
Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): Rationale, design, and methodsCompton, SN; Walkup, JT; Albano, AM; Piacentini, JC; Birmaher, B; Sherrill, JT; Ginsburg, GS; Rynn, MA; McCracken, JT; Waslick, BD; Iyengar, S; Kendall, PC; March, JS (2010-01-05)Objective: To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), and their combination (COMB) against pill placebo (PBO) for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia (SoP) in children and adolescents.Methods: Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described.Results: CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488) children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years) with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance.Conclusions: CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT) and pharmacologic (SSRI) treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results of CAMS will hold important implications for informing practice-relevant decisions regarding the initial treatment of youth with anxiety disorders.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00052078. © 2010 Compton et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Sex differences in stress-related receptors: "Micro" differences with "macro" implications for mood and anxiety disordersBangasser, DA (2013-12-01)Stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as unipolar depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), occur more frequently in women than in men. Emerging research suggests that sex differences in receptors for the stress hormones, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and glucocorticoids, contribute to this disparity. For example, sex differences in CRF receptor binding in the amygdala of rats may predispose females to greater anxiety following stressful events. Additionally, sex differences in CRF receptor signaling and trafficking in the locus coeruleus arousal center combine to make females more sensitive to low levels of CRF, and less adaptable to high levels. These receptor differences in females could lead to hyperarousal, a dysregulated state associated with symptoms of depression and PTSD. Similar to the sex differences observed in CRF receptors, sex differences in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function also appear to make females more susceptible to dysregulation after a stressful event. Following hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activation, GRs are critical to the negative feedback process that inhibits additional glucocorticoid release. Compared to males, female rats have fewer GRs and impaired GR translocation following chronic adolescent stress, effects linked to slower glucocorticoid negative feedback. Thus, under conditions of chronic stress, attenuated negative feedback in females would result in hypercortisolemia, an endocrine state thought to cause depression. Together, these studies suggest that sex differences in stress-related receptors shift females more easily into a dysregulated state of stress reactivity, linked to the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The implications of these receptor sex differences for the development of novel pharmacotherapies are also discussed. © 2013 Bangasser; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.